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1 B. CAPK fiLft^ tJLA tW. H. a MOB 

U A. POBT. ut^ IL H. WABIUXaiOil. wla^ WAMmfML 





IXDICA (Booc Vni) 






IMi. IMt, II 

PHmu4 tm Omt Briiaim 


PttfACS . Vfi 

An/kMum or AiMMAMtmn 

Booc V . .1 

Boos VI 101 

Hooii Ml 908 


(Book Mil . 805 

Ma« «<«rf 

Auuusnm't C u w guMW Aim Kovtb 
Ths No«t«Wmt Faoimtm or Imtu. 
SEAwanm' Vovaob wmom mm luwm to 


Ndkx .... .487 


A nsii critic, «bo potetod m 
InVoLI, abotookMtolMkiBr TagaHct fii thr 
BMMt. In ilictc I OBoff Id a «cruin 
ftir which thcfv mn psrallck. 

•driMble where anollwr mom, «Mb m Ai fa tob di , 
feOowi. lo Boauui Hirtories, doplte the win 

ttoa, " g^wpqr " — d " Aatooyt" iiiihwiiiit tbough 
they tottiid, ere utiuU. la Jeeliiii Vl. v. 6 I even 
venture ** Cretenae end Phttpt** ilnoe we heve come 
lo ii^Biiii " PhAippw *' ns e f«wnl nde. 

In ttle vohnM I nee Arebeem (tmUem) tor dwcllcre 
by the river Arebb, but keep ** Agrienes '* bcceuee 

Agrianiene loondi ogljr. 

leoMd to 

dktingttbb; it bee 
tar I mli tf Trfi lo nee Aomoe td the 
Bock, AorwM of the BMtHnn rite. 

A Boee dUBcoH point it ocwatnettai of 

r,oiBooedid; but he repeated whan tod kte 

(inifet aM ammvw^ • • • es a retUMiieBe, caai AMM#rev 
vd . . . A«^r««ro< tcribendtun tit). Poeeibljr in the 
iadioe, wlicrc there it evidently MMne ettempt at 
we ilioold, by / l y» T rfi y r n , write Atorrarof . 

li poobebly wim^, and Uoinenn (Ucbrr 



die Makedonen a. ihre tprache) tuggefts that the 
termination if from itnrmu^ the name meaning 
" serviceable to the people or tomethlqg like ; and, 
if to, the word should be oxytone. 

Not many works on Arrian or Alexander have 
appeared since the publication of \^ol. I ; the traa*- 
ktion of Ulrich Wikrken's Aiexmmier and Oeorget 
Radet's Alexandre U gtmd (Paris, 1(51. 448 pp.) are 
to be noted; those who hare feDowed lladet's 
writings in Bordeaax Unfrenkj p qhHeat toi ii wlQ 
know that the oonpletcd work it of hM vahM. 
A copy of Tke Emktmerides of Ahmmdtr'i Eaptii 
tioH, by C. A. Robinson, Jr. of Brown Unireni^, 
has Idndly been sent me by the author, who 
indeed seeme to attribute the work to a desire ex- 
pressed In my Aleumder the Gremt (Cape). In Ifait 
study of Alexander's routes and stopp i iy-cbeaa 
Mr. Robinson teems to reach the strfldnf eewAiiion 
that after the death of CalHtthetiet there was, Ibr a 
time, either a ecstatSon of the official DIarlet or mneh 
confusion in them. In this ** second period" the 
survivinff authorities differ much in their records of 
Alexamkr's progrcas. Later on they appear to 
have been better orde r ed. The writer promises a 
lanrer work. 

Sir Aurel Stein prints in Tke Geograpkieal JmtnuU 
for July 1932 an article on '* The Site of Alexander's 
Passage of the II vdaspes and the Battle with Poros." 
He hiw most kindly permitted use of his articles and 
maps ; and the larger map in this volume has been as 
far as possible brought into harmony with his, while 
that or the Upper Indus is actually nis. 

£. I. R. 







I. *Ey ^ T^ X'^P^ ravrjf f}pr$pa fi€T€k(if roO 

Tff Km^^o9 «ai Tou *Iy£ov iroTo/AoO iwffXBw 

*A\i(a¥hpo^, €al Svaa9 w6\t» ^xiaOai Xiyovcr 

S TO & KTicfia fiMU ^oifvaov Aiovuaov 5^ Kiiatu 

r^p Sv^ap iir^L rt *|ySoir« i\upm0aro. Sans S^ 

OVTOf O AlOiri/^OV teal OWOT€ 4 ^'^ ^^* 'li'^^ 

iarpdrtvatp' ov yap ix^ evftfiaXtw W o 
Bfy/3a£o< Aioyvffov ix ^fiup 4 '^ '^ T/m»Xov 
ToO AvBiov opfiffBtis 4w* *l»Sovf il(«« arpart^v 
Sfywp, Toaavra pip idpfj paxipa 4rai Hffpmcra 
roU TOTf "EXXf^aiv iiftXBiip, oMp Ik avrup 
iXko oiTi prj TO *lvSMy )^ia \€tp^adp€POS* wXi^p 
•yff £7 OTi ovc uKpifiri ^(traarrfp xpff tlpai tup 
vjTtp rov Btiov it waXa^ov ptpvfftvpipmp* Tk 
fdp TOi tear a to mUos (vpriBiprt ov inrrd, 
imihkp TO d^lop T19 wpO4T0j r^ ^^1*> <>^ wdtnff 
dinar a ^oLprrai, 
S 'n? 5< itrifiri rj Svajj *A\i(apBpos, iitwip^ 
vovai trap* ainop oi Nuo'auM toi' KpaTiar^votrra 
a^atp, 6vopa hi ^p ainjt ^Atcovi^is, tea* (yp 
avT^ wpiafftiS tmp hoxipwrdrt^p rpioMOpra, 



I. In the cewmtiy throogh wtHch Aleiandcr p awe d, 
b etwe<p the lirtn Copbeii ami IndiM, wat litSAted, 
theT MT. the dtj Nj«i,> Ibaiided bjr Dtonjftat; 
be B Mi iMWiH It when be i»bdbed the Indiam. whoetw 
tbit Dioajntt wat, and wbeoever cm* whence be 
marebcd Malaal tbe Indlaiia; ftir I Ibr mjr part 
cannot galber wbelber tbe Tbebaa Dloa^rtaa eUrted 
finom T^bn or from the L«diaa lVaolit«. and led an 
annj againat the Indiana, mvadfaY all these warlike 
peoolaa, wknown to tbe Creeka of that time, and 
•nbdahif no other part of them but tbe IndUm; 
ftllU MM Bittat not be a prcciae eritle of andent 
abottt tbe divine bebyp. For tbinigi wfakb 
i eonaKier i newi oMiwy nvaa fair ptiiPBOwMy 
oradAlet may, mca eaa adoi to one § 
tno dhFtaM deflMot, provo ojr oo wie a n a 

When, however, Alexander approaebed Nvia, the 
people of Nyaa aeot oot to bbn tbdr eblef, wboaa 
AespUa, and with htaB thirij anvojrt firoaa 


httfiro/Uvav^ *A\€(dyBpov a^iptu r^ ^f^ rt)p 
4 iroXiv. II aptXOilif t« Bfi d^ Tfjw atetjttiip rtfp 
*AXe(dpBpov roi^ wpiafi*^^ icai KaraXoBtlp na- 
6^fi€pop KtxopifAipop fr« ix r^ oBov (vp roSf 
SwXm^ Toif T< aXXoi9 teal to xpavo^ aln^ irc/M- 
imiMMVOP maX ro I6pv ixopra' Bafiffrfeai t€ 
t^pra^ rf)p S\lnp ttai wtaopra^ is ynp iwl iroX^ 
aiyifp ^cty. 'CU Bi i(apiarf}^€ rt atnovf 
*A\i(ap6pos «al $app€Uf ixiXtv^t, r6r€ ^ t^ 
'Airot/^iv dpfdfupop Xeynp &B€* 
ff "*n ffaciXtv, B^opral aov livaalo^ iaatu 
<r^s tKtvBipovs T« KaX a&rotfiumn miZci rod 
^ucpuixov, Aiopvcos ykp htMilm ^fiptf^o^Mypf 
TO *\pBiiP eOyos ^irl dakaaaop iwl^^ kut^^ r^r 
'IcXK^iPucTip, U rmp owofAaximp arparutrmp, at 
Bif avT^ mdi Bdxxoi ^09, «W{ti ^p woKt9 
Tfiph€ fitnifAoavpap rffs aurav wXdtnfs r« gal pUm 
roU hrtna i^ofAtPOP, goBdw^p o^ mal av am« 
*AXe(dpBp9td9 Tf IcTi^av rtjp irpot Kaygd^^ 
Sp€i ical ^XXi^v * AXt^dwhotULP ip rj Alyvwrimp 
U xal SXXas iroXX^^ riv fUp fitncas 4^» rilf 
ical Mriatis dp^ ^popop, ola Btf wXtioPa 
^lopvaov tpya dvoB4^fdfUPos. Svaap r§ cdp 
hcd>uta€ rrjp iroXip 6 ^tovvtros iwl T99 rpodaO 
lifs Sva^fjs ical rifp X^P^' Suauap' to li opof 
S rmtp trXfjaiop iarl t^ woXtms xdi rovro 
Mffpop iirmv6fi€La€ ^lopv^os, 8ri Brf icarii top 
fw0op ip fikfip^ r^ rou Aio« v^B^iOrf, Koi ii€ 
Tovrov (KtvOipap rt oixovfitp rtjp Svaap xal 
ai/roi ainopOfAOi icaX ip ttoa^ wo7uT€vopr€t' t% 


tbdr most notable men, to beg Alexander to leave 
tbeir citj to iti god. The enrojt, it b said, came into 
Alexander's parilion, and found him sitting all 
dost J still firom the journey, with his ordlnaiy 
annonr on him, and wearing a hefanot and canjlng 
hiff spear; thej were amaaed at the right of liliii« and 
fell to the groond, and for a long time kept sOenoe. 
But when Alexander raised them op and bade them 
take oo oiage , then Aeophis began and spake at 

•« The people of Njaa^O Kfa^.beg yoo to loove thorn 
free and independent, from r et cren e o Ibr Dfc m v ioa . 
For he, whoa ho hod oobdood tho aoUoo oT dio 
Indiana, oad wot lotorafa^ towordi the Oiodi Seo, 
fcondco, wfth hit dbcboffgcd sokUerit who were also 
hit Baeehi,^ thit eity, to be a memorial for thote 
to oomo of hit joornej and his vietorjr* even at 
joa hovo jooTMlf fiNnidod Alexandria bf Moonl 
Caoeatnt, and another Alexandria io E^plf oad 
yoo have both Ibonded mony other eitiot aboodj, 
and win ftwnd more io oowte of time, thot giving 
proof of more achievooMnIt thoa thote of Dioiqrtat* 
Now DiooytM callrd thb citj Njrta in hoooor of hit 
none Njaa,and the territory he eaOod Njaacoa; and 
the moontain near the eltj he named Mems (a thigh), 
tiaee, aooordi^g to the Icgead, he grew hi the th^gh 
efZeot. From thot time thit city of Njia hi whkh 
we dwell has been freOf oad oowelret iadependcnt. 
and hYii^ as orderly eitioeat. Aad let thit loo be a 

> TUtis, 


T€Kfitjpioir jMTTOf yap ovic iXXff rij^ *l¥imp 7^ 
<^v6tA€vo^ Trap* ff^utf ^vrroi.** 

II. Kal ratha Trdtrra *AXcfairSp^ wpo^ $vfiov 
iyiyp€To aicovtiv ical vfitiKi WMrk cZmu rk %ntkp 

iiBvf Tc ^icfiy atno^ h6a i}X^« diovu^ov mmL iw* 
€K€iva av ^ iXB€w Aum^iIodv* ovS* ov hioKM^os 
TO npoaat aimfu/joai avfiirwMw oi ^1 irard 

S (^^Xoy TMV Aioia/o-ov tpytȴ. Kai lihuciu tktv 
$<pov^ T« «Zi'a4 Tov^ oiirf;ropa9 r^ Nyoi^ ««l 
avTovo/Aoi;v. 'Hf 2^ «al rouv vo/aovv htvBrrp 
a%nii¥ icaX 6r$ wpas tmv ^piaruv to iroXirfiz/oi 
iX^^t Tain a ft iwjjptGt leal ^(im^t rmv t« 
lirwittp oi (vfAWifiylrai h rptatcoclov^ teal rmm 
irpo€arwrr»v rov woXtrtvparo^, ^ca¥ Si col 
atrrol rpiaicoatoi, Uatov rov^ dpicrovs /iriXtfa- 
IJL€vov^, "Kkov^iv hk mIp€u roif hn\rf6pM^¥, 
otniva KaX irirap^^op rtj^ va>/>af t^ Svaaia^ 

S xaT€<rrfja€if atno^. Top It \kov4hv ravra aKOv- 
aairra iwtfittitdcai Xiyrrai r^ ^^P* '^ 
*A\€(avS^p iptaOai ii^* or^ iyiXaotP' awompi' 
vaaOcu h ''Akov^p' Kal irm &¥, & fiaaiKtv, 
pLa irciki^ UaTOP dfhpttp dyaOifv iptjpmBMiaa 
fn icaXia^ iroXirtvoiro ; dwk av, cf aoi fiikti 
Nvcaltap, Tov^ iiriria^ pip aytoBai roxf^ rpia- 
Kociov^ ica\ «4 Povkeit «ti Toirr^y irXtiopaK* uptI 
Si rofp etcarop, ova-ripa^ tov^ dpiarou^ ivi\i(ai 
a if KcXeutt^, BifrXaalov^ rwp dWrnp rotp Kaxitp 
ayeaOat, ipa aoi ical avSi^ d^ucopAp^ Mpo ip 



thak Di o e yuM wat o«r iomader; ivy grows 
f« dM in tadiA, ImH doc* grow with QSw" 
II. All this was very nlfning §or Alcxsnder to 
hesr, and he was very reaoT to bSlere the tale aboot 
the joarney of Dionysus; ne was ready also to credit 
that Nvsa was fennde d by Dionysus, in wliieh ease 
he hacl already reached the Doint which Dionysas 
reached, and wonld go even nurther than Dionysas. 
He dMght alw that the Mawidnnians wonki not 
refose to endnre tods with hte alill further, in 
rivalnr with Di o n ysus * achtefonents. Alexander 
tharaibra granted continuance of fr e edom and 
Indepandenee to the settlers of Nysa. And wlien 
he had by Inquiry asecrtalnad their kws, and that 
their goir em ase nt was in the handi of the a r i ito cr a t i , 
he eipn a nd approral of thi«, at the same tiiaa 
that ttMy should send hfaa three hundrad 
nd also aaiaet and send a hundrad of the 
hi the gomMMBt (they 

In ttUBsber). Acuphis was to aeleet tliem, 
and Alexander also a ppo int ed him a uf eino i of the 
territory of Nyia. Taea Acuphis is said to have 
mlled, on hearing tids request ; and wlicn Alexander 
asked why he laughed, he replied : ** How, O Kbig, 
can a single dty be deprived of a hundred good 
and vet continue to be wcUgovened? But 

if you care fer tha Hyiaaani, let tha thraa hundred 
iMMscBiai Im liroughtf and even more, if you wish s 
but instfad of these hondred men, whom you desire 
ma to dmoae out, the best we have, take twice the 
of tlie inferior dtiaens, so that when you 
hither again you may tlihik tlie dty to be in 


T^ avT^ rovr^ KOCfi^ Satrnff 19 iroXic. Tavra 
\iyovra, \&yuv fkp dofo* ^potufta, wti^tu 

4 *A\((avhpov, Kal tov? fii¥ iinr^a^ (vfAw4fiir§i¥ 
oi (K€\fvfft, TOW W kKCLTOP rov^ imX^KTOV^ 
fitjicrri alrri<rai, aWk fitjh* avr* airrmp ^iXXow* 
rw Bk iralBa apa rov Wkov^^ teal r^ 0vyarp^ 
TOP walBa (vfiwifiylrtu atrrA^Aitov^p, 

5 *A\i(aifBpop hi w6$o^ i\aff€f U«l» rhv x^pw 
6wov Tur^ vwofu^tiftara rov ^umvoov oi l^twaUn 
iicofiwaiop, *EX^fiir Tt i^ to ^^o^ rw Miypoi^ 
(ifp roU iraipoi^ Iwwtvc^ «al t^ wt^f aytifian 
md iSf&r Kicaov tc <tMtvX««r ital ia^mff to 
3pof «a4 iXaiy vorroai* irai i^&r ^ 9vcino» «ai 

6 Btjoa^ i9 avr^ tlMU $^pim9 wmrrdawmp. Kal 

TOVV Mfl4BtUpSt MiK TOir K%090P lioPTa^, otft 

S^ ^ fuutp9§ i^hrrtk (ov ykp fZ^u 4fy t^ 
*IiMy X^P? iri^tf^oy, ovM tpamp airroU J/AWfXoi 
^ojr), crt^pov^ airovBj Aw* aurov wottlaBat 
mU 9r9^aiMiaac$ai m *tx^ i^VfApo&maq xal 
Ltimfcov TC iral t^v iwmpviua^ tou ^tou oiwira- 
XoGrraf. BOo'iu t« avToO *A\4(a¥Bow rf 
^iopva^ KoX timyrfd^peu ofiov roU rraipOiK. 

7 Oi S^ «al Ta^ ApTfpayjtap, tl Bi^ rtp ir^ark ictu 
Tairro, iroXXovc rmv iM9 avToy tmv ov« i^^Xfy- 
fUpttw Mairc5oM»y t^ tc xtaa^ iart^pmfUpotfs 
€al inro r^ icaTeucXrjati * rov Bmov tcara^x^^t^l 

* fHr#W«t«r, Pflngk; I snggwi flp, duM a^^ loolu 
to iff. But Arrian U ooi atotm to r«pe»Uag wortb ; Atl^ 
(far) and lUrrmi baj well aUad. 

* MirwA V«t from Hu a i^ a «m) ^ y^r , after AwMraAwrai, 
Mens nnlikeljT ; A baa car«jrAi4r«i, ** the feaat.** MreA4f«i 
•eeMS poeaible ; eee Ear. Hipp, 1347, «/r#M $*4$w tmrm- 



tka 9mm good order m now. ' With Umm 
which app c f < d wise woftlt« be woo Alevander't 
content. He bode Aeophli tend the bonemen to 
aeeomponj him, but no longer to demond the tdoet 
hnndredt and not eren to oend ony mbttltiitet fai 
their pUce. Acnphit tent, bowerer, with him hit 
aon« and bit dAugbter*! ton. 

Alexander then was leiaod with a desire to see the 
pbeo whore the Nytacnns proodly dispU jcd certain 
merooffali of Plonjpsns; he went to Monnt Herns 
vnih the Cooponions' candry and bis own wnpnnj of 
infaotrj, and behold the uMmntaio fbll of Iry and 
laorel* with all sorts of groves; be taw how shadj 
it was, and that there were good huntiag g r oun d s in 
it of all sorts of game. The lioftwhmians vere 
delighted to see the iY]r» sinee they had seen none Cmt 
a hn^ thne; Car there is no ivy to tho Indtans' 
country , not even where they have vines ; and they 
eagerly made wreaths of it and crow n ed themselves 
there and then, iinging hymni to Dionysus and 
calling on the various names of the god. Then 
Alexander sacrificed there to Dionyaus, and made 
good cheer with his C o my a nhms . Some have 
related (if anyone can believe this story) that many 
of the mora exalted ilaoednn i ana who wera with him 
crowned tbenadw wnh wO 1^» and werot on this 
In voc a tion of the god, possessed by Dionysus* raised 

re irpo^ Tov ^lopvcov itaX avtvdatu rov B^9 miX 

III. Kal ravra Sww^ rts ^i\4i vwokaffmf 
inriCTtiTm ^ iriartvirm, Ov yitp ifymy§ *Epa' 
roadiPti T^ Kvprjvai^ wdimi (vfi^pofuu, hs 
\Jy€i vdtna oaa <c to BmIov dvti^iprrtu ix 
MoiTcSowwv irpo9 X^ptv rf)¥ *A\€(di^pov i^ rh 

5 vwipayicop htt^fucBrfwtu, Kol yikp xaX 9Vif- 
\tuop Xiyf« ihovra^ dp llapairafuadBatf rov^ 
hUutMi^^ mai Tipa iMvp dwiympiop aMOvaama^ 

fmal m&rovs (vM^ntt^ ^fifuctu &rt toOto dpa 
T0O UpofMi$im ri itnpotf» Tmi Mlrro, ical 
Arrit lr$ huS»9 i^ha itU90fi49o% tup 
^vXdTYvwF ToD npoufjOim^, Kol o'lI/NurX^ 5ti 
ixtlat o^iMOfUPC^ TOP T« JUrop diri/rrupM Moi 

2 Tor UpOfAfi6ia rup h^afuSuf dwiXvct, Th^ ^ 
KaiMra^or to Spc^ im rt>v 11 orroy it tA wphit 
9m fiion Tfft ytf^ Moi rtip Uapa-wafn^almp Xmp€t9 
m M Ipioii ft^rdyttp r^ x!o7^ rovt MajrtooMiv. 
Tlapawdfuaop Sprtt to Spot airrovt tiaXovprat 
Kavieaaop rrjt ^AXtfdp^pov htKa io^ift, mt intkp 

1 TOV KavKocop Spa fkBopra * Wifiufipop, *£r t« 
tivri fj *Iy5«tfv yj 0ovt IBoprat rfxtxavpipat 
jwwaXop TtxfirjpiovoBai htl t^S« ot< 'lipaxXtft 
it *lvhovt d^Urro. ^Opoia Si tal inrkp ^topvaov 
riit trXaPTft dwiartt ^EparocBiprft* ifiol B^ ip 
fUa^ KtLaBmp oi inrkp rovrt^p X0701. 

6 *A\i(apBpot Bi mt d^Urro iwl top *IyMr 
worafiop, icaraXafiSapii yi^vpdp n iw* avr^ 
miroirjfjUpffv irpot 'H^i^Ttwi'OV teal wXoia iroXKa 
p4v iTfuxportpa, Bvo 64 rpiaxopropovt, icaX wapd 



the Dionjtiae cry, and nahed hitlier and thither, io 
the Bacchic way. 

III. However, these tales anjrooe may belieTe or 
not, taking them as be thinks fit. For I do not 
whoOy agree with Eratosthenes the Cjrenaean,^ 
who sUtce that what the M a cedo nian s say of the 
dhrine Ini o ence was much txMg^trtkted to please 
Alexander. He sars for instance that the Maeedon- 
ians caught sight of a cave among the Parapamlsadae, 
and hearing some local lecend about it, or having 
aai'ccd tocetber* spread the fv 

agreed together, spread the tvnour that this 
Prometheos' cave, where he had been ohaia 
that the eagle nscd to vWl tbaie, tn feed en 
tbens' INer, and that Heradea, anivbig at this 

80 the lianndwiiaai traiMfattad, In their 
llonat Cancmns Aom the Fontns to the 
eastern parts of the world and the oountrv of the 
ParapanAiadae, towards India, and called Movnt 
Parapandsns Movnt Caacasas, all for the glorj of 

Alexander, si^gesUnif that he had aetna^rat 

tadit when 

Meant Csecsaiw, Then in India Itaelf. when tbejr 
saw cattle br an ded with a chib» tl^jr ded n ee d tbenee 
that Herades bad come to India, ftmilir ttorias 
ahout DIoujsQs jownejiflgi are rueeled uf Eraloa" 
thcnct. Asfaraslameoneemedttteslorlesoftbese 
thingi mar rest open. 

Atexander, arriving at the river Indns, fbond a 
bridge already made over It by Hspbasstion, and 

itstbetalsotwooftbbtyoaia. Also 
he fcnad abeady arrived gifts tarn Taiflea the 

of CyrMtw ditd abovt IM b.c. A graal 




TofiXot; rou *\tf6ov hwpa i}Motnti apyvplov /thf 
rdXavra ^^ hiaico^^a, Upua hk fiovs fUv r/H9' 
^iXiov^, irpofiara S^ vwip /ivpta, i\4^apraK 
/« rpioMowra. Ktd iwwtU ^ htraKoctoi 
avr^ *JvBtiy i^ (vfi^ia\ia¥ wapk TafiXot; ^kop, 
Kol TTjp -roXiv TdfiXa, rf)v fuyicrfiv furafv 
*IpBov t« worrofAOu moX 'TBocwou, oti avr^ 

roU OtoU Sffoi^ ainA pofMCK ital Jvymya womI 
yvfUfueo¥ mal Itrwtxop iwl r^ mnafi^* gal 

IV. *0 B4 'Jy£o« warafut^ Sri /a^iotov wora- 
fiAw ian TMr mark rtiw *haiap re mai rrjp 
Evp^itwrfP, wXrfp FaTTOi;, ital rovrov 'li^^ot; wora- 
;aoD, xal OTI al vfy^ €unp airr^ ht\ rdlt rov 
6pov^ rav Hapawafuaov ^ Kavxaaov, Ktd 6rt 
iKBihm^Uf Wf T^ fi/tyoKfiP $d\a<r<rap rffp irar^ 
*Iv^vf «9 M voroF iptfiOP, ital on ^arofAo^ 
iarut o *Ir3o^ »aX ai ix^oXaX axnov ufi^artptu 
r9parftti€i^, Ka$dw€p ai whrt rov *larpov, «ttl 
5ti AtXra woitl koX avro^ h rj *Mmp yi r^ 
Aiyvmov AiXra irapawXifctop xal rouro lldr» 
raXa xaXtlTai rp *\pBAp ^tm, raura pJtp i/wip 
rov *IpBov, ra fAuXiara ovk ap^Xoya, ical ipoi 
S dpaytypddBttt, *E/ir€l ical 'TBdawris lud *Ak€' 
ciprj^ leaX Thpamrtf^ koX '^^acis, naX ohroi *\p^ 
worapoi 6pTt^, ri$p pip dKXwp rmp *A<napmp 
worapMP iroXv n tcark pkytBo^ infMOf^ipov^r 
rov hi *\phov pieiopt^ eiVi leal woXv htf puopt^, Ofwov 
icai avro^ *\pho^ rov Vdyyov, KrtfO'ia^ pip, tl 
Bij rip ixapo^ Mol Krijaia^ eh rexpr)pi<aaiPt ipa 
p€P artvmraro^ avro^ axnov o *\vho^ iori, rea- 


lodiaii, two bondred dhrer Ulenta, ukA ibr sacrifidal 
ofcliigt tlvee tboQMUid cattle And over ten thooft* 
•Dd sheep, wHh thirtj elepluuiti. There came ako 
6f€ai Taxflet aeven hundred cavalry aa fighting alllet, 
and Taxilcs surrendered to him the dtj TaxiU, the 
greatest dty b et w e en the river Indat and the 
llyilaspet. There Alesaader ta nrllk i cd to the godi 

• whom he Qsoalljr oflcred sacrifice, and held a eoo- 
teat of athletki and eavahry games near the river; 
and the s a c itfi ce s were iavoorable to the croaring. 

IV. That the river Indus is the greatest river of 
Asia and Europe except the Ganges, and this too is 
nn Indian river; and that its springs are on this side 

*' Mount Para p— i sM S or Caucasus, that it runs into 
lite great Indian tea towards the south wind, that it 
lias two months and both its outlets are marshj, 
like the five ootlels of the later, and that it forms a 
delu also in the land of India analogoos to the deha 

> Egypt, caDcd Pattala in the Indian language— all 
this abont the Indus, that namefy which can least 
be gainsaid, permit me alw to set down here. For 
the Hjrdaspcs, Accdoes, Hjdraotes, and H)rphasis,* 
all alio rivers of India, are much greater than the 
remaining rivers of Asia ; jet they are smaller, in 
foct much imAlIer, than the Indus, as the Indus itself 
than the Gangca. Ctcsias* faideed— if indeed 
Ctesiaa is of any nse as a witness— says that where 

Rari. Md 8otl«i. 



ffapaMOtrra araBiov^ on Bi4)(0vaiP avr^ ai 6j($ai' 
tf^a Bi wXarvraro^, xal Uaroir ro woKif B^ €l»€U 
avTov TO fjJffov Tovrouf, 
t Tovrov rop irora/iov toi» *lpBhp into t^p 9m 

*lMMf rifp yHi^ vwip u9 ^^ eirrf otcrtat rofioi9 
Btaxp rn fTOi hf r^ rf vvyypa^^ a»4ypaylra» 
otrrc (^ » 5f7 timi Srowa rj x*^ avroU 
ig^ipti^ otrrt i^fiva^ 4 '7^ ^^^ 4 ^^ ^ *Iy£^ 

^ipovatp, oM roifs fwpftMfMa^ rov^ r^ ^v^ov 
9^9i¥ ipyaf^ofUpovt, oM roiK ypvwa^ rov^ 
i^vXaMa^, oM 6<ra iXXa i^* 4^ fUiXXcp 
Ti irrro^i|Ta4 ^ ^ a^i/yiy^iy tmt Smmp, m rd y^ 
gar *lvSovv ^a ^ir ^roira ylrtvcmtnat, oine 

4 i(€\ty)(j9ffc6fi€va wpo^ ovUifMP, *AXX^ 'AXi(- 
opBpo^ ykp Koi 01 f (bv toi^^ ar/MTf i^ayriT r^ 
voXXA ifrjKrf^op, tea y4 fiij xal airrmp Scrip ct 
hfrtvaopro' a\pvaov^ r§ €iPiu *IpBov^ ^f 'j^^foi'* 
6<rov^ y€ Brf *Wi(apBpa^ (i/p tJ crpartf iitfjXBtt 
iroXkov^ Bk hrfi\0§, xal fj^iara ;(^X45«rra^ «aT<k 
Tfjp Biturap' oXXA /iryuXoi/v fUp t^ fftifAara, 
oTov^ fi^iarov^ rotp xar^L rrjp *Kaiap, wtpra- 
irijj^fi? roif^ voWov^ ^ oXiyop dwoBiopra^' koX 
fuXapTipovK Tttp d\\n>p apSpmwmp, wXtfp AlBio- 
wmp, leal rk voXifiia iroXv ri ytppaiorarov^ tS>p 

5 7t S7 TOTf iifoUtap T^ *Affia^, To yap U€pai>p 
rmp iroXai, (vp oU oppijOiU Kvpo^ 6 Kafi^vaov 
Miy£ov¥ T< Tfjp apxijp T^ *AaLa^ a^iXrro teal 


the Indnt it nArrovctt, fits banks are fortj sUdes 
•part; but where broadest even a hundred; the 
greater part of its ooorse Is about half thk.^ 

Thb river then, the Ind«s« Alexander crossed at 
dawn with hb arm/, so entering the land of the 
Indians; about wbooi I have not in this historj 

given aoj aceonnt either of their CMtooM, or whether 
their eonntry pfxtdiices anjr strange animals, or of 
the sfate or kinds of fishes or sea-monsten which the 

Indns, or Hjdaspes, or Gai^cs* or the other Indian 

riven prodttce, or of their ants whleh mdiie fisr gold* 
or of the griibns > whieh keep wateh, or of all the 
other cwtositi es rather la t eat ed lor amusement than 
for aee wrte wltlM o«l of fheti ilncf whatever 
ridledow Hct people ton abo«t the Indians are nol 
Ukelj to be verified by Mfone. Yet to &el Alei- 
and his felloiP soldtofi did todeed verify the 
part of their tave a few (m\%t tiile« tueh a« 

even of them«eUes made up ; and the/ did find 
out that the I od tarn have no gold al least SO Many aa 
Alexander visited in hfti campaign, and thej were 
very nomeroas; and they are not at all luxurious in 
their way of hviag; but they are taU of statvre, to 
fact thetaOestmeoin AsU,fivooobltt,nMitofthem, 
or very little short of it; and they ore darkcrektoned 
than the rest of mankind, leept the Aet h lop lan s; 

to warlike matters wamh tho noblest of the 
of AaU at that ttaM. For I 
propeHy eonpore with the Indians the 

rersianSt wHh whom Cyrus 100 of Cambjses set Ibrth 
and depr i ve d the Medko of the sovereignty of Asia, 

> PliajaadfilfakogivaaOsUdMOB^l Iha aaleal width 
ol tk« ladai !• slalad 10 b*. SI Iks aMrt» 10 sladss. 



Xotptjaavrd oi k^owra xariax^* ^"^ hc^ kro^mm 
i^ y€ hr) irpc^ rk *\M»¥ fvfifiaXiUf, Kal ykp 
Koi Uipaoi rort wirtiri^ rt ^euf ««! "jCkp^^ 
rpaxaia^ oUijropt^, xal vofUfid a^iatp ^ ets 
iyyindrt^ flnu rj AoMmpntj woihtvctt, Ti S« 
TfMVfia TO ywvofifvop Uipaai^ hf rp l,xv$tMp y§ 

OV^ TOVTO ^M aT/)««M9 (vflffoktlp WOTtpa 

kfiafmq fvi^^fl 4 ^^xv$Ap y€ tup ravrji «air40i/f 
rk woXifua llipcai ^op. 

V. *AXXa irwip ^IM$» i^ fMC$ ytyp^le^jtwrmi 
tea wtarorara h a^^yff^iP ot re (w *AXt(m9fy^ 
crpar€vc(un€% ttal o dgwtfHwXMvca^ rtf^ ^«#yoXiff 
6a\dcafi% TO «aT* *li^v^ Siapx^t^ M M 6aa 
MtyaaBhnt^ r« koI *Eparoff0hnf^, Bonfim Sp^pt, 
(vpty pa^drrjp, «al poptpa &rra *\pM^ icrX mai 
tl tfi Tim irara {^a avroOi ^vrrtu xal rip 

t wapawXovp avrhp t^ Ift* Bakicatfi, NOv tk 
Scop i^ rk *AXt(tMpou ipya kwovpAp i^aiptro, 
roaM€ fid opwyrfpd^m' rkp Tavpop ri Sppf 
kwtlpytip rfjp *Acla», kpxofi^pop phf awo M v«aXiff 
Tov icaratnucpv l.dfiov t^ pi^cov Spov9, kwo- 
r€pp6jiepop hi rrfp r€ Tiafn^vkmp icaX KikUtrnp 
yrjp €y$€P flip m^ i^ *\ppMPUUf wap^xgip* awo I* 
*Apfi€pimp w^ iwl WffBiap wapa llapOvtuov^ rt 

S Kol \mpacplow xark Bi Barrpiov^ (vfiffdXXtip 
r^ Wapairafiia^ Sp«i, h irj Kavxaaop iKoKovp oi 
*A\t((ipBf>^ (%/crpartvffaprt^ MaictBop^^, t^ pkp 
X^CTtti T^ ^AXM^dvhpov avfoprt^, on hif icaX iw* 

^ Armn b«r» aoderaUnd* or f orgoU tbo rmh. 


and wbdncd toiiie of the remainii^ peoplet, and 
reedved the volonUry turreoder of tbe fett. For 
the PenUnt then were poor, and dweh in a rough 
countrj, and their e m ton n were approiimated at 
near at poMihIci to the Spartan edncatfcmal ajtteni. 
Sor can I properly conpare the wound dealt to the 
Persians in Scjthia, to as lo saj whether it happened 
because they fell in with difBeultiet of the oountrr, 
or by tome other error of Cjrnts, or whether the 
Peniana were actnaDj inferior in warlare to the 
Scrthiani of this re g i o n. 
V. However, ahont India I rimll write a special 
* hnMd on an the Mrt rellahle fiM!ta firm 
I teDow^^ainpaiyieta and Ncnrchnit wlwk 
along the part of the Great Sea wUeh Baa 
towatds India, adding hcsidea all that Megasthenaa 
•trrf) Fmtasthciiea, ww> are both men of repute, have 
the cnrtoms of I«Ba, an j strange 

%«nicn live there, and the voyage round it by the 
Outer Sea. But now let what 1 have written down 
^ttfiee, so lar as spwnrd nprcwaty to the aooount of 
Alexander's a chicveme n ta; namely, that Mount 
Taurus la the boundary of Aala, bcglnnlM from 
Mycale, the mountain over acalnst Uie libnd of 
Samos ; then cutting through b et we en the land of 
Pamphylia and Lyda, thenoe reaches to Armenia; 
And from Armenia runt to lieihi by way of the 
Parthyaeana and Chor— nisns; and in BaetrU Jotei 
Mount Paranamlsna, which the Maeedooiani who 
ierved widi Alexander ealled Mount Canenwi, with 
a view (so It is said) of glorlfyfa« Atenader, as 
that Alexander readied even the farther 

' This b lh» /aiica ianhiiliif ia this 



imtlva dpa rov Kavxdaov k par Aw roi^ SwXot^ 
^X0(p *AXi{airSpo^* rvx^p hk koI fvMv^f rvyx^PU 
6p Touro TO Spo^ r^ &XX^ r^ ^v0i€^ Kavttiic^, 
KoOdwtp ov» ainff rour^ 6 Tavpo^' ital ifiol 
axnm wpartpov wort iwl t^£« XiXtxrai Kai/ca^o^ 
TO Ojpo^ rotrro ical Car€p09 t^3« t^ oifofuiri «Xf^ 

4 Or^arrai, Toy S^ Kavifaoov rovrow Ka$t]K€iv laTt 
iifl rrjif fAtydXffv rrjp wpo^ f» t« teal *ly3ovv 
BdXaccap, ToO^ oup irora^iov^ oaoi xark rtfp 
'Aeiop Xayov a(toi iK rov Tavpov Tf ital rov 
Kavicdaov dpi^xopra^ rovK fikp m hr Sp€TOP 
rrrpafifUpop fyfiy t^ lihmp, koX rovrmp rovK tthf 
^9 rf)p Xifunjp JyJiSorai rtfp MaiMXiy, Tovf M ^ 
rijp *Tpteapiap xaXovfttpitP BdXaaaap, koX ravrrip 

6 KoKirop ovcap rij^ /Ary<iX»79 OaXdaatf^' Touf Si 
m irrl porop Jb^t/Aop rop Ev^pdrrjp Tf f2va< nal 
r^p Tiypfira xal rop *\ph6p rt xal rop 'T^domjp 
ical ^AxtaiPffp ical 'Tlpammfp ttal "T^aatp Mtd 
Saoi ip pic^ rovrwp rt «al tov Vdyyov worapov 
i^ BdXiuraap Koi ourot iafiaXXovaiP ^ f«V i€pdyr) 
dpaxfopivo^ d^MPil^oprtu, tcaOdwip o Ev^pdrnf^ 
rrorapo^ d^apiferat* 

yi. 'OTf> ih rk T^^Aala^ &B4 ^«i ^ wpif 
rov Tai/poi; Tf xal rov KavKuaov ripptoBtu 
air* dvipov l^t^vpov ok iir* drrrjXuinf^p dptpop 
rtjp *\aiav, rovrip hvo flip avrai niyiarai wpo^ 
avrov rov Tavpov t^ *Aaia9 polpai yiypoprai, 
f) pip d^ ptarjpffpiap Tf ical vpo^ porop Sptpop 
KtKXiphni, 4 hi irr ipxrop rt xal dptpop 

t fioppdp, Tfj^ hi M9 iwl Porop * \<ria^ '''^P^jfi 
av rtppoptPff^ p€yi<rrrjp ptp polpap jr)P *\pittP 
yrjp woitl *E»paroa6ivrj^ rt itaX Mtyaadhn)^, 5* 


tide nT Moont Ciucmm In Irit 
Pefliaps, howcT c r, tlilt mowifaln It eootiaiKNit with 
the other CaocttOi, that It, the Scythian; jott at 
Moont Tanrot It co ntiB i i o wt with thItCaocatat. For 
I have preyiontly called this mountain 
I, and than eontinve to to call it later. Thit 
reachet to the great itattra tea, towardt 
India. That all the important rlren of Atla rite 
from Ifovnta Taoras and Caneatat; and a part of 
them tmrn their ttreanM northward, and of them tone 
pam out into Lake Maeotit; othert Into the tea 
called the HTreanian, itself a gulf of the Great Sea ; 
a part again turn t o u t h w ard , the B np hrat et, TIgHt, 
Indut, H jdasprs, Acatlnea, Hjdraotet, and Hjphatit, 
and anj which are b et we en these and the Gai^et 
and run out Into the tea or are dUbted oter manhj 
ground and to ditappcar, as the Euphratea ditappeart. 
VI. Anyone who ninrejs AtU to that H It divided 
by lloonta Taorot and Caucatm ftmn west to eatt 
will find that the two greatest dirkloot of Atia are 
formed by Mount Taurus itself, the one looking 
towardt the touth and the touth wind, the other to 
the north and the north wind. Then the aonthem 
part of Asia may again be divided into four partt» 
and of thete Eratotthenet and Megasthenet regard 


(t/TTr fnh ^ifivprri^ r^ aarpdn rtf^ 'Apovii- 

hpaKcrrrop rov ^Xwhmw fiaaiXia* ika^iamip hk 
oarjp 6 Ev^pdrrj^ 'worafio^ atrtipyti m^ wpi^ T^ 
imo^ Ti^y fffiTTipap OdXacaop. ^vo Bi at 
ftura^v Ev^parav re wara^v mml reO *Jr&>v 
aw€tpy6fi€pai ai Bvo ^vrtBuatu /AoX^f ^uu rp 

5 *\yBt!>p yj (vfAffaXtiP. *Awupyta$at ik t^¥ 
*IMm^ ympaw wpa^ ftkw fm r9 maX ivfXiirnyv 
AptftiOtf urrniwl fu^fffifipiap if fi^dkff fiakd^ajf 
T^ vpof ffoppap hk ainif^ Jiwtipyttp top Kavscaaop 
TO 6po% Irrt M rov Tavpov rijp (vfA^Xipf 
r^y & wpo^ iairip€Uf rt xal iptuop 'Idwvya iart 
hrl T^ fAtydkijp $akaff9«L9 o 'Iv^of vora/iot 
dworifiptrtu, Kal lo^ri irtUop if •roXXi^ aviif^, gal 
rovro, IK €Ud(ov9iP, im yi»p wora^p irpoamr)(uC' 

4 fihfop, EZmi4 7^p ouv «ai t^v iXXi/^ X'^P^^ ^^^ 
wMa ov wpoam BaXdccf)^ rk woXXk ritp wora- 
IMMP wap tKoarotK wotfjfiara, ^ j^ ^ gal t^ 
yi'^pa^ rrjp iw9i0pvfuap roU trorapoU 4k makawv 
irpoagtia$ai, ga$dw€p "F^pfiov ri ti irtBiop Xi- 
y€o$€U, 5v Kara rijp ^Aaiap yijp dptax^'^ 'f 
Spov^ MtfTpo^ £iipBv/Aiiyff^ irapk woXiP ^fivppap 
Alo\iKr)p ^M^thol i^ 0d\acaap* gal &\\o 
Ka^rpov wthiop AvBiop gal AvSiov* worrafutv, 
gaX KaxKOV dWo ip MvcLt^ gat Maidphpou ro 
Kapitcop iatt iitl MiXi/roy iroXip *\mpigrip, 

6 Alywrop rt 'Wpohorro^ Tf gaX 'E^raraib^ oi 
Xoyoiroioi, ^ ti Btj rov &Kkmt i) 'Ejcaraiov ia-rX 

« Af l« (A ht l}) Rooa. 

* Ml hMm A. Duboer reads «J min^ witiMWl TAlid 

A.N.\b.\SIS OF ALEXANDER. V. 6. a-5 

at the gieatctl put the ftgkm ot Indto— McgM> 
thcnoi dweh wHh the Mtnp of AnMihoria, SOijrtfQt, 
and writes that he often YWted Sandracottus.^ the 
ktaf of the Indians; the mallest fMurt, that howided 
by the Euphrates, looki towanM oor tnl a iid S6n« 
The other two parts lie between the Euphrates and 
the Indus, and these two put together ean hardl j be 
compared with the territory of India. India itself 
both east and west, right down to the sotttht it boonded 
by the Great Sea ; iU northern part to b o wi dc J by 
Moont Cancasns till iU junction with Moont Tanms : 
then tn the wcil, and the north-vett wlod, as far as 
the Great See, the IndM hnm Its bondary. The 
f^rrater part of it to level pUIn, and thto, ae to eoo- 
jcctved, to allitvlal, IbraMd by the rivets. In other 
parts of the eoontry atoo sach plahis as are near the 
sea for the OMMt part are the restilt eaeh of its neigh- 
bouring river; so too the name of the eoontry Urom 
ancient times was attached to the liven. Thai there 
to a plain ef Hermu*. which river rites la Aals from 
the miMmttht of Mutiicr Diadymeoe sad rant Into 
theseaneerthedty ofSmjrmain Aeolia; then there 
to soother plain, that of Caystcr, a Lydlan plsln sod 
nsflted ftem a Ljrdian river, another plalo of Csleot, 
in Mysia,andtheCarianplainof llseeader»tlretehlag 
toMiletattthoIeaiaaei^. %ypl atoo the htotorisot 
Heradotw • sod Hosoloow(thoi«h possibly the woik 


• BookU. 


ra afi/^l r^ fi r^ Aiyvwria iro4i7/aiTa, Sm^v 
T< rov vmafAOV afA/^ortpa mcavrm^ 6mia{bvei 
KoX ov€ afiavpoU rtM/itipioi^ Srt javTff Ivti 
'HpMr^ iwiBiBtutrtu, m^ teal r^v yffv axmip 
rvx^ ToO woraiMOV tlvcu iwmi^vfiQP. Alyvirro^ 
fkp TO waXeuw o vora/io^ ot« ^iraX^iro Sitrum 
vvw NfiXor Aiyvimoi rt «ai oi lf«» A*7iWrTOi/ 
IMpmiroi opofAafovciv, Ixapo^ rtxtitipimcoi 
"Ofifjpo^, Xi7«»v iwl Tj ixffoXi rov Atyvwrmf 

5^ o^ <h Tf vora/AOf irap* ^^ra^Toif ittH ov 
liryaXoi o^oi irora/iol txapoi ytjp woW^p 
WPiHatu if BdKacaap wpoy^oti^voi^ awort tKvp 
tcara^pOiOf, «al irtjXop tm rmp &pm rowmp 
Mtpwtp airroU ai mryai tiaip, oM Inrkp r^ 
*lr&»ir ipa X^f^^ '*^ awtarUuf l^HU i($m, 
owtt^ wthiop Tff 17 V0XX17 Van maI im tAt V0t«- 

7 /AMy TO vc5iov Iy«4 wftoamr)(t0CiUvo», 'EpfAop 
fiip yiip Koi Kavorpoy «ai Kai^roi^ r« «oi 
Mauu^por ^ 00*01 ^XXo« vora/ioi t^ *AtfMi« ^f 
riji'Sf Tfjp itrro^ ddXa^aoP ^Mli^vcuf oM 
avprtrturra^ (vtmOima^ ci4 rofp *liMir worapAp 
IL^iop avpffaXtip irXi^dov^ fptxa rov CUiro^, pLff 
orn T^ ^orffTi r^ p^iar^, ot^ our€ to Nttkov 
HB^p rov Aiyvwriov ovr€ 6 "lorpo^ o xark rtjp 

8 Evptinrfip pi^p a^tot (vpffaXMiP, aXX* oM rip 
^M^ worap^ iKtlt^oi y€ irdrrcv (vpfw^Bipre^ 
i^ Xaop llpxoprai, h^ M^av r« €v6v^ airo rmp 
mfyw arLa\€i kclL v€VTtxalB€Ma worapov^, 
vdvra^ Ttt>v ^Aaiaviiv fiti^ova^t 7rapa\a0a>p ttai 
rj €rru>pvpia tcparijaa^ ovrta^ ixBiBol ^9 Bd- 
Xaaaop, Tavrd fun ip r^ irapopri w§pil *ly^ir 


£g]rpt it hj another Uuin HccaUeos) both edl 
the gift of the river," and Herodotm hat 
shown bj Terj dear proofii that thit it to, owing to 
the eoi nri d cnfc of eoontry and river thari^g the 
tameoMte. For that AegjpCat wat the old iuhm of 
the rircr whieh the BgjptiaM and olhen Mag 
ovtiide Egypt caU the Kile, HoMr it ample evideaoe, 
when he lajrt that Menelaat tUtioned hit thipt at 
the mouth of the rhrer A^gjrptat. Sinoe, t h e i efc f e» 
ai^ one river, eaeb in varioot partt of oM widt and 
not great riveta either, can while dowii^ t e a w ar d 
bniid i^> a great ttrelch of land, hy bringing down 
mnd and depotita Doai the npper landt iniere ava 
their ipfh«h there It no rcaton ibr ditbelief aboirt 
the cowtry of IndU either, how H eoaaet to be for 
tiie mott part plain, and hat itt plain fe r t e d by the 
«ninial depotita of the riveti : at fiar Hennas and 
Cayitcr and Caient and liaeander or any other riven 
of AtU which run ont Into thla Inner ten» If jon pvt 
tiiem all together, joa eoold not, for vohnne of water, 
ooBipare them with one of the riven of India — to taj 
: 'tiii^of thelargetttOai^et, with which not 

^ ohone of the Hlle fai Efirpt nor the Itter > 
tiown through Europe It worthy to be compared, nay, 
iiot even if all were pnt ti^ther do they equal the 
river Indttt, which ritet a great river at Ita very 
fprli^t, and taket In fiAeen tribntaitoa, all greater 
than the Asian riven, and, impodng Ua name at It 
goes, runs out to join the sea. Thit for the 

> TW Daaaba. 



Vn. To ^ l^fvrfMm ro M rov *IvM warafAoO 

fuu, Xiyovaw oM cnMf ix^f JirptmAt wtKdam^ 
woTtpa irXoioit 4(€vx0ff • vopov. MrnMw^ •!•» 
o 'CXXr;>irorr^ Tf vp^ BUpfmf mal o B^r»«^ 
Tt Kal o *I<f7po9 vp^ AapWlwP^ ^ yif^fp^ ^mtA 
Toy troraiMOV &i|v««^ /v««(^ A^ir^ ^Mtt U 
l/Aoi7ff vXoMif /ioXXm^ tlw> X #% T 9^ tA^ Air 

S X«9^4mu. ^ » H vWoif ^Cc^l ' ir^. 

^ X^ 'Hptf^m • 'AXiMi^MMTtdf ^vx^4mm 
Tov 'CXXi^orror, 4 ^1P ^P^^T 'Pw^Mi^f M 
T^ ''loTp^ worafA^ C^nVy/ui votcmu «al M t^ 
'Pijy^ T^ KtXrtM^, gal top Ei^fdniP mal T^r 
Tlypffta, oadmg^ marlkaffwp aurout Apdymif, 
S iyi^vpmcoPt oM tovto Iv« ^VfkfiaXtw. K«/tm 
7C raxin'tfTi; Mr M» otta P«/i4iiOif 4 f 9^ Cp m99^ 
if tUk TMy v€My ytjrrroi^ xal ravnip iyib i^y y i| 
cofuu iv T^ wapoyri^ 5ti X07OV illCft* Ai pf** 
ovTOi? Karii rov ^ ' A^Urroi JM fpif0fiftmrm, 
ovK i-n txfOv, oKKk Ka0dw9p ai wp^mm9 mprnfi* 
ftupai. lavraK inro^4pn fUv, ola fur^, o ^oi^, 
^piyti hk K€\riri09 Mfp§s, far Ar tfara^ri^ 
^ TO rrrayfUvw xt^plov mcX itntMa ^Iff xaBU* 
rai wXiy fiara ix Xirpnt wvpapou^wXiipti lJ0m9 

^ r^m ^ KrtfW. WjpMT A. 


be aD I hftve to mj abovi India ; the rest 
be p«t eiide fer nj IndleB Hirtorj, 
VIL At fer tbe BetiMid by 

the Mrtbon wboan I ekieiy 
H; MreMiIoiTMlfflMke 
vMtMV hM peseipi wee bfli|^eil by boeti»* ee tae 
HBliport by Xereee ead tbe Betpetm — d kHf by 
Deieiw,* er vbetbcr e eealhMnee brW%e wee baOl 
•erom the itrfeei I ea iselteed to the Idee tbet 

the bfld^hv "^ ^ ^^^t >*iM ^ ^^P^ ^^ ^ 
fffvev fPDWB ttoC edHtt ev e svUHMf sef eevu ee 
rfc bete been eei^pleted fai to mile 
Agete, If the tlreeM wee bH4ged with 
te wcte HHhed toigethef by 
te eider ead eo imMd the bridge, 
ef HeieeraeMM eeye thel the 
post wee b ridged ; or In the we y In which the 
bridge li OMide on the bter, ead ea the Cehie 
end hi whkh they bridged the Bephf ell —dT%rie, 
ee eilen ee they were obeiged te do eo-^'^Ue too I 
eennol eey. Yet the i|«ldMei wey of bridgtag I 
know It the Somen by two of boots, end I ihell here 
deeeribe il, fer it t e rit i dcetj i i|H l en . Theboeleeve, 
ei the ghw e%Ml, eOowed te I 
Boiboweon,boleelfbeehh^ 80 then the 
ee ie netnrelt eenrlet thes down, hot e 
holdt them vp till it mem— n ee them faito the 

» H w od Mtm jfv. 


11. n *5 


4 T^ ¥au» wpo^ Tov f^avp. "Ort h^ iif fda rtf 
tAv P€t*¥ ipa h^ icx^^* ifoX XXXfit !&▼• ravTti^ 
hi^ovaa 6aov (vfiftrrpotf wpo^ ^Xp^ ^^^ ^^^' 
ffaXXofAivtittf, atfTiwp^po^ wpo^ ro ^cOfui op/u- 
{rroi* ical tir* ^ ain^iiw (v\a rt h 9v$v «f ^tK 
iwiffdkXtrai teal aoplBt^ iyadpeuu «> t^ jvi4tir. 
KaX BUk wacmv ourm tcm^ t^m¥, Scoi itcopoi 

r^pmStp hi Tov (tvyfiuro^ xXifiOMts wpo0dk' 
Xovrai tcarawffypvp^i^at, rov aa^Xtarepaw roU 
rt lirtroi^ ical roU (tvytat ri)V t'^ohov yiyvtaSoi, 
€ai ifia ttK avvhtafAO^ tlvai rov t^Mvyftaro^' 6t 
iklyov Tff (utntXtlrai iwa¥ xal fw woXK^ 
dopvff^, xal TO rrrayfupov h r^ BpmfUp^ Sfimf 
ovK amaruf oX t« rrapoMtXtvefioX w^ ri^oify 
Kara vav» i/cdarfjv xal at hun^iriati^ rov 
ikkiirov^ ovr§ rijp xaratcovatv rw irapay 
ytkfuirotv ovrt rrjv ofvrfjra rov fpyov a^atpovv- 


VIII. 'Pctfuaioiv pkv hfi oCrm ravra iic waXoiOv 
hrtfaKfirar A\t(dpBp^ ^ 5ir«K iK^vyBi) o *lrS^ 
worapio^ ovK ^x^ tlTrtip, Sr$ ptiBi ol avarpartvcap* 
TCf avrA tJwop, *AXXa poi BoKtl a»9 iyyvrdrm 
rovrttp i(€vX^at, ^ €» 5i; tiw d\\ij PVX"^*^* Utiim 
1 ixhm, 'fl^B(^iffrjTripavrov^\pSovirorapov,iciU 
iwraifOa av $v€i Kark vopov *WJ(apBpo^. *Apa^ 
^ dvo rov *lvSov 4^ Td(i\a df^Uero, iroXtP 
peydXrjp teal tvhaipopa, rf)P peylartfp rS>» perafv 
*IpBov t€ rrorrapov xaX 'TSdawov. Kal it^rro 

^ DOboer't AV 14 very awkward, thoagh the pUalu woald, 
of ooarat, mn from ship to ship. 


thiipe full of unhewn gtoocs are let down frocn the 
bowB of e«cfasiifa> to bold it Against the stream. And 
wiien one ship is thus made fast, and then another, 
jtist at the right intenral to carry the supcr^tnictnre 
lafelj, it is anchored head up-stream ; and on boUi 
boats timberi are accoratelj and smart Ij laid,' and 
planltt cr u a s w i se to bind them together. Then the 
work goes oo throngboot aO the ooats, so maiiT as 
are needed lor the bridging. On either side of the 
bridge ladders* are thrown out* and made fast, so 
that the piSBS g e may be safer ferhoiiMaad baggage 
aolBals, and also to bind tbo bridlge together; and 
in mdle a short time, and with much bostle, the 
whole work is completed; and yet there is good 
order In the course of the woric ; instmctioiiB nOed 
6om ship to ship, and reproo fc of shirlced work, do 
not spoil tlie hearing of the orders, nor the speed of 
the operation. 

Vlll. These then are the king-«ttabliriied methods 
of tlie Boflsans; bat how Alexander bridged the Indns 
I do not pretend to say, for eren those who senred 
under bfancBd not ten OS. Still, I am inclined to think 
that be approifanated to this way ofbrkking; yet if 
it was by some other means, let it pass. Alltftaking 

his army across, Alexander s acrii ced there too as 
customary. Then leaving the Indui he marched to 
Taxila, a great and p ro sp erous dtT. It is indeed the 
largest of aU wUeh oe between the river Indus and 
the Hydaspes. He was received there by Taxiles, 

> ;««J#»'ai%klBMaa'*lbr»^od.Afl**: 4f/«f MtaM lo bt 
s military advtrh, " Maartly,** ** iotUoUj.*^ 
• ApfMfvtitly as a lighl Imlvark. 


airrw Ta(iX^ o {hrapxos tv/v voXmk mU atrroi 
oi r^ *IySoi ^iXi«K* «<u *AX€faj»S/Mf wpo^ri- 
Ofl^iP atnoU X^ptuf Ttj^ ofiopov Sinft morro. 
I *Hkop hi itrraOua irap airrop Kal wap^ *A0ieapov 
wp4o0tt^ rov Twr op^imv *l»^ir 0aaiXims S Tf 
Jii€kip^ rou *A0icapov gal a\\o$ (vp avrft oi 
losu/imrraroi, xal irapk ^o(ap€m^ pofuipxov ^Xoi, 
BApa ^poKTt^, Kal irravOa av *AXi{ai^po« 
ip TaflXoi^ 0v€i 6a a oi popo^, xal aympa wot$l 
yupPiMOP T« teal iwwtxop, Kal airohtifa^ aarpii' 
wrjp T«v rauTff 'liMv ^Ckiirwop roy Mayara 
^povpdp T« awo\€iW€t ip Ta{4X<M9 «a2 tov^ awo- 
pdxpv^ TMT aroartmrmp tik pooop* avT09 M 
i^Tiy «»¥ M rhp TBaawtfp wortiftip, 

clfoi i(frni\X€TO (vp TJ orpari^ wdajf, ^7M»««k 
€tpy€ip rov iropov otrrop ^ wtpmprt iwtriihoBtu* 
Tavra «k eyvM *AX4|oy5p(K, KoIpop piprhp floX^- 
pOKpdrov^ wipyfra^ owiom M ror *lr5^i^ wotouop, 
ra ifXoia oaa wapfOKtvaaro airr^ iwl rov wopov 
rov *\pBov (vprtpopra xtXtiki ^4p€tP m^ iwl rop 
6 'TBdawtfp rrorapov. Kai (uptrprjBrj r§ rk wXota 
teal i/coplaOrj ain^, oca piv fipaxvrtpa £«x4 
hiarptfiivra, al rpnucomopoi hk rptjm irptfiri' 
OOP, KoX rk rpripara iirl (tvytap otMKopUrdi 
loTt irrl rrjp ^x^V^ tow *TBa€rwov KtuUi 
(vpfrtfxOh ro pavritcop av6i^ hij opov ia^Bff hf 
T^ 'Thdavrj, Aino^ h€ apaXaffutu fjp tc hvvapip 
IvMv TiK€P is TafiXa koX vrpraKiOY^Xiovs rinf 
'iiSAp 0&9 Taf 4X179 TC ical oi ravrjj uirapxoi 
^TfOP ^€1 «9 iirl TOP 'TBdarrrjp trorapov. 

luL, Kai ^AXifavhpos rt icar€arparoir€h€vatP 


the gofc m or of the dtj, and the Indiani of this 
dktrkt, in « friendly manner; and Alexander added 
to them to moch of the nei^hbooring territory at thej 
reqnertcd. Here then joined him envoys firon Abitarest 
the kk^ of the ladton hilltrihes, and the brother of 
Ahliarca and otfien with him, the moat notable BMH 
othen ako from Doxareus the governor of the dia> 
triei, bringliy gifta. There alto, at TaxiU, Alexander 
oiered the ewt wai j laeriieei, and held an athletie 
and earalry coaleit. He i|ipeioled Philip too of 
Maehataa tatrap of the ladiam of this territory, and 
left behind a garriaon, and any inraUded toldiert he 
had; then he marched on tovaidt the river Hydatpet. 

For he had learnt that Fon» wat on the fariide of 
the Hydatpea with all hit army, delenniiied to pre- 
vent hit crowing, or at leatt to attack him, ihoiild 
he attempt it. On learaiaf this, Aleiander tent 
Coeoat too of Polemoeratea back lo the river Indna, 
oiderfa^ hfaa to take to piecet the boau that had 
been got ready at the crotting of the Indus and bring 
them to the Ilydaspes. The boaU were duly dla- 
and tramported ; the thorter ooea In two 
bst the thirty-oar ships cut into three, and 
the t ectiona were brought in carta lo the bank of the 
ilydaspes. There the flotiUa was pot together again, 
snd again aeen in full fixoe, now oo the Hydatpre. 
Then Aleiander, taklag the Ibree with which he 
arrived at TaiHa and abo §w€ thousand Indhma, led 
by Taxiles and the gov e rnors of the district, marehed 
to the Hydatpet. 

IX. On the bank of the Hydatpea Alexander 



iwl Tff 6')(6ff fov 'TSdawov, gal TlApo^ xark rffp 
iamitipap 6%^^ *^^*l (^ wa^lV ▼» «T/MTia mil 
T^ iXt^aprmp rm ori^i. Taifry ^i^ o^ f 
marker parowth^VKor a mIB^p * AXifuifipetf aurov 
lUvttv i^vXafTM TOP w6po¥, tva hk SXKa rov 
worafwv Minroptitrtpa, frl ravra ^povp^^ h$a* 
wtfA^lta^ Kal ifytfiopa^ iwtartjaa^ iKaayoi% §tpytt» 
i hr€f6€t atro rov iropov rov^ Ma«<5oMif . Tavra 
hk opi^mi *A\t(dySp^ xtprp-ia tta't airr^ ihoscu ij 
arparta woWax^it *>f ^op Witpop a/n^iffoXop 
ffrwMaOoi, AifXMV tk i^ woXKa tow arparotf, 
TOV9 fih auT09 dWp Mai SWji ^ rtf^ x^P^^» 
rk fA49 wopBity oca woXifua, rk i4 atcowint owti 
Mroptirtpo^ avT^ o vora/iot ^t^irat, rov^ Bi tAp 
^ytfioymp SXXoi^ gal dXXoit iwtraPa^ teal avroif^ 

3 iroXXa;^} hiwtfL'wt, ^Irt^^ Ik airr^ wdirroSw 
im TTf; iirl rdlt rov 'TBdawov X*^* ^ ^^ 
crparontBop fvptitofdl^rro, m^ S^Xoy tlpai r^ 
Ump^ 5ti iypttKto^ ttfj wpOffXiwaptip r§ ^X^Jf* 
iar€ ro vhwp rov worofiov ^ulov ytpop^vop 
rov ;^eiM4>>yof woXkax^ wapaBovpoi oi rop 
wopop* rd Tff wXoia avr^ dXXfj xal dXXjf 
wapairXioina teal at hi^ipai rtj^ ttdp^rj^ //iviir- 
\dfi€vai ical ^ SxSf) wXrjpfj^ rraaa ^oiPOfiipfi 
T^ fup iTTiriioPt rp Sk ire (iitfir, ovk tta riptfUip rop 
YiApop, ovtk hf Ti iirtXtfafitPOP /^ ^vXatetfp 
PvfjLJ^pop, h rovro €K irdtnwv irapaaittvdt^taBai, 

4 AXXft>9 re €P pkv rff rore oi worafiol rrdvrt^ 
04 *\phiKo\ rroXXov re vharo^ Ka\ SoXtpov fppfop 
teal o^o^ rov ptv/xaro^' ^p yip &pa frov^ j 
lura rporrk^ * fidXiara hf 6€p€i rphrtrat 6 i^Xio^* 

* Perh«|M ^rir^vtff, '*oo tb« turn." 



pitched liif Map; and Ponit was obtenred 00 the 
beak with all hb Ibicea and with hit 
of elepheirtB. Where Poms obeenrcd that 
ixandcr had eneamped, he gnanlrd the croadng 
hhntelf ; but at the other parts of the river where a 
erossfaig was possible he 
TftiHifYftHitTrt to each ffoard, and deteniuned to keep 
the Macedonians from atteroptiiw to cross. Alex- 
ander obsenrini^ thU thought well himself to move 
his annj about in different directionSt to aa to keqi 
Poros hi uieertafaitT. He therefore broke «p Us 
sTOjT into several detachmentSf and some he led 
hither and thither over the eomitiT, partlj doatrajh^ 

an J encmjr posMmloiiSt and partfy teeonnoitrfof ibr 
the rirer; 

good places for rrosihif the rirer; other troops he 
attached to diierent eommanderi, one aAer another, 

and kept sending them also In diierent directions. 
Sopphes enne into his eamp from aO 

evklent to Ponst that he had determhied to keep to 

Soppkes enne into his eamp from aO directkins of the 
~ of the U vdaspea, ao that it was 

the bank, until the weter of the river foUfaiff dwiof 

the winter gave him a ehance of crasaiiiig the river 
at varioos nointa. His boats too sailing amng in this 
and that direction, the raAs made of skins bdng 
fiUed with the chaf,' and the bank filled with troops, 
here cavahy and there infantry, gave Poms no chance 
of restt nor permitted him to choose one poa i tioo 

that. Then, beshlea, about that time alt the riveri 
of India were rmrn^g with a big and turbulent 
stream, and with a swUleorrent; for it was the season 
when the sm Is just makfaig Ha bend towards the 

on thM lafu bilov. Ths shsfl avUsaaj setod liks 



ravrrj S^ r$ &pa vBard rt cf ovf>avov &Bpoa rt 
KaTa<f>€prTiu €9 rrjp yrfw rtiP *lv54/ri;y, coi oi 
;^iop€v a/ Tou Kavira<7'oy, IftfBtPirtp tAp woWAp 
worafuap at irjjyal tiai, KaraTrjKOfinnu aij(ovai¥ 
airrol^ to vBotp iiri fuya' y(tifiitPO^ S^ l^iraXii» 
Urxpvaiv, 6\iyoi r€ yiyporrai «al KoBapoi i3ciy 
JKoi lany ^01/ irtpaffifiOi, wXijp y€ Bff rov 
'\pBov teal Vdyyov^ xal tvxop xal SXXov rov 
aXX* S y 'Tlacwfj^ wtparo^ yiywrrai, 

X. Tavrtiv ovp rrfp &pa¥ rov frov^ wpocfUptiP 
/f TO ^ap€pop l^aaxtp, ti *p r^ r6r§ tlprpuro* 
o hi ov^p fUiop €^lp€vt»p lffi€Pfp, fff iny XdBot 
v^prwdaa^ ofcM^ tov rropop. *Hi fikp B^ ainb^ 
TlApo^ KartarparoifthtvKU ifph^ r^ ^xfiv ^^^ 
*Thdairov, ijvm dhuparo^ &p irtpdaai into 
wXt'fOov^ T« rotp iXi^dprmp gal 5t« voXX^ 
crpartk koX atrrtf rrrtpyfUpff r§ xal dupiffA^ 
onrXioptPf) iicfiaLpovoiP avroU iwiBi^toSai 

t ffuXXtp' oX Tc nrirof ovk hp iho^ovp ain^ 
^OiXtfirai ovhi iiriffripai rfj^ ^X^^ ^^ iripav, 
wpOiXKdfUpmp a^iOiP €v$v^ rStp iXt^vrtop icoX 
TJ T« Syfru dfia koX t$ ^mi^ t^offovprwp, ovB* ^ 
It* irp6a6€P fUuHu iirl rAp Bt^epAp /car it rhp 
wopop, aXX* imtffidp yhp i^ ro vh^p d^pAprts 
wipap T0U9 iXi^vra^ kclL iic^poP€^ yiyvo^iMPOi. 
KXi^oi OVP irrcpoti rtfp htdfiaciP AZ€ wpdrrctp. 

S NvcTtfp wapayayutp dXXrj xal aXXtj rrj^ ^X!^^ 
T0V9 V0XX0V9 rAp iirvitap fforjp rt iiroUi icaX 
vjXaXdt^rro r^ ^KpvaXitp, xal T^XXa 6{fa iwl 


summer taming ; > and at this season heavj rains 
come down into the land of India and the snows of 
the CaocmM, whenee tpring moat of the rivers, are 
melting and greatly increase the vdome of water ; 
hot in winter the rivers stop again* become smaller 
and dear in appearance* and ibidable in plaeet; 
except the Indus and Ganges* and possiblj another ; 
the Hjrdaspes at anj rate becomes foidable. 

X. For this winter season, then, Alexander 
openly announced that he would wait, if he were 
prevented Irom crossing at the Hme; bat none the 
less he sisjred there watelrii^» If by &bw chanee be 
might* witlKNit being seen, osake a swtft dash and 
effect the enmbm. Where Poras himself had 
neenped, en the Senk of the HydMoes* he leeor 
itaed Umt It was hnpnssible to cross* both ewb^ to 
tlie nrnnber of the elephants, and because there was 
a great army, and well ordered* and carefully anned* 
ready to attack his troops ss they landed. Then he 
thouffht that the hofses wonld not be willing even to 
set foot on the other side, as the elephants wonld 
immediately advanee to attack them, and scare them 
both by their appearanee and their trompetlitf ; 
nay, ftirther, they wonki not even stoy on the ram 
made of sldns during the transit* but would at onee 
jump off into the water if they caught sight of the 
elephants from afar, and become terrified. So he 
determined to make a secret croising in this way. 
At night he took the greater part of his cavalry in 
this and that direction along the bank* and made 
much noise and raised the Greek war^ry, and in all 
other ways every sort of d l stnr benoe was made which 

* Aa awkward w«y of wnriMii^ ths May 
adilora la ni i U sad soMod Um last. 



iyiyprra, Ktu 6 II Apo^ Tf amiwap^u wp^ r^ 

fiaifp iwaytiv rov^ iKi^ayra^ ical * A\if tufipo^ it 

4 iOa^ avTw t^ amnrapaymyti^ xaSi^rtf. 'fl? hi 

M iroXv jovro iyiyp€To xal ffoij fiO¥0v koX 

ra^ ixBoofAa^ ri»¥ iwwiwp, aXKk k€VO¥ ^ ykp 
yvoif^ ro¥ ^0O¥ xar^ X^P^^ M arparowiSov 
iiup9' CKomi hk airr^ woXKaxov r^ ^X^^ 
Ka$U9rfiK9ea», *A\t(apBpo^ Bi m^ i(€ipyaaro 
avr^ &^ofiov ro toD Wti^pov cic t^9 tn/itT€p$pAf 

Xj[. Kxpa 4y opixovca r^ ^Xl^n^ toS 'T&(- 
awov, 7ya hrimafifwrtp o worafto^ Xayov <^^» 
aur^ Tf &i^ftfi cfSfi wawroi^ BipBpmp mal icar 
avrrf¥ injca^ iv r^ woraa^ vXtifBtf^ Tf teal 

tnjcop KaravTigpv rtf^ Axpa^, ifi^or^pa v>Mii 
tA X'^^P^^ ""^ ^^ Kpwfroi r^9 Bioffa^tt^ rrf¥ 
hfixtiptioitf, ravTff fytm hiafiifidt^uw row arparop, 

t *A'iruxf ^ ^ TC &Mpa xal ^ yijao^ rov fuydXov 
arparorwihov i^ irtmtimovra ica\ (tcaf'ov arahiou^, 
Ylaoa iraaap hk Tffp ^Y^v^v ^vXatcai Tf avr^ 
xautarrjtcvuu i^av, iioXMinovcoi 6<ro» ^vfifirrpop 
it TO (vpopap Tf aXXi^Xot/9 icai /caraKov€ip €uir€- 
Tttt ofToOtP T* irapayyiWoiro^ icai irtunaxoBtP 
fioai Tf PVKTtap iirl woXKat pvicra^ iylypopro /col 
wvpk ixaUro, 

I *Cfir€i5^ hi fpfm iirix^ip€tp r^ irop^, tcara 
lihf TO crpoTfrnthop ^vtpm avr^ rii rr^t 
8iafiaa€«tt vapfaietvd^eTO' teal Kpdrgpot viro* 

' AAA' iKth^ A. Text Kriiger. 



was likely wbeo an annj was prcpaniig lo cross. 
Poms then kept moving paraHel with the noise, 
bringing up his elephants, and Alexander led him 
on to make a habit of this counter-novement. But 
when this had gone oo tome time, and there was 
nothing bvt shouting and raWng of the war-erj, 
Poma no longer kept moving about towards the 
cavalry daahea, but realising that the alarm was false 
remained In eamp where he was ; though he had set 
seouU at varioot points of the book. But Alexander, 
when he had calmed Pomt' pe r fo u i ncs i towards 
these nightly attempts, cootriTed the IbUowfaig 

XI. From the bank of the Hydaapes projected a 
headland, where thr river made a eooaiderable bend ; 
it was thk4L with every sort of tree, and oppo rit o It 
was an isUnd in the river, wooded and dmolite, 
untrodden as it was by foot of man. Observing this 
island opposite the headland, both being well wooded, 
and salted to hide the attempt at croasing, Alexander 
determined to take his army over at this point The 
headland and island were about a hundred and ftfty 
stades distant from the great camp. Alexander had 
posted guards all along the bank, at distances from 
which it was possible to tee one another and to hear 
easily from whatever point any order was pasted oo ; 
and from all sides cries at night were raised, over 
several nights, and fires kept burning. 

But when Alexander had delemlDed to attempt 
the passage, preparations lor cnimiiig were made 
openly in the camp ; and Craterus was left in charge 



X^iiTTO ^4 vrpaTcmiZon n^ r9 avrov 9x^ 
Imrapxji^p koX tovv Vf 'Apax^^^P teal Uapa- 
wafuaahmp tirwia^ xal rr/q ^dXayyo^ rim 
MoM^Boimp nfv rt *AXMirov mal rifp IIoXv- 
awtpxotno^ rctfir koI rov^ wofidpya^ rmp hrl 
rd&i Ipli^p ttal rov^ J/m toutoi9 roi^ vtrra- 
4 KttrviXiov^, UaprjyyiKkrro I4 Kparip^ ^ wphf 
hutpaiptip Tov iropop wpip awaXXayijtmi llApop 
(vp rp SvpdfAMi m ^l a^% ^ ^€vyotna ftoBthf, 
ainov^ 6^ piKuma^' ^ li i*^P^ M^ ▼» rtff 
arparid^ dpaXaffwp Ilmpo^ iw* ifik Syn, fUpOf 
hi rt vwoXti^j avrm M crparcw&ov mml 
Mfoprn, aif Bi Hi moI tt^ fUp€$P nark ymptur 
H M rovf iki^pia^ (vftwapra^ a^uL ol Sffm 
Umpo^ iw* ifU, T^ hi dWfts erparm uvoX«^ 
voiTo T« iwl ffroarowihov, cv ^ Itaffaipup 
9wmfhi'9i fkp iki^€un€s fMMm^ tftf, hnpU 9U$ 

VA^ TOVf inBidpOPTaK. T-rirotK* n it aXXti trroarta 

Jul. laina pxy ixpartptp MyMrtwero. Ky 

fU<r^ hi rif^ ptfcov rt Koi rov utydXov crparo- 
wihov, ipa avrm Kpdrtpa^ inroXtXttwro, MeXia- 
ypos T€ xal AttoXov ical Vopyia^ (vp roi^ 
fua6o^poi^ ifnrtvci Tf koX ire {ok h'rrdxaro' 
ical Touroi^ hia0(Up€iP iraprfyyiWrro xard ^po^, 
huXovra^ TOP arparop, owort (inftxopAvov^ ^5^ «V 
t5 t^d^ri rov^ *lphov^ ihoup. 
\ Avro^ hi (TTiXt^dfiepo^ r&p Tf kralp^p to 
aytipa koX rrjp 'li<f>at<Trl<avo^ Imrapxlap ical rrfp 
ntphUxou T€ ical ^Tjfiijrpiov koI rov^ iic BdxTp^p 
KoX ^iayhiupw ical rov^ X«rt^ac Inirw teal 
£ida^ rou^ /inroTofora? xai rrjs 4>^\ayyo^ tow? 


of the cmmp, with hit own cmrmiry re^ment and the 
cMrahry of the Arachotimi and of the Panipanmadae ; 
and of the MaeedooiMi phaknx the brigades of 
Aloetaa and Po lji p cich oo, and the gov efn oi a of 
the Indiaiia of these Aatrieti, and those with them, 
the fire th oosa n d Indiana.* CraleniB waa oidered 
not to attWBpl a cfoasing till Pona and his annj had 
left his eaoip to attack AlenBder's fooes. or tiQ he 
had learal that Poms was fai fl^ and the Gredn 
eonqncfors; '* hot ihoold Fonts take a part of his 
annj and lead it i^ainsl mm ** (Alemander oootinned) 
" and another part be kit betdnd at Us cunp, and 
anj elqphanls, do jon still staj where jo« are ; if, 
however, Ptoras leads an his elephants against me, but 
some portfcm of the army it left behind at the camp, 
then do jron crom with all dtapateh; lor it it only the 
elephants which are ilsngsiw to dtsmiharl^ing 
hocscs; the rest of the isree win not trouble theas.** 

XII. Soeh were Crateras' orden; but between 
the itlaod and the great camp, where Crateras had 
been left. Meleager and Attah» and Gofgias were 
potted with the B M Wwnar f eavahy and Inlkntrj; 
and thej too had been ordered to make a crossing 
in seetkms, dirlding the Ibree, so soon as thej thoold 
see the Indiant alreadjr entangled fai the battle. 

Alexander himself edeeted the spedal sqnadron of 
the CompeidoBS, and the cmndiy icgfaBeota of 
Hephaestkm, and of Penttccm and Detnetrios, and 
the carahy from Bactria and Sogdiana and the 
Scythian honemen, with the Dahae« momited ereben, 

> 8tt Ttim Alumim !*• Owtt, Vot. IL, p 144 tad aott 2. 



Tf tnraairtark^ icaX r^v K\«irov rt mcX Ko(vov 
roftr icaX rov^ rofora^ ical rov^ *Ayptapa^, ^7*i» 
a^MPm^, woXv ti airt;^«#v r^ ^X^n^* tov ^^ 
iMiTa^air^9 «Zmu ^7My ^4 r^r rfjaop teal r^v 

3 Kal imavBa iirXj^powno r^ vi/ct^ o/ Bi^ipai 
TTf^ Kap4>fl^, ix woXkov 9ihf) •wap€PfpfrftUp«Ut Mtd 
KartppdnrovTO h uKpifi^tap* vimp re <if ovpawoO 
rrj^ pvxro^ Xaffpop iw^yiytrat, TaOrjf «ai 
fiaWop TI fj wapacKtwi rt ain^ KOi 7 iiri^npif- 
0*19 19 h rffp hidffaatp ov ^P€pk narwnj r^ 
KTvw^ T^ airo Ttfv im\mp «ai t^ dopvff^ TfS 
airo TMy vapoTTcX^iaTtN^ t«v rt fipopxmp koX 

4 Tov Sfifipov uprnratayovprmp, Kai tmi^ vXoiwy 
5^ T^ voXX^ avT^ (vprrrfAiifUpa waptKi^Ofuaro 
^ TOP x^f^^ roth OP Mol o^oi^ avOt^ (vfiw^ 
mffiUpa ip rj v\p i/tpvirrrro, rd tc i^Xa xai 
ai TfHOMopTopoi, Tiro 2« ri)p Iw J rt dptfto^ 
xai o Sfiffpa^ Kticoiiitiro* Kol i) aUi^ ^EXXi; crrparik 
avT^ f) imriKfi tmv ^i^$€pAp iirtffaaa moI Scou^ 
riip ircCwy rk wXtSa iBiytro iiripa itark rtfp 
pffcop, «»c fiff wp6a0€P o^utlip wpo^ rmp aicmr&p 
Twv im Umpov KoB^im^Korup wpUp wapaXXd' 
(avra^ rrjp vtjaov oXiyop rri avix^iP rrf^ 6-)($f)^, 

XIII. AvTo^ hk iiriffik^ rptaKOPTopov iiripa 
icoi &fia avT& riroXf/Aauk t« xaX Wtphucica^ xai 
Aveifiaxo^ ot atafiaTtx^vXatct^ xal HiXtvico^ ritp 
h-aip^p, 6 paaiXtwra^ {/irrtpop, teal Twy {nraairi- 
aritp ot rjfju*T€€^' rov^ Bi dXXov^ inraawKrrd^ 
dXXai rptaKOtnopoi i^pop. 'Hf 5e Ttjp pr)COP 
iraptj\Xa(€P 17 arpartd, <Paptpa>^ ijBrf iir€lxop rj 
^X^V' ''^ ^ ctcoirol KariSopTi^ ainitv rrjp 

38 ■ 


and, of the phaUnx, the bodygnaid, and the brigades 
of QdtQt and Coenus, the ardien and the Agrtonea; 
be led tbit force secretij, keepii^ aome diatance from 
the bank, so that be might not be aecn marcUog 
towards the island and bemiUnd, where be bad deter- 
mined to croas. And there, dtirii^ the night, the 
ralta made of bides, wbleh bad ahrcndir some time 
before been brought aloi^, were llUea with ehalT, 
and were carefully sewn together; and there fell a 
rerj Yk>lent rain during the night. So Alexander's 
preparationft and his attrmpt to make the crossing 
were all the more conceaJeo; the th un derc l aps and 
the rain eontanelad the dattar of the MBt and the 
oommotloii arWqg from Iba aoBHsaodt; aad asoat 
of the boats, wbidi bad baan brakaa into aaeUoiia, 
bad baao transported to tbia pbee, and beii« put 
together again oat of sight were bidden in the wood ; 
the thirtr-oar ships with the rest. But towards dawn 
the wind and the rain had ouieted down, and the 
eavahj had embarked on tlie raAs, and all the 

infantry which the boats could take, Cfusscd by the 


island ; so that thrr mi^ht not be seen hj 

which Porus bad po%trd. before thrr hag passed the 

island and were alrrady ncsr the bank. 

XIII. Alexander then himself cmbarkad on a 
thirty-oared boat and began tba pasaage, and with 
him were Ptolcmacus and Perdkcaa and Lysimachus, 
the officers of his bodyguard, and Selencos, one of t he 
Companions, who aftenrards baaaaM king; and half 
of the bodyauard too. Tberaatoflhaaa ware taken 
by other thirtyHMir boats. And when tiia foroa 
passed the island, they were now in full sight, as thtr 
approached the bank ; and the soottts, obsanrli^ tbev 



t m^ M row Umow. ^Ev rovr^ hk ^KU^avhfm 
irpi»r<K avro^ igffik^ xal rov^ iwo tmv uXX«iv 
rptaKovTopt^w avaXafimv (vpirarrt rovs <U2 
iK^aipovra^ rmp Iwuimw oi yap Iwirus wpAro$ 
irtrdxaro avr^ iKfialvttw koX ro\nov% Aymw 
wpop€i ip rd(«t, ''CXa^c Bi ov» is fiifiiunp 
X^P^ if^fi^^ dypoif rmp rowwp, tL\>Jk h tn^aop 
yap Mai avrfjv flip fitydkiiP, i Bif ical ftaXXop 
pffffos ova a fXa$€P, ov woXX^ 04 Oiart wpos roO 
worafiov dwortfutopipfiP ilvo t^ ^Xi;^ 7^. 

3 Kal &iia mvPrfim TO ^t»p 6 6fi0po^ Xdfipos t€ 
Mai ^iri woXv rSfs pvktos Karaex^* Attm ovk 
4(€uptaK0p avT^ 01 imrtSf Toy wopof, Mai Siof 
i^i' av6ts Skkav itHatu ain^ M rf htafi^u 
Xaov r^ ^p^f vopov. 'Of B4 i(€vpi0^ iror^ 
o wopos, ^Tf tear* ainop ^aXnrMf • ^p ykp r&p 
likp vfffMV \rwip Tov^ ftaarovs to 6imp ipawtp 
TO fiaBvrarop avrow rmp Bk Xwirmp Scop t^« 

4 «€^X^9 Inrtplax^^if toO voto^v. 'Of tk icaX 
rovTO iwiparo a\n^ to IfBmp, htl fiip ro B4(^6y 
Mipas iraprfyayt to t« dytifta rSiP imrSmp xal 
rmp iXXmp iVirap^^iMy rovs Kpailarovs hrt- 
Xcfa/MMK* rovs Si iinrorofora^ t^ vdcuts 
tmrov wpoeraft' rmp hi wg^cap trpttrovs ft^p 
TOV9 vwaairurrks rovs fiaaiKiKovs, &p ^yttro 
SA«t;iro9. €ir(ra(€ r^ Xwirtp' tirl Bi rovrois ro 
dyrffAa ro ffaoiXitcov' /;^o/i<roi^ Bi rovrwp rovs 
&\\ovs inraoirtards, ms eicdarois al rfytfAOPtai 
ip r^ roT€ (wtffoipop' tcari. Bi rii dxpa rtj^ 
^Xayyos oi ro(6rai avrA xal oi *AypiaP€S ical 
oi dicovrtaral kxaripfaStP iirtorrfO'ap, 


ANAii.\SIS OF ALEXANDER, \. i v 14 

nnffnmiiy , with all the ipeed of tbdr hocscs rode 
Oh to PovuB* MeonwUlo Am 

took tho ooTofarj 00 tiiej kept 
I oiker tkfarty-oor boots and 
manhalled tbcm in order; for he had iiiotniBlr<l the 
ea^alry to disembark first; and then taking these 
with him he advanced in Ibphtiqg arrar. However, 
without beiM aware, be bad disembarked, from 
want of kwsl kn ow l edl f e, not on the aolid land, 
bttt on an isUnd; a kurge one, it b true; and this 
wao ehiefij why he did nol disco rer it was an island; 
but jet it was parted ftom the other aide bj tfM 
rirer with no \rry great stream. At the same 
time the rain, which was violent, and kept on all 
night, had swollen tiie river, to that the mounted 
men did not find the ford, and there was aomo 
apprehension that to eooiplete the c m s a i i^ be maat 
repeat all the former labmnr. But wlien at kit tk« 
lord was found, Alexander led on, thovril vitb 
difiknltj, across it For the water, at its doipsrt, 
was over the breasts of the footooldloB, io deap that 
the boiscB onlj kept their beada abo^ the river. 
Bat when this part also of the river was luCMSifuDy 
paased, he led round to his right wing the picked 
squadron of the cavalry, selecting the best of the 
other cavalrj regimenta; the mounted angers he 
set in front of the whole Hne of eavalrj ; then next 
to the cavalrj be marshalled, of the infantry, the 
rojal guards, under Seleoeas; then next to them the 
rojal regfanent; and to touch with these the rest of 

the feot-ffuards, aoeotd in g as each bad prceedence 
for that OKj ; on the winsi of the phalanx on cither 
side he sUtioned the arcSers and the Agrianes and 
the javelin-throwers. 



XrV. Ot/TMc €xrd(tK rop'fihf irt^oy arparof 
ip KOffft^ fitLBtfw hncBoi iicikivctp, ov woXv 
awMotna^ rmp ifiuaax*^^''' avr^ 64, on 
Kparup itoK€i rp fnr^, rov^ lww4as fAOPOv^ 
it-aXafimp ^mvln iJytiTo, Stna^ i^ irfrra«M^i- 
Xiot/9. Tavpmm M ry roftipxp irpociraft tov? 
TofaT«9 hrdyup t§ iw^ cai ainov^ awovip. 

oyr^ 01 a/*^ ror flMpoir (vp r^ Bvpdfin awdcff, 
^ ttpar^€Uf avrmp ov ;(^aXrrMf rj Tinr^ vpoa- 
fiaXmp ii airofiaxMBai yt Kcrt rou^ irc^ovv ^y r^ 
loyy hriytAc$€U' ti hk wpo9 rtfp toX^mp t^ &a- 
Aa^ctK OTowor ytPOfthnff^ oi *Ip^I ^«vXWyr«v 
^€vyot€P, ov wopfm$€P f^adtu airriav Kara r^ 
^^vyrip, m irXgiopa ip rj awov^^ptiau top ^oror 
ytpofitpop oXiyop fri uiroXciirca^cu avr^ ro 
I Api^T0/9ovXof M T^ n«^v val&i Xiyti 
^aatu a^iMOM^POP avp ipfUkcip mk ifiitcopra 
wplv TO Cartpop U t^ ri/croi/ t^ fumpa% * wtpa^tu 
*A\i(apSpop' iral rothop Bvpff$ f jp a i tip tlpfeu 
*A\i(aphpop TV9 hiafiacttis, X'^^^^ *f«i M'^ 
&f^ €ipyopro^ WMMumOiPTa, tiwtp oup Kara' 
wftStjcaprt^ ol *\phoi i^ rmp apfidrmp wpoat/etivro 
TOi9 wpttrot^ rStp itcSaiPOPTttp* aWii wapaWdfai 
yitp (vp roU &pfia<ri koX dtciphvpop woirjaeu 
*A\t(dpBp4p rrjy Sidffaatp* xal irrl rovrov^ 
d^ipoi AXt^apBpov rov^ iTTTTOToforav, xal 
rpaiTfjPM airrov^ ov ;^aV«7rak, rrXrjrfk^ Xa/iffd- 

> TbeiaUodabovo(13.2)MoaIkd"l*rg«";baiAristotNilM 
MMM to bave Ukio * dillKiot viev. 8w Plutarah, Aim, 
ea iMw^Ss. Schniotkr. 




XrV. With hk wrmy therefore that marshalled. 
Alexander ordered the infantrj forces to follow st a 
foot pace and in marching formation ; their number 
bc^ng nearly six thoosand. Then he himself, as he 
■ofinrd to be superior in the cmvalrj, took the cavalrj 
only and adTanoed at all speed ; toe cavalrj number^ 
ing about 6ve thousand He directed, h o wc fCf, 
Tanron the commander of the archers to lead them 
also 00 with the cavalry, and also at full speed. 
And he had determined that should Ponts and his 
detachment attack him with their full force, either 
he would easily overcome them with hit caTalry, by 
chargteg them, or mnjwmw be would fight on the 
defentlve till his infantry should cet into action. If, 
however, the Indians in foce of the extraordinary 
boUness of the crossing shouU take to flight, he 
woutd be dose up to thrai during the flight; and the 
greater the »Uuf;htrr duriM the withdrawal the lest 
trouble there would be for hfau in the future* 

Aristobulus, however, says that Poms' son arrived 
with sixty chariots before Alexander took across 
from the small uUnd * the latter part of hit troops ; 
and that he could, indeed, have pr eveut ed A l ex a n d er *s 
crossliig, nnce be got over with bibch olwcyity even 
when no one oppoaed hfaii, if only the Indians had 
leapt (roni their eh ar iot a and attacked the foremost 
of those coming to lancL In point of faet, however, 
he drove past with hit chariots, and thus aUowed 
Alexander to crota without ritk; and Alexander 
I su ncb ed against this force his mounted archers, 
and with no great diflkuhy turned them to flight. 

* OntkstiBtofthsiiluHi.sMabova.V.lS.2. 
tnd AffiiCobahii, ArrisB*s aulhsfMtib •mb to kavt difltrsd. 



% ifotna^, Oi h^ Kal ^Xfp Xiyovatp 4p t$ imffd^m 
ytpiaSeu rAv *\9^v ritp (ifp r^ watil t^ Umpov 
i^ty/Ut^mp v/>Of WXifapBpov rt ttal rov^ fiw 
avTi^ Iwirias. Kal yap »al a^iMtaBm^ \^ 
fui^opi Ivpdfui row Umpov walBa, xal mMm t« 
*A\i(ap^pop rp^fjvai wpo^ avrov Mai row Twor 
avrou awoBavfUf row BavtctSaXaw, ^tkraro^ 
*A\f(aphp^ Sirra row nnrov, xal rovrow rpmdhrra 

6 ^o roO naihos rov Tlti^pov, *AXX^ IlroXff/iam 
o Adyov, or^ moX ^tm (vfi^4pofuUt S^XtH Xi^ci* 
*E«nrfM^4MM fUw yap row wdUa vw^ rov Umpov 
Xiyti gal ovro^, aXX* oirv ifn^owra fUwa Spftara 
ityowra, Ovhi ykp tUo^ llmpow OMOVcawra im 
rmf amvumw ori Bij ^ avro^ ^AXjfawhpa^ &a- 
0i0ffK€ rov 'TBaawov row wopow ^ fUpo^ yi n 
T^ arpana^, (vp ifiJKowra &pfUk9i fUwotK im^ 

6 wifk^ai row ainov walla' h hfi m^ fiiw /vl 
Karaattowifw ixw^fiwo/itva woWd r§ mal ovtt 
d/Ora i^ rrjw dwox^f^if^ ^v* ^ ^ ««*« rh 
Mlp(ai Tf rovs o6irm W€WipaMora^ rmw woXtfdmw 
Mol T049 4^ iK^^S^Koaiw iwi$iff0ai, ovUififj 
^(^ofiaxa. *AXXA ^a^iXiouv yt^p XSytt iwwia^ 
Syowra anuria 0ai row Umpov watla, Spftara ^ 
hcarow xal ttxom' ^ddaeu tk vtpdcawra ^AXif- 
mwhpow KoX row in rffs wi^cov roif r€\4vrdlow 

XV. Kal iwl rovrov^ ra pitw wpmra iMwifiyfta^ 
'AXifavSpow teal ovro^ Xiy€i rov^ iwirorofora^, 
airrow hi dytiw rov^ iwwiav wpoadytiw ykp 
olfiBffwat UStpow fvw rj wdajj Bvwd^r rijw Bi 
Xwwow ravrrpf wporeray^Uwffv avr^ wpa- 

t wop€V9a$ai wpo rov 6XKov arparov. 'Cls M 


mmaj being woondcd. Othera my Omt there wet 
actuallj a battle; at the landing, of Poroi' too end 
the Ibeee which came with hhn, egefairt Alemider 
aad hit cevehy. For Pomt' too eetoallj did errire 
{they eej) with e raperior force, end Alexander 
WM wo iu ided by him and hie hoTM Boeepheks 
kflled ; hie fctoorite horse, and wB mt d e d,mereo rer ,by 
Pomt* eon. BotPtolemaettstonofLegiit,withwhoei 
I agree, giree a different accoiant. For he too etetee 
that Porw tent hit ton, hot not with only sixty 
chariots. For it it not likely that Pomt, learning 
from hit teoott that either Alexander had hfantelf 
fofded the Hydetpet or a part of hie army, woold 
hare tent oot hit own ton with merely tixty chariots. 
If these were lent merely for reconnai«Minee, they 
were too many ; thqr were not handy ibr a with- 
drawal ; if th^ were sent to keep ea enemy, which 
bed not yet crottcd, from doing to, and to fight with 
toch at had crottcd, they were by no meant equal 
to the tatk. He relatea, on the other hand, that 
Pomt* too had two thoetend earalry with him, when 
he renehed the pboe, and a hnndr e d and twenty 
ehariott; but that Alexander wet too quick and had 
by then patted even the h»t erotting firom the itland. 
XV. It it Ptolemaent alto who narratet that 
Aieimder at fat tent egaintt Poms' ton and hit 
fiwee ^kt Bomted arehert; bat that he himtelf led 
on the carahy, thinking that Pomt wet coming itp 
with aU hit army; and that thit cavalry, marthaOed 
by him in the van, preceded the rest of the Indian 



xartftaBtp Jirptx^ ro w\f)6o^ to tmi* *lpimp, 
irravda hii ofcoK iwiwtativ avroU (vp rj 
afi^* alrrop 7inr^* rov^ Bi 4yicXiHiit mv *A\i^ 
aphpov Tff avrop icartlSop xal ro ari^ox a/A^* 
avTOP rw iinri^tp, ovk iwX furmmov, aXKk 
icar iXac ^/A)9f/9Xi|«<k. Kal Tovrmp iwwimx 
fUv it€fftiP <9 trrpaitoiriovx^ wtatip B^ leal rov 
Wwpov TOP walha* ra Bi Spf^ara avroU rriroiv 
a\itpa$ ip t« r^ awoyj^pfiati fiapia ywofupa koX 
ip avr^ rm fpy^ inro xiyXoi) a^^^io. 

5 n^po^ M, mx airr^ oao4 iwvtU ix t% ^vy^ 
BiMcm^opTO, ^AXi^apfpop rt ainop wnrtpattora 
(vp TJ OTpana i^ ro tcaprtpiiirar op xal tov 
walBa ip rj fuiyp rtnXttntiMora ^nyttXap, 
iyiyprro ptp xeu 6k ap^ifSoXo^ r^ TVm/aj;, 5ri 
Kol Oi awo rou xaraprtMov rov ^tyaXov vrpa- 
rowihov ol (vp Kparipm uwoXtXttfifUt^i Jiri^tt' 

4 povprtx T^ Biafidati i^alpopro' fiXrro 5* ovp 
irr avrlp ^Kki^opBpop iXacax (up tJ arpart^ 
wdatf wpox TO Kaprtptirarop rt r^p SXaxtBovrnm 
KoX airrop rop fiaciKia Btaympia aaBai. *AXX^ 
Koi £)V oKiyovx rmp iXe^dmtap avp ov iroW^ 
crparid avrov ivl rov arparorriBov diriXtngp, 
m Sofittp dwo Ttfx Bx0ffx roi/x (i/p Kparip^ 
iinrtax. Avrox Bi rf)p tc 7imop dpaKa0mp 
wa^rop, i^ nrpa/et^x^Xiovs imriax, koX rk 
ippata wdpra, rpiatoaa Bpra, koX ri»p iXt^dp* 
rvp Buucotrlovx leal rwp ire^SiP onvtp S^tXa^, 
€9 rptafivpiov^t fiXavp€P ^ iir* * AX^^apBpop. 

6 'n? B* ivirvy^t X'^P^V "'* ^^ mjXox ainw i<f>aiP€ro, 
aXX* vrro y^dpfiou yip (vprrap riv avtBop xal 
ar€p€OP i% rax i(^6Bovx t« koX dvaarpo^x ritv 



tioopt. Bot 00 itmniog aocimlely the number of 
the Indians firom hli teovtit he fell upon them sharply 
with the eavafary he had with htm ; they gave way 
when they peroeHred Alexander himself and the 
serried mass of cavalry round him, attacking not 00 
a front but squadron by sqiiadnNi. Of the Indians 
there fell at many at fimr hondred hoftemen, and 
Pbms' son also fell; and the chariota, with their 
teams, were eaptured in the retreat, driving heavily 
and uscUss in the action itaelf becaose of the mud. 
Poms, however, so soon a« the cavalry which 
escaped in the iight reported to him that Alexander 
himself had crotacd with his army in full force, and 
that his son had (alien in the 6ght, was in two minds 
from this additional reason, that those in the camp 
opposite, who had been left behind with Craterus, 
were now seen attempting the passage. He chose, 
in any case, to advance towards Alexander himself 
with all his Ibiee, and %ht to a finish against the 
strongeat part of the Macedonians and their King 
himself. Yet none the lest he left behind a few of 
the elephants and a small Ibroe by his camp, to tcare 
away the cavalry under Craterus from the bank. 
Then taking mil hii cavalry, aboot fimr thousand 
horse, and all the chariota, some three hun dred, and 
two hundred of the elephanta, and the best of the 
infantry, about thirty thousand, he advanced against 
Alexander. And reaching a place which was not 
moddy, but being landy waa all level and solid for 
of cavalry, he drew up his 



frwr, hrravBa hoc at trfp rrpayid»t wpiifrmff 
fUP T0U9 iX^^iurra^ iirl furmwov, Biix$inm 
iki^awra iXA^mo^ ov fttlov wXiBpov, m^ trpi 
irdati^ Tf r^ ^dXayp^ rmp wtl^w waparoBtfiHU 

wdtnti wapix^^f^ ▼<>«« <^M^* *A\4^phpop iwirtvaip, 
• *AXX«K Tf ov^ 19(401/ ^ rk itaXtiwoma rmv 
ikt^rrmp roXfiffCtu Sp rufa maaaSai rmv voXc- 
/UMy, o^c iv9 Iwwots ^ Toy ^fiop TMT nrr«v, 
ir«{bik Tff ^ri fuioir gtirk erofUL re 7^ 4v ir/>^ 
rAp 6w\tTm¥ wpocfiaXkommp tlpytaBai «ai 
MaTawartfOtjataBoi hnarpr^dmrnv iir airrov^ 
7 TMT ikt^4urrm¥. 'Bvi Tovroif S^ o« vffol airr^ 
^fTa;(^aTO, ov« taow to fUrmwo¥ to«V 0fipioi^ 
iwixQf^^^t aXX* ^v ^i/r^M /mtmit^ /attiI Tovt 
ikS^turra^, 6aop i^ rik iioXtiwoi^a iw' iiXiyov 
ifAfitffKriaOai rovs Xoyoi/^. ^Haap Bk airr^ xal 
mar^ rk Ktpara fn trwkp rov^ iki^maK vffol 
^fOTi|«oT(v* iKar^pmBw W t«» irt {^mv 1} Tirirof 
avT^ irrrnKTo Koi wpo raurrf^ t^ Spfutra 

XVL Aim; /A^y 17 nM/>oi; rafi^ ^i'. 'AXifay- 
Spof 8^ «f ^17 KaOfdtpa tovv *Iy&>i^ iKraaoo' 
liivov^t iwtarrfCM rov^ iiritw roO mpaam, m 
JufoXafifioPtitf riiv irtt^i^v rou^ dtl irpoadyotrra^, 
*[U B^ KoX ff ^Xay^ atrrA Bpofi^ awd'^aca 
o/ioO ffifi ^p, o Stf ovK tvai^ iicrd^a^ hrifytp, 
M9 M7 xafiarffpoik rt koX wptvarioitPTa^ dsefifjat 
wapaBowai roU 0ap0dpoi^, d\XA ^9 tcvxXov^ 
wapiirw€Vfop dvriravt rov^ ir€{bv9 lore tca-ra- 
S artjptu avroU top Ovpop. 'H? hi rtfp rd(ip 
tcaTMiBt ritp *lpB«fip, mark fUaop pip, Xpa oi 

m;3 of ALEXANDER, V. 15. 5-16. a 

waj. First the rlqphanti oo the fitrnt* 

rom each aboat a hm k h re d leet» to that 

la form a lloe ill fipoot of the whole inCuitf y 

: at all points tenify the cavairr of Alexander. 

For to anj case he did not expect that any of the 

enem J woold dare to Ibrce a waj throogb the gaoa 

be t w een the elephants, oertaiolj not on horMMOt, 

ainee the horMS would take frifht, and stiU lees 

feot-soldieri, who would be kept back by the heavy 

armed troops In front and then wookl be trampled 

down by uie elephan ts tornini^ itpon them. Be- 

elephants were st at i oned the loot- 

the same front at the eWphanU, bnl 

that the columni 

Intervals left by the 

loot^oldlers, str et ahli y even bcqrond the line of 
e lephants , Then on eneh flank of the infantry the 
cavalry was postedt and In front of the cavalry the 
chariots, on both sides. 
XVI. This then wse the dlMosMon of PteM. Bnt 


Alexander, seeing the 
battle array, halted Us cavalry from any 
advance, to as to await tiM infantry as they came ap 
behind. And when the phalanx, coming on at a 
rapkl pace, had joined the advance forces, Alexander 
did not at once pot them In battle order and lead 
them forward, so aa not to confront them while tired 
and oot of breath with the enemy who were frash» 
but moving his cavalry rovnd rested his Infontiy 
till they had recovered their flgfatiiv spMt. On 
i%htliv the Indian disposition, however, he decided 
not to advance by the centre, where the advanoe Una 


Ai^currtf wpo€0iff\rfino teal irvtctnf ^ ^a\ay( 
irar^ r^ Bidktiirotn'a ainitp iirrrhattrot ovk 
iyytt wpody€i¥, avr^ iictlua OKpi^aas &w€p 6 
UApo^ TM XojifffA^ (uyOtU ravrjf irafttr JiXhA 
atrro^ /Uw, &rt ImroKfMTtiv, rij¥ iroXX^y r^^ 
nriroi/ dpaXaff^v iirl ro tvmvvfUip tcipa^ ritp 
iroXtfdmv iropifXai/rty, i»9 rai/ri; iittOrfaofu^a^. 

S Koutop Bi wifimi m M to l€(i6¥t r^y A*?M*7' 
rpiou Koi rf)¥ ainov llj(Oirra iinrapviop, tnXtvca^, 
^irciSay to Kara c^^ arl^o^ riȴ twwimw iSoint^ 
Qi ffdpffapot turriwapiwwtvuaty, aCrrcp Karowtw 
HytcBa^ airrt^tr tup vffiMr B^ r^ ^dXayya 
itXtvM^ Kal *Atrrty4pu Moi Tavpmm wpoc^ra^tp 
dyttp' fiff wpoaBtp hk dwrtaBoi rou ipyov wplp 
VW0 Tff^ nnrov T99 a/A^* avtop rrrapaytitpffw n^p 
Tf ^\ayya ritp wtfifp tcai rov^ imria^ mari" 

4 'H^ T« ipTO^ 0ikov^ iyiyprro xal ^fJKfP iwl 
TO iCf/MV TO ttmpvfAOP ritp 'IpBAp T0U9 itrirorofo- 
Ta^t Spra^ ^s X'^^* ^ rapafai rov^ Tairrij 
i^oTfiKora^ ritp woXtfiiup t§ nvtcporffri Tf tAp 
roftvfuirmp xal Twr tirwttp rj hrMKd^ti' itaX 
aino^ Bi rov^ iraipov^ *X^^ ''^^ iwwia^ waptj- 
Xai/Kffy 6(€t0^ iwl to tvwvvfwv riap 0ap0ap<uv, 
Kara Kipa^ hi rtrapayfupot^ i^ffaXtiP airot/S^y 
irotovfi€po^, wpUp irrl ^ukayya^ iKraOrjpai avroU 
t^i* iirrrop, 

XVII. *Ep rovr^ Bk oX Tf *\pBo\ tow? lirirea^ 
wdproOtp (vpaXiaai^ts rrapivinvop *A\((dpBp^ 
apTtwap€(dyovrt^ rj i\d<r€i, xai <h rttfk Koii^oy, 
«9 rraptjyyfXro, Karomp avroi^ €rrt4>alvoirro. 
Tavra (vptBovrt^ oi *\vBol d^i^i<rrop4>p rfvaytcda- 


of elephants lud been thrown forward, and where 
the phalanx, in close formation, was posted in the 
intcrvab between them, besttatiiig just for those 
very leetons whieh Poms had Ibveseen when making 
this dimositlon; but since his own superiority laj 
in eavavj, he took with htm the majority of m» 
csYalry and rode up to the enemr's \c(i wing, intend- 
ing to make his attack there. Coenus he sent to the 
right, with the rcwimento of Demetrius and his own; 
he commanded Mm that to 8000 mm the Indians 
should perceire the ■olid body of earahy beride 
Aleiander and adrance their cavalry to meet it, he 
shooid keep behind them. Seleucus and Antigenea 
and Tauron Alexander e o mmandfi d lo lead the lo- 
fantry phalanx ; but they were not to take part In 
the aetkm till thrr obsm rd the enwiT** nudn body 
of Infantry and tfirir cavalr}- tbimm into coo fiwi o n 
by his own cavalry force. 

By now they were within range; and Alexander 
launched his mounted areheri — about a th ousa n d 
strong— at the Indians' left wing, to throw Into 
c o nftw hi n those of the enemy wIk> were stationed 
there both hj the severity 01 the voUers of arrows 
andthechaneoftheeavalry. Then he himself with 
the Compairioni' eavaby rode nnklly against the 
enemy Idft, bastenfaag to eharge tnem. In their eon- 
fusion, while they were still in line formation, before 
their cavalry coukl change into massed formation. 

XVII. Meantime the Indians, concen t rating all 
their cavalry from every quarter, kept riding p a rall e l 
to Alexand^, on the flank of their own line, to oppooe 
hM charge ; and Coenus and his troops, aooofdl^g to 
ordcn, began to appear in their rear. Seeing thli 
the Indians were compelled to throw their cavalry 



Bticap iroirfffoi rrjv rd(ip t^ Twwov, rifp ftikp 
«»t hr *A\i(ap^pop rrjp iroWijp rt xal Kparia- 
Tfiv oi hk iirX Kolvov Tf itai rov^ Sfia rovr^ 
S iitiarp€^v, 'Voino rt ovv tvOv^ irapa^t rii^ 
ToffK T€ xal ra^ yrwfta^ ritp *\»it$p, teal 
*A>J(apipo^ llifP TOP leaipop ip aurfi tJ M 
Oar t pa iwiarpo^j rt)^ iwwov hririSrreu roU 
Koff alnop, uart ovhk t^p ifiBoXnp itifapjo TMy 
<i/A^* *AX<{dy5/M>v Iwwimp ol *lpooi, aXXA irariy- 
pdxBffcap mcwtp ck tcJ;^©^ t« ^iXuop rov^ 

5 iXi^OM^a^. Kal ip rovrm ol iwiardrcu ritp 
ik/t^dmmp dvjtmtrfop -rfi iirw^ rk B^pia. icaX 1} 
^iXmy^ ainrf rmp Ma^tBoprnp dprritf^ wpo^ 
Tovv Ai^i^ac. I« T« TOUT iwtffdra^ avritp 
^orri{brrffV «al avrk tA Bffpia wtptanMtf 
wdvroSfP fiakXoprt^. Kal ^p ro ipyop MtpX 
rmp ifp6o$€P dympttp ioiMOK' rd t« ykp Sfipia 

vrphjru^p, imtpdit^* Ktuwtp wvicprjp ovoap rtfp 
TMT fAamthopmp ^dXayya^ teal oi imrtl^ oi titp 
*\ptAp, roU Wf £019 ih6pr€^ (vptcrrjtco^ r6 Spyop, 
iwi/OTpt^aPTt^ avBiS KoX avjol i-mtkavpop rp 
4 Iww^, 'Hf 6i wdXip iicpdrriaap atrriop oi dfu^* 
*A\i(apipop, rj rt ^fip teal tJ ifi-nMtM iroKv 
wpo€xopr^, MC iwl roifs iki^apra^ avat^ tcarti' 
\rfifica», KaX iw rovr^ waaa 17 Xinro^ *A\t(dp- 
hp^ h fuap tKrjp ffSff (uptrt/Upff, ovic im wapay- 
yikftaro^, dXKit ip r^ dyStPi aur^ i^ ri^pBe rtjp 
rd^ip tcaraaraaa^ oiroi wpoairiaoi tS>p *\phStp 

6 raU rdftai, (vp iroXXA ^op^ dirtXvoPTo, Kai 
i^ OT€vop rjBff icaTnXf)fUPttp r&p drfpiwp ov fititt 
irpo^ avritp oi ^iXoi fyrtp oi woXifuoi iffXdw 


into a doable fonnatioo, one diriston, the moce 
nmieioiit and strongest^ facing Alexander, the other 
wheeled round to meet Cocnus and hit fbtce. This 
of oonne at oooe nptet both the ibrmatioiit and the 
intentkMM of the Indian*, and Alexander, peroetTing 
the o ppor tu nity, precitelj during this abouMBm 3 
the caval rr attacked the troops on bis front, to 
tliat the Imliant did not even wait to receive the 
chatge of Alexander's cavalry, but fell burrledljr 
back upon their elephants, as if to some friendly 
•(hcltcring wall. Meanwhile the drivers of the 
elephants brought up their animals sf^sinst Alex- 
inder's cavalfj, and the Macedonian phalanx for its 
part bokily advanced to meet the elephants, hurliiMf 
javelins at tiieir drivers, and, forming a ring roond 
the animals, volleyed upon them finom all sIdM. And 
the aetkm was now without parallel in any p r e vfc wis 
battle ; fiv the elephants, charging out into the hne 
of infantry, whichever way tMy turned, becan to 
devasUtc it, dense though the llacedooiaii pftalcnv 
was ; and the Indian cavalrv, seefaig the action had 
settled down to an infantry battle, wheeled off again 
and themselves charged the Macedonian cavalry. 
But when a second time Alexander's Ibices had the 
mastery over them, bwbb wperlor, as they were, 
both in strength and eip e ite nce, they fell badi again 
on the elephants. Meanwhile all Alexander's cavalry 
having become concentrated into one body— HM>t 1^ 
Older, but forced into tnlB c o nc cntra tfcm In the co mi c 
of the battle itself— wherever It feQ open the Indian 
ranks, they were broken up with much slaughter. 
And by thb time the elephants were crowded Into a 
narrow space, and their own side were as much 



roirro, iv rolf hriarpo^U re /rol roU mOtauoU 
tcarairarovfAtPot, Tmv rt ovw Imtim^t ola Stj iv 
crtv^ ntpX rov^ iXj^atrra^ eiXovfUpttp, iroXv^ 
^oko^ 4yiyv€ro, koI ot rfytfiovt^ ri»¥ iKt^dprmv 
oi iroXKol Karr)icot^tafUvo$ i)aay, xal airrol oi 
iXi^rrt^ rtk fiiv r^rpt^agofttpo^ rk B^ into Tt 
TMP w6im» «ai iprjfua^ ^fytfioymp ovKhi Biatct- 

6 KpifUwiH iw TJ fuixp ^a¥* aXX* ola Btf inrb roO 
KOMOV ^K^pOP^ ^\ioi^ T€ oftov icol woXefUoi^ 
wpoc^p6/i4POi wdyra rpowop i^m$ov9 Tf ical 
marrrarovv koX xaTiteau'CP. 'AXX* ol fiiv Miurf- 
hotff^, &r€ ip typv^Mpia Tt xaX tcark yimtAfi¥ rijy 
a^mv "wooa^pCfMMPOi Toif Bfipiot^ Smf ^p ^i^ 
poun9UMO¥tawocrpa^hnu¥ hi tix^vro iaoMomi' 
fotmr M Bi *lphoi ip avroU dpacrpt^fupoi rk 

7 wXtim fjjhiiwpio^iitHwmpipKaif'rotno, 'n«5^m^Mi- 
Tfipd Tc ^r rik $rjpia ical ovK&n atnoU ippmfUpoi ai 
iichpofiai iyiypomo, AWA avptyp^ fiovop htaxp*^' 
fi€va Acwtp ai irpvfivap Kpovofitvat Pff€^ iwl woBa 
{nrty^povp, atrro^ fitp *A\i(apBpo^ wepi0d\\€i 
ip KvtcX^ rijp Xmtop rj irdcfj raPu, rov^ wtt^ov^ 
Bk (vpaairiaapra^ «9 i^ frvKprnarriP (uyicXetaip 
htaytip rijp ^dXayya ia^fiffpt. Kal ovrta^ ol 
fikp imrtU Twy *lpBip irXi)p oXiytav Kareteoirrjaap 
ip T^ €py^* iKovropTO Bi ical oi wefoi wainaxo' 
Btp ijBff trpoaMtifUp^p a0iVi ratp MtuciSov^p, 
Kcu ip TovTtp iva Biia^fp 17 itrrro^ 17 *We(dvBpov 
^ f^iryrfv irarrcv iwtarpd/^aap, 

XVIII. Kal ip T^ ain^ Kpdnpo^ re xai oi 
SXkoi oaoi T% oTpartd^ rtj^ *A\e(dfBpov iwl 
TJ Bx^V '''^^ 'TBdffTTOv inroXeXetfifAtvoi fjyefutp^ 
^acLP, ft»9 PucStvra Xofivpw^ icarelBop *AXe(avBpoPf 


damaged bj them at the enemy, trodden down in 
their nuuMevTringt and their chargingt. The Indian 
eavalry, therefore, which was cramped round the 
elephants in a narrow space, suffered much loss; 
and the most part of the driven of the elephants 
had been shot aown, and of the elephants, some had 
been woonded, and others, from weariness and loat 
of drivers, no longer kept apart in the mellar, but as 
if maddened bj the disaster thrr kept ooUkUng with 
fHendi and foes alike and In afl sorts of ways kept 
poiliiQg, trampling, and de s tro yin g. The Macecfen- 
ians, how e ve r , having good room, and able to attack 
the anfanals aeoofding to their own discretion, gave 
way wherever they diargcd, but followed close at 

tcy withdrew, and kept shooting at them with 
javeUna. The Indians, on the oUier hand, were 
: among the depbanis and already were 
the greater part of their damage from 
it wten the elephaatt wearied and thefar 
cnargcs were no longer vlgocoQtybttt, merely tnunpet* 
inc, becan to retreat gradoaDy Uke ships baddng, 
Akxander himself threw his cavahy In a eude around 
their whole division, and then gave signal for the 

Tantry, kwldi^ shiekis and concentrating into the 
ooAt compact mass possible, to move up in full 
jliaUnx. So it was that the Indian cavalry, save 
only a few, were all cot down In the action; bat 
their infantry also was being ent down on all sides, 
as the Macedonians by tus time were pressing 
hard upon them. And now, where there was a cap 
in Alexander's cavalry, they all tomed and fled. 

XV'III. At the same time Cratems and the other 
officers of the army who had been left behind on the 
iMnk of the Ilyda^pea, seeing Alexander carrying off" 



iwipm9 KOi ainoX rem warafiov, Koi otro$ •i^ 
fuLopa rap ^pov hf rj Jnroxt^fniau rmp *IiMy 
iwoifi9a9t ^fifjrt^ Ami Ktxfiffxormp rmp itit^ 

5 'AW9«MP Sk rup *Ua<^ir irf {ol M^ ^X/yor Awp^ 
Mdrrft rdr twiivpLmp, iwrrtU ^ ^ r^M^iX/ovt, 
T^ 5< ipftara (vfiwopra xarticvwri' ittki Umpov 
hvo irai^fv aw^opop mmi ^wirtucff^ 6 POfidpyr^ 
riiP ravrjf *Ii^v «al rmp tKi^aprmp icaX apfid- 
rmp oi i^iiorft xal oi twrrdpxoi ttal oi arpoTtfpti 
rfi% vrpana^ 7% Umpov fy/Avarrcv* . • . Aif^- 
Ofjffap li gal ol A#^«rrc^, oaoi yt aCrmp fiti 

1 aurov dwiOopop, T«r 6^ ^A^* *A\4(apipop 
vff{^ol /Wy avo ^{diri^iXiMF tmv ^i' t^ ^pmrjf 
wpo^00\i '^oitipmp is oqr^ijcoa^a /utXiara 
MMwoir iwffif S^ rmp /tip iwworoformp, ol 
^ KoX Wfmro* rov fpyov ij^ltapro, S<«a* rtfs ik 
irtupiMtf^ Twirov dfA^l rovs mXkow rmp 5^ &KKmp 
ifrwimp m^ huucoctoi, 

4 Umpos B^ iM/TfoKa fpya tp TJ f^XP ^"""o- 
h€i(dfiMtfOS fif) 6ri arpartfyov, iXKk xiu arpa- 
ruitrov ymrpoiov, ms rmp r€ iwnimp rop ^opop 
Kartl^M irol rmp iXa^dprmp rovs fUp aurov 
wtwrmicorras* roif^ S^ tpiffiovs rmp ffftfuopmp 
Xvwooif^ wnrXapfifAiPov^t rmp 6i wtl^mp avrm oi 
wXuov^ dwo\mk€ffap, ov^ V'^'^P ^P*^ o fuyat 
fiaaiXtv^ i(dpj(mp roU dfi^* avrop rrjs i^uyrj^ 

6 avcx<*p«» d\Xd Kort yap inrtfievt T4 rmp *lpBmp 
ip fuixv (vv€arijtc6st is roaopBt dympiadfitpos, 
r€rpm^€Pos ^ rop B€(iop mfiop, hp 5^ yvfivhv 
fiovov «x^^ ^^ '''V M^XO dp€arp€^tro {air 6 yap 
rov dWov omfiaros ^pfcti avr^ rd /SiXrj 6 6mpa(, 



a oompfetioot vktory, tbemtelTes began to cross the 
river; and these wrought equal slaughter In the 
Indian retreat, ooming into the pursuit fresh, in 
place of Aleiiander's wearied troops. 

Of the Indians there perished nearly twenty 
thousand foot, and horsemen about three thousand ; 
all the chariots were destroyed ; two sons of Poms 
perished, and Spitaces, the gof eru ot of the Indiana 
of this distrlet, with the conmuMiden of the elephants 
and the d m iot i , and all the cavalry commanders and 
ouier wMiMMMindtM oncers of Poms amy • • . and all 
the iuf f l f in g efephants were c ap t ur ed. But of 
Alexander's army, foot-aoldiers 01 the number of 
about eighty perished, out of a Ibree which had been 
six thousand strong fai the fot attadc ; as for the 
cavalry, ten of the mwmled archers, who were the 
first to begin the aetlon ; and of the Companions' 
cavalry about twenty, with two hundred of the rest 
of the cavalry. 

Poras had acquitted himself manfully in the course 
()f the eqg^pement, not onlv as a enmmsn der^n- 
cUef, bat also ss a brave soldier; but when he saw 
the slaughter of his cavalry, and of the elephants, 
4ome iaUeo on the field, and some wandering in 
distress, having lost their riders, and when most of 
his infantry had perished, he did not copy the example 
of the great king DsrehM, and set his own men an 
example of flicht, but so long ss any part of the 
Indian troops held their gromid In the fight, so long 
he battled on bravely, but when wooimd In the 
right shoulder— the only unprotected part of his 
body as he moved shoot in the battle— far his oofslet 
guarded the rest of his body from the missiles, being 

VOL. II. c 57 


wtpirro^ t^p Kara t« rtjv iC')(vv tea* r^¥ i^pfumtut, 
m C^Tipop KarafAaBtip BttafUpois ^p), rort ^ 
ical avro^ ttir«;^«p€« iwtarprs^a^ top M^pra. 
Kal *A\4^apBpo^ M^T*^ ^^ avrop xai y99P€UOP 
&phpa ih^p dp rn fuixff aAcai hri^v^rfat. 
Tlifiwti Btf irap airror irpSna ukp Ta^iXf^i' top 
*Iv5o9* KoX TafiXf/f irpoaiinfMvca^ i^ oaop oi 
&ff^\kK i^iptJO T^ iKi^atm h^ i^ipt top 
H&pop iwiarifcai t« 17(10 v to Brjpiop, ov yap 
fZroV oi iri ^tvytip, koI dxovaai rmp irap 
*A\M(dpBpov Xoywy. 'O hk Ihmp itftpa ixfipop 
iic waXeuov top Ta^(X^ hftaTpiyjra^ httjyrfo 
m oMotnicmir gal ip stal KaThcopw rvyop, tl 
liLfi vwo^daa^ ixtlpit^ air ^Xaaw dwo tov llttpov 
wpoem TOP Xwwop, *AXi(a»Sp€^ B^ ov6i M 
T^Sff T^ n^p^ ;^aX«iro« dyiprro, dXX* dWou^ 
rt ip fAipti hr€ftfW0 xal Bi) xal Mtpov^p dpBpa 
^IpBop, 5ti ^ikotf «Imii da iraXoioi) r^ n«/»|» top 
MtpcffP l/ia^f. Tlmpa^ B^ m t^ wapk roO 
Mf/)oot/ ^«ot/o-f Koi ix Tov li^ov^ &^a dtcpaTtho, 
hricTfiat t€ top ixi^apra xai xaTiffrj air* avrov' 
ik Bk hrU Tf KOi dp€yfrv(€P, dyup aOrop airovBj 
MXtvfft wap *A\f(apBpop. 

XIX« Koi o flip ijyrro' *A\i(apBpof Bk m^ 
wpocdyopTa iitvOrro, wpoctwwtvaa^ irph Trj^ 
Taf€«#? fw oXiTOif T«v h'aipwp dirama t^ 
Tlofp^' Kal (irKJrfjaa^ top itrirop to T€ fitytOos 
iSavpA^tPt inrtp irtprt irrj^ti^ pd\iaTa (vpr 
fiaipop, xal TO iraXXo9 tov llwpov ical Sti ov 
B€Bov\o9p€Pa^ T^ yvt»fifl i(^€UP€To, a XX* (tf<nrep hp 
dprip dyado^ dvBpl dyad^ TrpociXBoi vwip pa^ri- 
\€ia^ Tij^ avTov vpo^ ffaaiXia &\Xop xaXA^ 



unnsiuillj ttrocig and tiniisiiAllj well fitted, at thoae 
wiio saw afterwards eoold observe— -on reoehriiig this 
wound he wheeled his elephant and retreated. 
Alexander having seen him play a great and gallant 
part in the battle desired to save him. He sent 
therefore to him first Taxtles the Indian ; and Taxiles, 
riding ap at near at he tiiotight safe to the elephant 
on whidi Poms was riding, requested him to halt 
liis animal, sinee further flight was unavailing, and 
to hear what Alexander's message was ; but Porus 
seeing in Taxiles an old enemy turned his elephant 
and rode up to pierce him with a javelin ; and indeed 
he might perchance have slain him, had not Taxiles, 
just in time, wheeled hit horte further awaj firom 
Pomt. Alexander, however* did not even on this 
show anger against Poms, but tent others, in relays, 
and finally an Indian, Meroet, having karat that 
thit Meroes had long been a IHend of Pomt. But 
Pomt, heerii^ Meroet' mettage, and being abo 
much dittretted by thirrt, halted hit elephant and 
dismounted ; and after drinking, and reoovering hit 
strength, bade Meroet eoodoct him at oooe to 

XIX. Porus wat then e oo d n ele d to Alexander, 
who learning of hit a p ptoec h rode and met him in 
advance of the line with a few of the Gwipaniont , 
then halting hit hotae, he admired the great tiae of 
Porus, who wat over Bwe eubits in height, and his 
handwacnctt, and the appearanee he gave of a tpirit 
not yet tamed, but of one brave man meeting another 
brave roan after an honourable struggle against 



wpoauirmp aOrov Xiyfiir ixiXfiwi^ S rt oi 
y€vta0at iOiXoi. Uitpotf ^ a-noKpivaaOai \irpjs, 
ir% WaaikiKit^ /aoi XP*i^^» ^ *AXc{ar5pc Koi 
*AXi^p6p<K ffcOtU ry Xo79». ToDro i«ii» iarai 
coi, M I1m/m, 1^17, ifwv hf9Ma' av M aavrov 
i¥€Ka 6 Ti aol ^tKo¥ a(lov. *0 ^ irawra 1^ hf 

/AaXAoy r^ ^^Tf* i^a^ck rijy re apxh^ t^ Hoip^ 
TMr TC avrw ^IMm^ IStMrc «ai tlXXiyy frt X^P^'^ 
wp&^ rf wdkai oCeji wXtioHn t^ irp6c0€P wpo9^ 
Bffic** mak olhm^ avro^ rf /9aaiXi«ciK icexfi^fUpit^ 
^r oyfi/i} iya$^ gal itup^ i^ rovrov h iwturra 
vtcr^ ixpn^^'fo, ToOto t^ riXo^ r§ fiaxff t§ 

Wp^ n&tpOP Tf gal T0V9 i'T iKUIHL TOt) 'TtuaiTOV 

4 "l^a h^ ff fiaxff (vvifff teal ip0€¥ opfiffS^ 
iwipaet TOP 'TBuawfiP jrorafiop, woXtt^ t/cnatp 
'AXifaphpo^, Koi rrjp fUp SUaiap rtj^ pUti^ 
rij^ Kar *\M^p iwmpvpop mpofiafft* r^ B^ 
Bowtt^dkap ^ rov tmrov rov liovnt^Xa rtjv 
funiftufp, ^ awi6ap€p atnov, ou 0\ft$eU irpo^ 

6 ovBtPO^, <IXX* vvb Mafidrov rt leai rfXucia^. *Hp 
7«kp iu^l T^ roKUcopra fnj, icaparffp^ y€v6p4PO^t 
woXXa B^ wpoffBfP Pvjicafimp rt teal (vymtphv- 
P9vaa^ *A\t(dpBpm, opafiaivofitvo^ re wpo^ fxopov 
*A\M(dpBpov 6 DOvm^aXa^ oirro^, ori rov^ 
c^XXoi;^ irtuna^ dmffiov dpfid-ra^, koX fM/tyi0€^ 
fUya^ teal rA Bvfi^ ytwaio^. ^rjiuiop hi oi f)y 
0o6^ Kti^Xff iftcrxjapaypiurt, i^ Srov tcaX to 
6p9fia rouTO Xeyova^p ort i^ptp* oi B^ XSyovcip 


aBtifhtr king for hit kingdom. Then Akzander 
fint addrcHing him bade mm say what he desired 
to be dooe wiu him. Poms is said to have replied : 
"Treat me, Alexander, like a Idqg." And Alexander, 
pleased with the repljr, answered : '* It shall be as 
70a desire. Poms, for mj part ; do too for your nart 
mk what yoo desire." He replied that ererytning 
was eootained in this one reaaest. Alexander, then, 
all the more pleased with tJiis reply, gave back to 
Fonts his sovereignty over the Inaians of his realm, 
and added also other besides his former territory 
even greater in extent ; thos did he treat as a Idnjr 
a brave man, and from then on found him in aU 
thiiMs folthfiiL This then was the Issue of the battle 
</ /Jesander against Poms and the Indians 00 the 
faraideoftbel^daspes; In the arrhoa^ihip at AthoM 
of Hegemoo and In the month Munychion. 

In the plains where the battle was fooght, and 
fnwn which he set out to crom the I^daspes, 
Al'xander foonded dttos. The first he called 
Victoria,^ from the victory over the Indians; the 
cHher, Boccphala,' in memory of his horse Bnoephalas 
which diea there, not wounded by anyone, but 
from exhaustion and i^e. For he was about thirty 
yrmrs old, and was a victim to fotlgne; but up to 
then he had shared Alexander's toils and dangera in 
plenty, never moonted br any but Alexander himself, 
since Boeephalae woold brook no other rider; In 
suture he was Ull, and hi spirit co ur ageo us . His 
mark was an ox-head branded upon him, and hence 
his name Bueephalas ; others, however, say that he 

* Gffwk, NioMS, DOW 
■ Saw ptrka^ Jdslpiir. 


Sri Xtvith^ afjfAa tlx"^ ^^^ ^^ Kt^aXrj^, fUXa^ 

*A\€(dphp^, teal *A\i^apBpQ^ vpoc«i|pv(fy ib4 
TffP x^^*P^'^ wdtna^ dvoirrfpfuf Ov(iov^, tl u^ 
awd^ovctp ain^ ro¥ Imrov' xal axi/y^ tvuvs 

iMm a/M^* axnop ^i', ro^o^ 5^ *AX«fai»3pov 
^/3o^ TOK ffapffdpoi^. Kal ifioi h roaop^ tcta- 

XX. *AX«{a^p^ 5a iwuhh ol AwoBapirrn iv 
r^ udxj^ KtKotrfAf/pTO r^ wpiirotrn xoc^^, 6 U 
TOI9 OtoU tA P0fu(6^agpa ^wtPiMta /^y«, «ai a7ttiy 
iwoitlro avr^ «yv/u»i4rov «al iwwiMo^ avrov /irl 
TJ ^X^ ^^'^ *T*aawov rvovfp rd wpmrop hiifit^ 

S ^/Mi T^ CTparM. Kpartpop fU¥ inf (%t9 f^fp^^ 
T^ tfr/MiTia^ irrcXfiircTo, t^? voXfiv ^l^riya^ 
ravTjj CKTiCcv ayaarif^orra rt «ai igrttXiovma' 
•uro9 M ^Xai/MF «f iwl roif^ wpo^x^P^^ ^9 
IlMpou dpxS 'li'^oik. *OM>/ia Si ^V T^ ll$94$ 
rXavyapucoA, ak Xi7ff« *Apiar6ffovXo^, m l^ 
TiroXtfiauK, VXavaoA* iworipms M fxu rh Svofia 

t ov fio4 /uXtfi. *E«77Ci 5^ r^y X^^ptuf avrAw 
*A\i(aplpos rmp rt iraipmp imrtwv ix^^ "^^^ 
ffpicia^ /rat rmp Wittfp dvo ^dXaTTOf itcdanj^ 
iirtXtKTOv^ Ktu rov^ iworofoTa? (vfiwayra^ xal 
Tov^ *Aypid»a^ leal touv Toforar «ai trpoct' 

4 ;^a>pot;v aur^ ofioXoyia vuprt^, Kal tXtiffM 
iroXti^ fA4v i^ rpttiKovra teal eirrd, tap tpa oXi/yic 
Tot * ^aap OiKijrop€^ irepraMtaxiXiwif ovie iXdr- 
rov^ ijaop, iroXXfii»i^ hi xaX intkp rov^ fivpiov^' 

* ixtytnt Krflger, IXiy^rti A« 


hiu) m white mark on hb head—the rest being black 
— which was exactly like an ox-head. In the Uxian 
territorj Alexander once lost him, and issued a 
proclamatkNi throughout that territory that he would 
massacre every Uxian unless they brought him back 
his horse; immediately after the proclamatkm 
Bocephalas was fcs tor ed to him. Such was Alex- 
ander's devoCioa to him, and such was the terror 
Alexander Inspired in the natives. And now I 
most cease my panegyric on Bucephalas, which I 
make for Alexander's sake. 

XX. As soon as the due tributes of respect had 
been pakl to those who fell in the battle, Alexander 
sacrificed to the gods the customary thanksgivings 
of victovyf and held a eootest of athletics and cavaby 
games on the bank of the Hydaspes where he fint 
crossed with his army. Craterus, with part of the 
forces, he left behind to build and fortify the dties 
he was founding here. Then he hlmsetf advanced 
towards the Indians who boidefed oo Poms' king- 
dom. The name of the tribe was Glanganlcae, as 
Aristobttlus sajrs, but Ptolemy calls them Gbinsae ; 
I do not tiouble myself which was the exact form of 
the naaie. Alexander invaded their country, with 
half of the CooipanioaB' cavalry, and picked men of 
the infantry from each phalanx, all the mounted 
archen, the Agrianes, and the u nm o unt ed archers; 
jind the tribesmen all made their nuicudei to him. 
So he captured thirty-seven cities; of these, the 
least populated had above five thousand inhabitants ; 
many of them had over ten thousand. He captured 



Bfmwov^ ov fUiov tmv voX««y. KaX ravrtf^ rif^ 
X^pa^ ri«^/>«» ^PX*^^ l^«c* KoX TafiXn hk 
tukXKarru \\mpO¥ koX TafiXi^v airoir€fkW%i 
imiam h rk tfiii tA avrov, 

B *E» rovT^ h^ wapd rt *ABiadpov wpiafiuK 
^teov, iy^iBwr§^ avrop r§ *A\t(4UtBp^ 'Apio'd^y 
xai TTjv x<^AAy S^ff^ ^PX^' KoATO* wpo y€ rrj^ f*dx?t^ 
T% wpa^ Uitpop y€PO fximf^ *AXt(a¥Bp^ iirtvoti 
^Afiiodpf^ Ktu aCrro^ (Op II«^py jdactvBav rort 
Ik KoX rhp dB€\So¥ TOP aurov (ifp roU SXXoi^ 
wpicfftci wap* AXi^op^pop iwtfiyjrf, xprifiard 
r€ Kopit^opra koX iki^ama^ rtaaapaxopra 

Bmpop *AXt(dpip^, *Hkop Bk ica.1 wapk rmp 
avropopmp *lplmp wpiaffti^ wap* *A\i(apBpop 
gal irapk Umpov ^XXov jov vwdpypv *Iv5«y. 
*AXi(apBpo^ hi Btk rd^ovs *AfficdpfiP Upai irap 
ainop iCffXfvci, IwawnXfiaa^, tl pii iXBoi, 6ri 
ainop S^^roi fjtcopra (vp rj arparif X»a oit 
Xeuprian ihmp, 

7 *Kv rovr^ Ik ^para^pptf^ r§ 6 HapBvaimp 
ica\ 'Tpxapta^ varpdwi^ tov9 icaraXtt^hrra^ 
irapk ol ^poMa^ &ymp ^Ktp m^ *x\\i(ai'hpop leal 
wapk ^latMOTTOv rov * AeffaxrfPttp aarpdirov 
Srfftikoh OTi TOP Tf inrapxov a^S»p dwtKTOvorf^ 
tUv 01 *AaaaMffPOi ical dir* 'AXtfdphpov d^a- 
rriKorm. Kal iirl tovtov^ ^iXiinrop imrifiiru 
teak Tvpidawrfp avp arparta, tA wtpX rtfp ^Atr^O' 
mi p m p X'^Pt^ Kara<rTff<Top€POV^ xal tcocprjaomra^, 

8 Aurof M m^ hrl top ^AKtaipyjp irorapop irpov- 
;^tipei. TovTov rov *Ax€aiPOV worapov to 
fUytOo^ popov Tfltfi/ *lphotp TTorafjuap UroXifuilo^ 



abo a Urge niimber of villages, not ktt popaloos Uian 
their dtics. He gave the rule of this territory to 
Poms ; Poms also be reconciled to Taxiles, and then 
Hiamissfd Taxiles baek to Us own tribes. 

Meanwhile envoys came from Abisares, offering 
to Alexander surrender of Abisares himself and the 
country over which he ruled. And yet before the 
battle with Poms, Abisares had the intention of 
ranging himself on Poms* side. But now he sent 
his own brother with the other envoys to Alexander, 
brii^ing treasure* and ibrty elephants, as a gift to 
Alexander. There came also to Alexander envoys 
from the self-governing Indians, and from a governor 
of eertain Indians, also called Poms. Alexander 00 
tfafe quickly lent a mtwngt to Abisares bidding him 
eome to him, threatening, if be should not eone, that 
Abisares should behold him oome' with his army, 
and woold have cause to me the sight. 

In the meantime Phrataphemes the satrap of 
Parthyaca and Hyrcania came to Alexander, bring- 
ing the Thradans left behind with him; there 
csscngfw frnm S l sleottiM Mtrap of the 
to say that the AsMeenians had assaa- 
stnatcd their governor and had broken away from 
Alexander. Against these Alexander sent Philippos 
and TjriMspc^ with an army to subdue the territory 
of the A Manfiniani and bring it into order. 

Then he himself moved towards the river Acesinea. 
Of tliis river Aoeainet only, among the rivers of India, 



o Adyov ikpi*foa^€V tlpoi ykp &a hripaaw 
avTOP *A\i(apdpo^ iwl ritv vXoiMy r« leaX rmp 
hi4>Stpi»v (vp TJ7 crparta ro fitp ptvfta 6(v roO 
'Atctaipov virpat^ fuydXat^ xal o{€ui49, ica6^ &p 
^p6fi€P0P fiuf TO vh^p tcvfuuP€a$ai t< teal 
«avXa{>ijr* TO Bk tlfHK craSiov^ iiti^Mtp ircrrc- 
• iraiofira. Ka\ tok flip hij iwl nip hi^9omp 
wtpitaip €v^pi) ytPicOai top iropoir rov^ 64 ip 
roU vXoioi^ iiaffaipopra^ iwoxtiXoprmp woXk&p 
wXoimp M raU irrrpai^ ica\ (vpapaj(d^prmp ovte 
oXjyov^ Qirrov ip rA u&iri hia^apffpoi, ETi; ^v 

0V9 ilt T0vl4 TOt) X07OU (vPTtOiirt rtKfAfJptOVffOai 

5ti ov iroppm toD d\f)6ov^ dpayiypairrai tov 
*Ir^ worafACv to fUy€0o9 Saot^ i^ rtacapd- 
m^na craBiovt Imm« toO *ly5ov tlpot to €vpo^ 
Um ^o'aK tx^ m^^ ainov 6 *ly£o«* 7pa Si 
aTfyctfTaro^ rt «al SiA orcroTiTTa ffa^vraro^, ^9 
T0V9 irffKTf«ai£€«a airpdytaOtu* tcaX ravra 
woXXay^fj tjpat rav *Ip^v. Kal ykp ital rov 
^Amtcipov r^MfUupofiai iinXi^aadcu *AXi(apBpop 
tpairtp ro wXarirrarop ^» rov iropQv, m^ axoXeu- 
ripf yp^aaOoi r^ ptvfiari, 

XXI. Utpd^aK a TOP iranraphp Koivoy fUp 
(vp tJ auToO rdfii diroXtiirti airrov iirl r§ ^xfiv* 
wpocTafa^ hniUXtiaBai t^v inroXtXttpp^ptj^ 
arparw rrj^ hiafidattt^, ci top rt altou avr^ 
TOP ix rrfi% ^9 vmjKoov tS>p *\phAp x^pa? leai 
S ra &\Xa iwinjBeui irapaxofut^etv IffitXXop' Uojocv 
Si i^ ra ainov ^$ff dwairifitrttt xtXtvaa^ *lyoMV 
Tc T0U9 fia\ifiio»rdrov^ irtiXt^dfUvop xal tt rtpa^ 
wap ain^ h)(Oi iXi^opra^, rovrov^ Si dpaXa* 
fiopra Upcu map aurop, Avro^ Bk II wpop rop 


Ptolenuieiis ton of Loigus has described the site ; its 
gtream, he up, at the point where Alexander crotsed 
it with his army, on the boats and hides, is rerj swift, 
with great and sharp rocks ; the water rushes down 
over these, foaming and roaring; the breadth is 
fifteen stades. For those who crossed oo the hides, 
he sajs, the crossing was easj ; bat a good number of 
those who made the transit in the boats were lost in 
the stream, since several boats were dashed upon 
the rocks and so were wredced. From this account 
one maj conjecture that writers are not fiv from 
the troth who have given the siie of the river Indus 
as forty stades in breadth at iU mean width ; but that 
where it is n ar row est , and for that reason deepest, it 
shrinks to some fifteen stades; and that this is in 
many places iU breadth. Farther, I gather that 
Alexander chose the wklcst part of the river A e eiJn e t 
to cross, that he might have the current slower. 

XXI. When therefore he had crossed the river, 
Alexander left G>enas with his brigade on the bank, 
bidding him supervise the crossing of the remainder 
of the army ; for they were lo convoy thither the 
com from the part of India already subject to him, 
and all other accessaries. Poms he sent back to 
his own kingdom, with orders that he should select 
lie most warlike of the Indians, and any elephants 
he had with him, and bring these to join him. Then 
Alexander purposed to pursue with the lightest of 



fr€po¥ Tov lea/cov, on ^(Tfy^^'t *"< 

awoXiwmp rifp X^P^'^ 4^ iPX^» iwwoti UmnMUf 

S Pvp ToU xov^ordroi^ t^ arparid^, *0 fkp 

*AXt(dtflp^ ra irpo^ roy aWop 11 i^po¥, irp4c0€$9 
wop* *A\i(a¥Bpop wifAW^v, aurow rt xal r^y vwh 
ol Xi>»pa¥ i^ttihov *A\€(apBp^, /rarA I;^<k to 
Umpov fia\\o¥ 4 ^iXi^ t^ AXtfdpBpov tis ^ 
A^fUpop re ^Kth'OP teal wp^ rfj avrov teal 
JiWrf^ iroXX^ dpyorra ifMoBt, totc ht) ^offtfOtU, 
ovx oOrm ti *A\4(aphpop, m^ rop Uitpop imtunnp 
TOP ofimpvfiop, ^«v7ff* Tfjp iavTov, dpoXa^mp 
oaou^ tmp /*a;(^4/M»v ^vpirttacu tf^vpijOtf fitraaxtuf 
oi Tt}9 ^vytj^. 

4 'E»l rovrop iXavpmp *A\i(aphpo^ d^ncvtlrai 
M rhp 'Thpamrffp worrafutp, Si\Xop av roxnop 
^iphop woratiop, to fUp tvpo^ ov fjntlopa rov 
'Am^^tov, ofuTi|Ti Bi rov pov fitiopo* "O^p 
^4 rtf^ X^P^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 'Thpamrfip iwtjXBt, 
^vXwea^ {nriXrwgp 4p tok iwiKaipordroi^ X^P^^* 
iwm^ oi dfy^l Kpdr€p6p rt ical Koipop Bi 
Jta^aXtiai^ hripYjOun'o rijs xdtpa^ rT)p voWrfp 

5 v'popo/ifvorrff. EmavOa n^aiaritapa fuv iic- 
ir«/iirei, hov^ avrA fUpo^ rq^ arpatia^, wt^&p 
fup ^dXayya^ hvo, iwirto»p W tjJv t« avrov 
xal rifp ^fjfifirplov iwrrapx^v ica\ rStv ro^ordp 
T0V9 fifiiata^, i^ rtfp llmpov rov d^artf/coro^ 
wpap, KtXtvoaK trapahthapOA ravrrfp IIm^^ rA 
a\\^, xal €4 B^ ripa wpo^ raU SyOai^ rov "thpam- 
rov vorapov avropopa l^ptf *IpBAp pifurai, /col 
ravra vpoaayayop^pop Ty Wmo^ ^^fOC*^^ ^TX'^' 

« pLaai, Avro^ hi irripa rop 'TopatprrfP worap^p, 


hit troo|M the other Pornt, the bad one, because he 
wmi reported to have left his own province and fled. 
' or this Poms, as long as Alexander's relations had 
; cmained anfriendlj towards the first Fonts, had sent 
eoTOjrs to Alexander, offering surrender of himself 
and his prorince, rather firom hatred of the other 
Foros than firom any friendly feeMngt towards 
Alexander; hot learning that he had been released, 
and was now mler of a considerable new provinee, 
besides his own, he beeame alarmed, not so miieh 
about Alexander as about his namesake, and fled 
from his ooontry, taking with him so many of the 
warlike tribcsnen as he eoukl persuade to share his 

In pursuit of him Alexander arrived at the river 
Uydraotct, another Indian river, in breadth not less 
than the Aeednes, bat inferior in swiftness of curreot. 
In all the country which he had traversed, as far as 
the Hydraotes, he left guards in the moat convenient 
spots, so that the troops with Crateros and Coenns 
might with safety tia v c ii c the greater part of the 
country in their search fiir provision. Here he 
despatched Hephaestion, giving him part of the 
army, two phalanxes of ibot-aoldierB, and of cavahry, 
his own regiment, and that of Demetrius, and half 
the archers, to the province of the rebellious Poms, 
bidding him hand this proiince to the other Poms, 
together with any other independent Indian tribes 
dwelUi^aloi^ the banks of the Hydraotes; these too 
he was to take over, and give them to Poms to 
govern. Then he himself crossed the Hydraotes, 



ov tcaOdwtp rov ^Atctaunjp ;^aXnrM9. npaym* 
povyri Biavrt^ rir* ittlva Tf)< 6\0ff^ rot) 'TSpcurrot/ 
Tov^ fikp iroXKov^ KaB* OfioKoyiav wpoax^p^hf 
(vp4SfUP€P, i^i^f hi Tivac (w oirXoi9 dvatmi- 
aamaK' rovs hk gal vwo^vyoura^ iXiuf fiif 

XXII. *Ev rovT^ a^ ifarfiWrrai *AXt(aphp^ 

KoXovfthniv^ Ka0€uov^ airrov^ rt wapacxtva^ta- 
04U m^ wpo^ I^Xt^t <A* wpocdyoi r$ X^P** ^^^^ 
* A\4(€Ufhpo^, Mai Sea 6/iOpd c^taiv mcavr»^ 
atrroyofio, ical ravra ifapamaXMlp is to ipjof 

t cZrai ii rijar Tff v6\iP ovypiip wp^ ^ iir€¥Oovp 
ieympiaac$ai' ^dyyaXa i^if r^ iroXtfi Spofia, xal 
aurol oi KaSaUn tirroK^oraroi t« icai rk woXitna 
tepdrtarot ivo^J^omo* mdi rovrots xarik tA avrii 
*0(vBpdgai dkXo *Mi»if iB¥i>s» Ka\ MaXXoi, dWo 
Koi Toirro* iwu mai 6\iyi/f irpoaBtv arpar^U' 
cavras fr* aCnous lli^pop rt tcai *A0tffdprjtf (vv 
Tff T§ a^rripa hifudfiti ical moXkk &k\a iB ifff 
tAp airro¥6p/tt¥ *\whit¥ d¥aar»}aa¥ras ovBiu 
wpd^apras r^ wapaaKtvijs Sfio¥ fuviffff dLirtX- 

t TavTO m i^VTt^^f *A\€^d»Bp^t airouS^ 
UkavptP fliK ivl rovs KaBaiovs, Kal h€in§paios 
l»k» dir'o rov irorapov rov *TBpamrov wpos voXtp 
ifM€P fi SyofAa lUfAjrpafia* ro 5* iBp'ts rovro r&v 
*Jv5«»y *ABpaiaral i*a\ovpro. Olrot fUP Btf 

4 wpoa^x^Pf^^'^ ofAokoTfia *AX«faySp^ Kal *AXi- 
^ophpo^ dpowavcai^ rp vartpaif rifp arpaiidv. 

ANABASIS OF ALEXA>a>ER, V. ai. ^23. 4 

not with the difficulties which the Acesines had 
cmused. Then as he oontinued oo tlie further bank 
of the Hjdiaotes most of the tribesmen came and 
surrendered voluntarily, some in fact who had actually 
come to meet him under arms. Others again he 
captured when attempting flight, and sobdaei them 
by force. 

XXII. Meanwhile it was reported to Alexander 
that some of the self-governing Indians, in par- 
ticular the people called Cathaeans, were getting 
themselves ready for battle, in ease Alexander 
slioald approach their country, and were urging to 
tlie same enterprise all other self-governing tribes 
00 tlieir borders. Their dtr, it wet said, was a 
very strong one, and there iney proposed to make 
tli^ stancL Its name was SangaJa*^ and the Catli- 

aeans themselves were eomidered very brave and 
very powerful in war ; in the seme mood with tliem 
were the Oxvdracae, another Indian tribe, and 
MalUans, another; not loi^ belbre, in fact, Poma 
and Abisares had marched against them with their 
foree and had also stirred op many other self- 
coveming Indian tribes against tliem; but they 
bad adiieved nothing commensurate with so great 
a host, and so had retreated. 

When tliis was reported to Aleiander he marched 
at full speed against tlie Catliaeans. In two dajrs 
after leaving tM river Hydraoles he came to a city 
named Pin^rama; this tribe of Indians is called 
tlie Adraistae. They surrendered by agreement to 
Alexander. The next day Alexander rested his 




KaPaioi re xal ol dXXoi wpotrx^poi airrot^ fi/yt- 
XijXvt^ort^ vpo rff^ v6X$^^ waparrrayfiipoi ^aw 
^i fflX^^ov ov wdtrrri aworofiov kvicX^ hk roO 

ft AXffatflpo^ Si TO r« vX^of jrariSwy tmv 
fimofidfimp KoXrov x^tpiov rif¥ ^i^m »^ luiXiara 
wpo^ rik waporra 4¥ Ka*p^ oi i^tU^rro irapt- 
tdaarro* mal rov^ ftip Iwworofora^ tifdv^ m 
tUx^ iKirifkWU €w* airrotk, dj€po0oki(€a0ai «#• 
Xtvaa^ waptmnvopra^, m^ fAijrt ^MBpofi^p rtva 
woirfoacdai rov^ *\ifhov^ vp\» (vmax^^P^i ain^ 
Tffp arpATtap ko^ m wkfiya^ jiyptaSai avroU 

6 Moi wpo rif^ f^xy^ ipTC^ rov ^xvptit^iaro^, Avro^ 
Si M nip rov Sffioy xipw^ rup imrimp ro 
ifpipa xarioTifat gal rtfp KXtirov linrapx<MP* 
iXOiUpov^ hi TovT^p rov^ intaatrtard^, xal M 
rovroi^ T0V9 'Aypiopa^' gark Si ro ^vrnpupop 
lit pSUxa^ aur^ irrraxro, r^p t« auroO <lx'*^ 
twwapxiap ga\ rtk^ rup wtfrraipmv ' rdfuv iirl 
gipms ii igaripov ol roforai aur^ ^'x4 Siogpi' 
$ipr^ irdx^^iUf, 

7 *Egrdcaopr$ Si avrp wapryipopro gai ol diro 
rif^ vvicBo^vXagia^ w€(ol t« gai IwirtU* Kal 
rointtp rov9 phf Iwwia^ M rd gipara Sttkmp 
wapijyaytP' airo Si riap wtt^ctp rmp ifpoay^wO' 
pApup irvgporipap rtjp (vygXti<riv rrj^ ^Xayyo^ 

' 9f^ before r«r oaittod br Valouiias. rAr kpm^tim i» m 
fMiUre of idMiitT : '*a triple lino, vis. iho wm 
• ii04rrmtpmm A. 



troops, and on the third marched towards Sangala, 
where the Cathaeans and their neighbours who had 
joined them were arrayed in front of the city on a 
hill not equally steep on all sides ; round about the 
hill they had arranged their waggons and were 
camping within them; thus the waggons formed a 
triple Hoe of defence. 

But Alexander, perceiving the Urge number of 
the tribesmen and the nature of the place, made bla 
counter dispodtioos as seemed best for the exigencies 
of the moment ; tlM m o mte d archers without delay 
he despatched against them, with otdert to keep 
riding along the (root and shoot at long range, so 
that the Indians should not make any sally before 
he had marshalled his foroca and that thc^ might 
already be wounded even within thefar stroi^fhold, 
before the battle began. He himself on the right 
wing posted the special squadron of cavalry and 
Cleitas* Horse, next to them, his bodyguard, and 
then the Agrianes ; Perdiocas was posted on his left 
with his own Horse and the brigndea of the Com- 
paniooa' Infantiy. On either wing he had stationed 
the archers, equally divided. 

Now while Alexander was thus arranging his 
troops there came op the infantry and cavalry of 
the rearguard. Of these, he divided up the cavalry 

' ! ' ; t them oiT to either wing; and by 
"\ xur infantry who thus joined him he ii 



T'Oi^a^, avro^ a¥aXa0mp rr)¥ Xirrov r^v lw\ 
rov S*fioi) rtrayfUrr)v itapnyay€p «irl ra^ Kark 
TO tviinvvfiow Twv *\vhi^v afid^a^, Tainjf yikp 
ginrpoaoSwTtpop airrA i^aiprro to ympLop koX ov 

XXTIL *n^ hi hrl T^v iwwoif irpoaayayoua'ap 
o^ ifihpafiop ol *\¥ho\ f(M tAv HfiafAp, d\X* 
hriBtfifiKVT^^ a\nt»¥ a^* inf^Xov rJKpofioXi(o¥ro, 
7l«^ *A\i(arSpa^ 6ri ovk tJfi tmv iinrimw to 
IpTor, KaTamfivf^a^ awh rov Xmrov irf(o9 ^^7* 
rm¥ w§(m¥ rt^p ^dXayya. Kal dwo fih tup 
wpmr^v afia(u¥ ov ;(^aXnrM« iffta^opro ol 
MlUrff^OMV T0V9 *Ijr5oi^* wpo li tmv h€VTifm¥ 

oi ^Xphoi waparm(dftt90i ^foy awtpdxovro, ola Brj 
wv€¥OT€pol T« 4^anfic6r€^ i¥ i\drro¥i ^ tm kvk\^ 
Moi ri§¥ \iamtho¥m¥ ov mar* 9vpvx»pi^ot meavrm^ 
wpoaay6¥rm¥ a^icip, i¥ ^ rd^ rt irpmra^ 
dfid(a^ \nrt(ffyo¥ xaX xark tk ZiaKtififaara 
AVTMir «Ik UdaTOi^ irpovvfiiptt drdMrtt^ wpoai' 
/SaXXoy* dWd moI dwo TOvrm¥ Ifims ifm^^tf^ap 
at *l¥Bci l3iaa0i¥T€^ wpo^ rifq ^dXayyoq, Oi ^ 
oviceri iirl rA¥ Tpirm¥ i/At¥0¥, a XX* m^ rdxov^ 
fl^oy ^vyj ciV T^f w6Xi¥ KarttcXticOrfcap. Kal 
*A\i^a¥hpo^ ravrTf¥ fU¥ Tfj¥ iip4pa¥ wtpigarpa- 
TOfwio€Vff9 ToU V€(oU rrj¥ ir6\i¥ oaa yt fjhv¥ii6rj 
•VT^ wgotffaXtw 17 4>^\ay(' M woXv ydp 
hrexo¥ to rtlxp^ r^ arparofwihip KVK\maaa6<u 
ov 6v¥ar6v ^ivrro' xark Bi rd 6iaX4irro¥ra 
avrov» i¥a koI Xifjunj ov fULKpa¥ rov Tti\ov^ rf¥, 
TOih! iwirw ('tr€ra(€¥ €¥ «i/irXA> t^ Xip^rj^, 
y¥ov^ OV fia0€la¥ ovca¥ T^y \ipani¥ icaX &pA 

' im 4AirT«ri to Grooow from K. 


the soliditj of his ph^Unx. Then himself Uking 
the csvalrj posted on the right, he led them against 
the waggo n s on the Indians' left. For the ground 
on this aide seemed easier, and the waggons were 
not packed so closelj. 

XXIII. Since, however, the Indians did not sally 
out from the line of waggons upon the cavalry as it 
rode up, but mounted on them Instead and shot 
voUejs of arrows from them, Alexander, reoogniiing 
that the action was not work for cavalry, leapt down 
from his horse and on foot led to the attack the 
phalanx of foot-soldiers. From the first line of 
wagsona the Macedonians easily forced the Indians ; 
botbefore the second line the Indians drew them- 
selves up in ocder and with lest diffienlty defended 
tbemselvea* alnoe thcj were in denser formatkm in 
a smaller ciiele, anci the Meoedoolana eookl not 
approach them, as befbte, through an open spaee, 
while they were removlqg the fint row of waggons 
and then charging in without order througn^the 
spaces between, iust as each man made hii way. 
^ct even from this second line the Indians were 
forced back by the phalanx. And now ther no 
kMiger attempted to make a stand at the third line 
of wagnmt, out with all speed retreated and shut 
tfaemsSree Into the dty. For this day, then, 
Alexander camped with his Infantrr round the dty, 
to far at least as the phalanx oould surround; for 
since the wall stretched a considerable distance be 
could not entirely surround it with his troops while 
eneaouped, but in the intervals, where there was a 
lake abo, not far from the wall, he posted his cavalry 
surrounding the lake, as he notk«d that the lake 



wporifM^ ^ffrrtf^ airoXct^oi;<ri rtj^ witTC^ rtfv 

7^/> S€vripa¥ ^uXox^ir ^oriirrorrc^ <« toO t€4;^ov9 
oi woXXol ainmv Mmvpaaw raU wpo^vXoMal^ 
rwv iwwSmp, xal oi fihf irpcrroi airrmw ttarttcowtf 
aop wpo^ rm» iwirimp' m Zk M rovroi^ aicBo' 
IAt9oi on ^vXdaorrtu iv «i/«X^ ^ ^AU^ i^ ffj^ 

6 *A\t(aphpos M ;^(t/)04ri t« SivX^ irfpi)9aXX«i 
Uawtp fiii flpTffy i( X4/Any r^y iroXiy ira) ^vXatca^ 
hf kvkXm t^ Xi^un^f tutpifi^cripa^ Mar4aTffC€¥. 
AvT09 W ikfixaiMt^ wpo^wytw t^ TCiVci ^frot«, 
«9 naraantuf rh ruxo^^ AvrofioXffatunn B^ 
airrm rmf i* rTj^ iroX#«k rivtt ^pdfovatw 5ti ^v 
1^ iX09» tLVTif^ ^*tu^ T^ vt;«Taf 4inriirr§i¥ ix 
r^ itoXmk m *\Mk Kork rhp Xi/Ai^y Xpawtp 

7 TO ^/rXiv^ ^ ToO vapcurof. 'O 5tf flToXf/iaiby 
w \dyov httrdrrtiiwravBa, rmp Tt vva^iriaTdy 
avr^ Boif^ ;^iXia/>vui9 t/>€49 Aral tov9 *A7p<awi9 
^i//iirarra9 iral /oav rd(tp rAv roforitv, dwo" 
M^f TO X»fP^^ ^'f /iaXi^Ta €iVa{;f 0^da9a0^u 
TO^ ffappdpovr Zv Bi iwtiBav alaSff, S^rf, 
ffia^o^ivov^ ravrjj, aino^ fUv fvp tJ arparta 
ttpy€i¥ T0V9 fiapffdpov^ rov wpoam, top oi 
caXtnyscTffP xiXivt arifiaipttv vfuU £i» &php€^ 
ffytfiot f ^, iwuBnv afifUUfdp^ (up roU xa0* ainov^ 
igaaroi (vprtraypipoi Upai iirl rov Bopvfiov Xw 
hf ff <TciX'jri7f irapoMaXp. * Awo<rraTtjott Bi oifBk 
iyt0 rou tpr/ov, 

XXIV. 'O fuv ravra 7raf>ijyyei\€* UroXtfiaio^ 
Bi dfid^a^ Te €« t«f airoXc\€«/i/i€Va»i/ iv r^ 


was thaUow and abo eonjectured that the Indians, 
terrified firom the previous defeat, would desert the 
city at night. It fell out exactly as he conjectured ; 
about the teoond watch, sore enough, the greater 
part of them slipped oat from the wall and fell in 
with the caTahy outposts; the first-comers were 
cut down by the cavalry; the next, percei\ing that 
the lake was guarded all round, retired again into 
the city. 

Alexander, however, threw a double stodcade all 
round, where the lake did not guard the dty, and 
Dostcd his o wtp o sU round about the lake mqr« cut- 
niQy. Tbenhehintelfpropoaedlobrii^opeiiffiiies 
aninst the wall, to biUter iU But some of the 
l^bitants of the city deserted to him ; and these 
toU hhn that the Indians proposed to slip out of the 
dty that night, by the lake/jnst where there was 
the gap in the stockade. Tnen he posted there 
Ptolanaens son of Lam* giving him three regl- 
^ ' - ' ^guards, alTtT 

of the bodygnardi, all the Agrianes, and one 
brigade of archen, and pointing out the place where 
he most conjectured thist the tribesmen would try 
to force their way ; *' so soon," he said, '* as you 
percdve them to be trring to force a way through 
here, you yourself will, with your army, prevent 
their going farther ; and will at once bid the bugler 
to sound an alarm ; and you, officers, on this signal, 
wiQ each with his appointed forces make for the 
dis tur bance wherever the bugle eaOt too. Nor 
shall I myself be a U«ard in this actkm.'^ 

XXIV. Such were Akxander's otders ; and Ptole- 
maeus, gathering together as many as possible of 



wpmrrjif ^vyj afiafu¥ ravrri fupayayi^9 m 

yi;«Tl T^ &ifopa ^aimjrai roU ^uyovat, xal rov 
\dp€uto^ ToO K€KOfAfA4t^ov TC MOi ov /caTavt)')^$ttno^ 
avpvf)cai &X\tj xai aWfj tictXtwrtu iv lUctf r^ 
Tff XLfitni^ icoi rov rtlxov^, Kai raina avr^ 

t 01 crpartArtu ip rj pvmtI iftipyaaapro, "Hoti 
rt yjp tifA^l TtrdpmiP ^vXeuerip xal ol ffdpffapot, 
MaSdirtp €f r^TTvXro *A\M(dp6p^, dpoi^avrt^ rk^ 
ftK iirl rrjp Xifiptip irvixi^ ^/x>A^ ^* a^^v 
iSipopTO. Ov fAtjp tkadop ra% raCrjf ^vXa^a^ 
oM UroXt^top TOP hr aintu^ rrrayptpop* 
iXXA ip rovT^ oi re caXwiyMrdi iarifuupop avrf 
Kol avri^ rifp crpanop mwXtaiupnp rt igal 
(vt'TrrafffUpt/p c^ttv ix'^P*^ ^^ ^^^ 0<ip0dpov^, 

S ToU hi dXr9 iifia^€U ifAWohmp ^aap gal o xdpa^ 
ip iU*i^ garafi4p\fifUpo^. 'fU ^ J( rt cd\w$y( 
i^iyfaro koI oi dfn^l llroXt/Aaiop wpoaMtvio 
airroU, roiff acl iitwi-rropra^ hik rmp dfUiPAp 
MaroMtupopTt^, ipravOa hrj dwoarpt^oprai avBi^ 
i^ iffp woXip, Kai diri$apop aviitv iv t^ dvo- 
^Mp'/^fi i^ vgpraMociov^. 

4 *£y rovT^ Bi xdi Hotpot u^iVrro, rov^ t< 
uiroXoiVoi;^ iXi^ckpra^ &fia ol aymp koX tSw 
*\phup <V irorra>iia\tXio%f^* a7 Tt fArj^afal 'AXff- 
dphp^ (ufMirnrrjytUvai ^aap xai irpoarj^ovro tjSff 
T^ TCij^fi. *AXXa Oi Ma/rc5ov<9, vpip tcai Kara- 
atiadSjpoi n rov rtl\ov^, inropinroprt^ rt atnol 
wXip6tPop 6p to reixos teat rd^ xXipaica^ hf 
MvttXip wdpTtf vpoadiprt^ aipovtri leard Mpdros 

5 rtfP woXtp, Kal d7ro$prja/covffi fitp ip rp Kara- 
Xff^u rctp ^IpButp i^ fivpiov^ icaX hrrtucurXiXiov^, 



the waggoot left behind in the first flight, set them 
cro«wlM, that the fogitiTes at night might find a 
good many obstacles; moreover, he ordered any 
part of the stockade which had been cut but not jet 
fixed down to be joined up at different points between 
the lake and the walL This his men completed bj 
night. It was nam about the fourth watch, and the 
tribemen, as Alexander had been informed, opened 
the gates leading to the lake and ran towards it. 
Yet they did not escape the guards on this side, nor 
jet Ptolemaeat, who was potted In charge of them ; 
but at once his bnglert soonded the alarm, and he 
with his forces fullj armed and in good order moved 
against the tribenieii. These foand their way 
barred bj the waggons, and the ttodude thrown in 
the interveniiig space. And when the bugle aounded 
and Ptolemaeas and his troops prcMed hard upon 
them, cutting them down as fast as thej tried to slip 
oat between the waggoot, thej tamed and lied back 
to the dtj. Some five bandred periibed in dds 

Meanwhile Poms arrived, bringing with him the 
rest of the elephants and some five thooiand Indians, 
and Alexander alreadj had hit alege engines put 
together, and thej were now being braoght ap to 
the walL But the Macedonians, before anj part 
of the wall was battered, began to undermine it, 
for it was of brick, and then setting ap their ladders 
all round, captured ^ dty by aasaah. And in 
the capture of the dty there perished some seven- 
teen thousand of the Indians, and over seventy 


idXmatuf hi irwtp ras rirra fivpidSa^ ical SLp^iara 

*A\t(d¥hp^ aTpana^ dwiOawop fiiv aXiyov airo- 
ficorrfv tAp i/carop hf t$ wdati wvikiopKia' rpa%h 
IULtUu hk ov Kara to wXifdo^ tmv v€icpSt9 iyiporTo^ 
aX\* vwkp Tov^ xiXiou^ koI SuiMOciov^, ical ip 
Toirro49 TMy ffftfioprnp ^XXoi re icaX Aval^x^ ^ 

Evfihni rhp ypafifiaria imrifi^wu h t^9 hvo 
wtiktiK tA9 (vpo^tarti^ca^ roiv 'iayydXot^, Botf^ 
avr^ tAp iwwimp i^ rpiOMO^iov^, ^paaopra^ toiv 
l^oi/^i T^9 iroXti^ ritp rt SayydXttP rtjp dXataip 
Mml &ri atnoU oMp iartu xaXtirhp <if *AXc^ 
dpfyov InrofAivovffi r« ttal UxofUpoi^ ^iXim^ 
*A\ifatf6pop' oitBi ykp ovhk i^Kkoi^ TicX ytpicOat 
rmp avTOPOfimp *la^y 6a oi iMotnt^ a^d^ M- 
hocap, Oi Si (^i| yap ^(^/ytXro avroU tcard 
Kpdro^ iaXmxofra wpOK AXtfdpipov rit l^ffyaXa) 
^o/3tpol yfpoftifpot f^vyop diroXiwoprt^ rd^ 
iro\«i9. Kai *AXi|ai^/po9, ^ttBtf ifnyy^XBfi 
avr^ 17 ^vyii, 9vov6^ icU»M€P' dXXd oi iroXXoi 
fA4P avrAp i^a^op dwo^vyotrrts, Bid fiaicpov 
ydp ff JM»f49 iyiyprro* ocoi Bi gard rtfp dno- 
X^pf^oip haBwpti^ uwtXtiiropTOt ovroi iyKaraXtf^- 
6ivT9^ vpd^ rrj^ arparut^ dwiOapop i^ irtpra' 
Koaiov^ fidXiffra. Cl^ Bi ditiyvm htdnc€tp rov 
wpdat» T0V9 ^€vyopTa^, iweumXBmp is rd LdyyaXa, 
tV ^oXiP flip KOTtaica'^M, rrju xdapav hi rdfp 
*MAp roU 90X04 fiip avTOPOfioiS, Tort ht 



thouf nd were captured* with three hundred waff- 
cons, and five hundred horsemen. Of Alexanders 
force were lost rather under a hundred in the entire 
tiege ; the wounded were out d proportion to the 
slain, over twelve hundred ; amoiM[ them several of 
the officers and Lysimachus the oncer of the body- 

Alexander, when he had buried the dead, after 
hit costom, sent Runtenes ^ the clerk to the two 
dtiet which had rebelled at the same time as San- 
gala, gMng him three hundred cavalry, to announce 
to the dc fa ider s of the cities the capture of Sangala, 
and to procUim that Alexander would not treat wm 
harshly if they stayed where they were and reeehred 
Alexander in a friendly way, just as he had shown 
no harshneas to any other of Uie tdf-governinff Indiana 
who had voluntarily surrendered. But they (for 
they had already heard that Alexander had caplsred 
Sangab by assattlt) were terrified, left their eitiflt, 
and took to flight Alexander pursued them hotly, 
as soon as their flight was reported to him, but most 
of them had got safe away, for the purralt began 
after some interval had passed. Any that had been 
left behind through infinnlty daring the withdrawal 
were captured there and pot to death by the army, 
up to tne mmiber of m!t hundred. But deciding 
not to pumie the fugitives further, Alexander re- 
turned to .Sangala, raMd the city to the groimd, and 
£ve over the territory to those Indians who had 
merly been self-governing but recently had sor- 

* EaaaoM of Oaidia was olsrk or ■sonlarv to Alosaadsr, 
MhokadbMotoPhiUp. Platarak awl Mspos wioia Us lifs. 
Hs was not popokr with tha MsssdoaisB Isadars, and was 

Mn bj AaUgomi, after a ■trikinf ommt both — soldisr 



€KOV(rU»^irpo<rxtiapiiaacr$npoaiOfjKe, KaX UApop 
fA€¥ (iw tJ dvpdfut rj a/4^' airrov imrifiirft iitl Td9 
woXti^ at vpoaK€')(tdpriK9aaWt ^povpk^ tiadPovra 
fic tiirdv avrtK W fw tJ crpart^ M row 
"T^otp worafAOP ir/>ovYo»p€i, a>9 iced tow? ^w* 
ixtipa *\vhov^ icaraaTpty^ano. Ovhk i^tuprro 
avr^ wipa^ ri rov woXifWV ictt virtXtiwrro n 

XXV. T^ Bk Bff wipatf rov 'T^d^io^ worafiov 
Maiiiopd Tf rtip X^Po^ •Ip€u t(irfyi\\€70 xal 
i9$pmwov^ dya0ov^ fiip yij^ ipydra^, ytpvaioxf^ 
ti tk woXifua xal H r^ tiia B^ a^mp dp Koc^i^ 
voXiTfU"rra9* vrph^ yap rAp ipicrmp ApxteSoi 
Tovv iroXXoik. rov^ hk ovhkp /f« tow iwtttieov^ 
ii^ri^laBat, VWrfio^ t« fKt^t tup mI¥€u roh 
lavrjf d^pmiro%K iroXw ti inrkp rov^ SXKov^ 
*\phov^ Ka\ /iry<^^fi fityicrov^ koX Aphptla, 

t Taura Stf ^(ayytXXofttpa *A\JfapBpop ithf wapw 
^yp9P i% dviBvfuop rav irpccm iivar oi Mcurc- 
com ^ i^itafutop rfini ral^ ypw^ia*^, iropov^ tc 
ig w6pp»p ical MtpBvpov^ ig mipBvp^p ivapaipov- 
lUPOP opctfrrcv toi» ffaaiXia • f WXX0704 tc iytyvomo 
Karik TO arparowtBop ri»p fUp ra a^trtpa 
ihvpOfUvmp, S^oi i-witticiararoi, rmp tk ovtc 
ikKo\ovOi^a€tP, ovB* ijp dyjj \\\((egpBpo^, hriO' 
X^pt^o^iprnp. Tatha d>^ dirvOrro *AXif€UfBpo^, 
irp\v Ka\ i'wX fuit^op irpotXBetp rtfp rapaxh^ foU 
erpartdtrat^ leai rifp ddvfuap» (vyxaXiira^ rov^ 
^jjtfAOpa^ ratp rd(€«ap A^^ev &St. 

S "'OpAp vfid^, & &php€^ MaireSoycv t« ical 
(vfifiaxot, ovx oiioLa €ri rj yvwfij) iirofupov^ 
fwi ^9 Tow^ KipBvpov^, (vPTjrt^y^^ <^ raino, •? 


rendered Toluntarilj. Portis with his force he sent 
back to the dties which had surrendered, to set 
gmrrisons in them; and he with his army advanced 
to the Hyphasis, to subdue the Indians of that district 
ako. For he felt there ooold be no end of the war 
as long as an j hostility remained. 

XXV. On the other side of the Hyphasis, so it 
waa reported to Alexander, the country was fertile, 
the men good labourers of the sofl and valiant 
warriors, who managed their own aflaira in an 
orderly manner; most of them were under aristo- 
cracies, yet these made no demands other than 
reasonable. These people also had a number of 
elep han t s , a good many more than the other Indians, 
and these were, moreover, very Urge and oourageoot. 
This report only stirred Alexander to a desire for 
still further advance; but the Maeedonians' spirita 
were alread|y fli^glqg, teeii^ the Kbug wndertalrtiy 
toib after toJQs and daqgeri after dangefs; meetings 
took place in the camp of men who grumbled at 
their present fate — those of the better kind—and 
of others who maintained stoutly that they woukl 
follow no farther, not even though Alexander should 
lead them. When Alexander heard of thb, before 
this disturbance in the troops and their despair grew 
worse, he summoned the brigadiers and addressed 
them thus: 

"I observe that you, Maeedonians and allied 
forces, are not following me into dangers any longer 
with your old spirit. I have summoned you together, 



4 wtiffo^ iyttp rov wpoa^m ^ wuaBtU iwlam 
awocT pitted tu. Ei laiv 5^ fi^inrroL tlcip vfup 
ol fUxpi Btvpo wofnjShrn^ w^hm koX aurh^ iyoa 
fffov^po^, Qvhiv eri irpovpyov \«y€t¥ ^oi ianv. 
A \iihi *l«via Tc wpo^ v/mmt hik rovaht rov^ iroyouv 
txrrai itai ' EXXi^tf irovrcK naX ^pvyt^ Jkfu^cmpoi 
Mtu Kawwd^Mt^ gal Wa^Xayo^t^ moI AvBol €ai 
Kap€^ Kol Avcioi Ktd 11 a/A^uX/a Tf coi ^oufLni 
Kal Atyvwra^ (y¥ rji Atffuff rj *EKKffPUt§ ««l 
*Apa0ia^ €ffrtp A «a* ]£i;/>ia ^ r^ icoiXtf ical tf 

5 ftiati TMP wouatimv, xai WafivKmw tk ^Yrrai Mai 
ri iovcimp i$¥0^ xaX llip^tu icaX M^Soft «al 
icmp llipatu maX Mrfioi twSjpxof^, moI Samp Bk 
ovm ^PX^^» ^^ inrkp rikf Kaomof iri/Xav, rk 
iit iKtiwa, Tov Kavxdaov, S r^ hv h tA wpoam hn 
rov Tavai^o^, UoMrpULPOi, 'T/mtoi^km, ^ ^f^^^t^^^a 
n *Tp m mUm^ ^v6a^ rt d¥^arti\an€P iaT§ M rhp 
ipflfiop, htl TOirroif fUprot xai o *IyS^ woraf^ 
iik rif; tfuttripat ^i, o 'Tldawif^ SiA r^ 
tfprripa^t o 'Axtaipff^, 6 'TBpamrff^, rl 6xP€ir€ 
Koi TOP '^^ffip ica\ rk iw* iitupa rov 'T^daio^ 
^4yi| wpocOtlpoi ri vfArrip^ Mam Mp rn p ^^PxS f 

6 4 MtTt fiif ^(mprai vfta^ fri iKXoi 0dp 0a poi 
imopra^ ; &p y^ oi pkp wpocvrnpovatP iicovrt^, oi 
hi ^€vyoprt^ aXiaxoprai, m M kwo^vyoprt^ rtjp 
Xii^pop fipXp lfpr)fAOp irapahihoaatp, ^ hk roU (t//i- 
fidxoi^ T« Kol TOK hcovait^ wpocx^piitraffi 

XXVI. " nipa^ hi rAp rropmv ytwaitp ^uv 
kphpa ovhip SokA fyoryc on fit) avrov^ rov^ 
iropov^, 6a Oi airrAp ^ xaXk epya ^^povaiP. £i 
hi Ti9 KoX avr^ r^ rroXtfUip rro$€i attovatu 6 


either to perraade 700 and go forward, or to be 
persuaded bj joa and tarn bade If indeed there 
is any fault to find with the Uboun you have hitherto 
endured, and with roe who have led you through 
them, there is no object in my speaking further. 
If, however, by these your Uboun looim it now in 
our hands, the HeUeipoiitv both Phrygias, Cappa- 
docia, Paphlagooia, LydU, Caria, LycU, Pamphylia, 
Phoenicia, E^t, with the Greek part of Libya, 
part of Arabia, Lowland Syria, Mesopotamia, Baby- 
kmU, SusU, PenU, MedU, with all the natkmt 
subject to Persia and Media, and thoae that were 
not ; if the regioo i beyond the Caspian gates, the 
parts bcyood the Caucasus, and on the other side 
of the Tanals, Bactria, Hyrcania, the Hyrcanian 
Sea; if we have driven the Scythians into the 
desert; if, bcsklcs all this, the river IndiM nms 
tlirough territory now our own, the Hydaspes Ulce- 
wise, the Aceslnes, and the Hydraoles, why do yoo 
hesiute to add to this your Macedonian empire 
the tribes beyond the Hyphasis? Do you fear lett 
tribesmen yet remaining may withstand your 
approach ? Why, some of them surrender readily, 
some nm away, and are captured, some desert thdr 
co untry and ieave it open for ycm, which we have 
handed over to our allies and thoee who have 
voluntarily come over to us. 

XXVI. *' I set no limit of Uboun to a man of 
spirit, save only the labours Uiem<telves, such as 
lead 00 to noble emprises. Yet should any desire 
to know wlut will be the limit of this our actual 



TITTUP earoi w4paK, fioBirtt ort ov woW^ fri 
^fup ij Xoiiri; iartp tar€ eirl rof worafAOP rt 
FaTTiyv teal rfjw ii^v OdXaoaop' ravrjf 3^ 
X^yw u/uy (vpa^i)^ ^avtlrai 17 'Tpxapla BaXaaoa' 
iicir€fnipX9Tai yikp yijp trtpH waaop ^ ft^ydkff 

t Bakaaaa. KaX iym iwihti^m Ma««^ai tm koX 
Toiv (v^fiaxot^ row fikv *lrSf/roy «oXirov fuppiwp 
6ina T^ IIffpai«^, T^i' 5^ 'T/Mavuiv r^ *Iy8iir^, 
axo S^ roi) Utpcucov C49 Aiffuffp wtpiwXtvcB/f' 
arrai oroX^ iffirrip^ tA /W;^ 'Hpa«X<oi;v 
2n;Xi»ir awo 5^ SnfXitfir 1) irrh^ Aiffvff waca 
iliuiipa yiyprrai, g«d 1} *Aaia S^ oi^rM wa<ra, 
gal 6po€ rtfs ravTff apx^if oC^mp leal rtj^ 7^ 

S 8p&vs o $€0^ iiroifjct. Sw Bi htf d'worp€irofUv^p 
woXXi flip fAaxtfM vwoXtiwrrat yipfi iw' iicwa 
Tov 'T^aaioi iart M r^p if»ay Oakaacrop, 
woXXA S^ dwh Tourmp Iri M r^p 'Tpxaplap t»^ 
/v* fioppdp &^fiOP, teal tA ^MtfBiicd yipfj ov 
wopptt rovrmp, tiart Btos fiff dwtXfforrtfp irwlam 
Koi rk p{fp Kar^xo^ia ov ffifftua Spra iirapBfj 

4 wp^ dwoaraaiP wpo^ ritp fi^m ixofUpup, Kal 

roTC S^ dpoPffTOi if/up icoprai ol woXKol iropot ^ 

SXXmp a^K ^f dpxv^ Stiicii iropmp rt icai kiv^v- 

M»y. *AXXik wapafAMtvaTi, avhp€^ hioKthovt^ 

Kol (vfifiax^^ llopovyrttp roi icai Kiphvvtvop' 

rtop ra icaXa ipya' xai (tjp t« (vp dptr^ ijhv ical 

dwoBptjaictiP leXio^ dOduarop vTroXtitrouipov^, 


warfare, I mav tell him that there remains no great 
stretch of land before us up to the river Ganges and 
the eastern sea. This sea, I assure you, you will 
find that the Ilyrcanian Sea joins ; for the great sea 
of ocean circles round the entire earth. Yet* and I 
shall moreoYer make clear to Macedonians and allies 
alike that the Indian gulf forms but one stretch of 
water with the Persian gulf, and the Hyrcanian Sea 
with the Indian gulf. And from the Persian gulf 
our fleet shall sail round to Libya,^ right up to the 
Pillars of Heracles; and from the Pillars all Libya 
that lies witliin* is becoming ours; and all Asia 
likewise, and the boandarict of the empire In Asia, 
those boundaries which God set for the whole earth. 
But if yoa flinch now, there will be many warlike 
races left behind on the far side of the Myphads 
up to the Eastern Sea, and many too streichinc 
from these to the Hyrcanian Sea towards the north 
wind, and not tkr from these, again, the Scythian 
tribes, so that there b reason to fear that if we turn 
back now, such territory as we now hold, being yet 
unconsolidated, mav be stirred to revolt by soch as 
we do not Tet hokL Then in very truth there will 
be no proOt 60m our many laboon; or we shall 
need ooee more, from the very beginning, more 
dangen and more labours. But, do you abide eoo- 
sUnt, Macedonians and aUlet. It Is those who 
endure toil and who dare dangen that achieve 
gfcirioos deeds; and it is a k>velT thing to live with 
courage, and to die, leaving boiind an everUsting 

> AfrieabisfMdad •• part of Aria. On thsM mm, sad ths 
ksid by sarlyMM^^jplMfs, ssa Gbry sod WarmiafUm, 

* U. aU Ciovii Alrlos, lying between Gibraltar sad Ifypi. 



5*H ovK tffr€ ort 6 wp&yopit^ o if^tpo^ outc iv 
TlpwOi ovh* iv *Ap7«i, ttXX' ovh^ iv HtXoirovvriaip 
4 Bi;3flu« fUvuv /v roaovht icXio^ fi\B€¥ ^ Bmo^ 
i( ApBpmwov ytviaStu ^ hoK€lv ; ov /a€v odv St; 
oM ^ovvffov, uKporipov ^ rovrov Btov ^ icaB* 
*H^MurX4a. 6\!yoi ttovoi. *AXAA ^fi€i9 y€ tcaX /ir* 
ixMlva Ti}v Ni/ai|9 a^yfitBa koX i) "Aopa^of wirpa 
^ T^ 'llpa4rX«A (tvaXoiTov ir/>o9 17/i^y l;^rrai. 

6 'Tfi«if 5tf «aA ra ^1 {nroXotira rik 'Aaui« 

voXXoK* *£ircl «al 17/uv avroU ri Hv fUya Kal 
Mmkim KartwhrpoKTo, «a 4p MaxtSopla icaBfj^yoi 

Hpama^ rov^ ofiopov^ ^ *lXXt//Mov9 ^ T/M/SaXXovv 
4 KoX rifp 'EXktjpmp Sffo$ ovic iwtrii^ioi i^ r^ 
rifUrtpa apaariXXotn^ ; 

7 " tu* fiiy 51^ vfia^ iropovpra^ /ral /rirSi/yfvorrav 

oCk AwnMorm^ it» wpoticafiprrt raU yvti/iai^, r£>» 
lihf wormp ftopoi^ u/uir firrop, ra Bi iBXa ainmp 

^(XXM9 WtplWOiOVPT*^' PVP Bi KOtPol flip TfpAP ol 

wopoit tcop hk fUrtart riap icivhvvwPt rk hi iBXa 

8 ip fUa^ K€iT«u (vfiwofftp' ^ Tc ykp X'^pa vfieripa 
Mol vfAiU airrrj^ aarpawivrrf icaX rtap XprjpArt^p 
TO /A^o^ PVP r€ i^ vfia^ to iroXv ipx^rai koX 
htmU» ht€^iKBup€P rtjp ^Kaiav, rorg ovx 
ifAwXi^a^ fii Ai* u/Aa9» aXXA teal tnrtp/3a\wp 
Baa fxaaro^ tkirii^Mi ayada eataBtu tov^ flip 
amivai OiKoBi iBiXopra^ eiV rvjp oUtlap diro- 

* kfif T4p»m, Root ; Imt Burmdm wm not 4M>. Tb« Ida* 
■aeoM to be that D. wm a '* fall-blown" deltv. H. only a 


ANAn.x.-iS OF ALEXANDER, V. 26. 5^ 

renown. Or do you not knoiw that our forefither ^ 
would never have risen to rach heights of gkny hj 
-^rmaining in HiTnt or in Argos, nsiy, not even in 
I he Peloponnese or Thebes, as to become, and to 
be held to be, a god, who was aforetime a man? 
Naj, even Dionysus, a god of higher rank than 
Heracles, braTed labours not a few; but we have 
actually jpaased beyond Nyta, and the rock Aomos, 
>%)ii( h Heracles could not take, we have taken. 
Add now to the posstisioni you have alreadr won 
what yet remains of Ada; to the manir, add tiie 
few. For indeed what great or noble ttdng could 
we ourselves have achieved, had we tat ttfll in 
Macedonia and thought it as enough to guard our 
own home without labour, merely redueinff the 
Thracians on our borders, or Illyrians, or TribaTlians, 
or even such Greeks as are hostile to our interests. 
*' If then while you were bearing labours and 
braving dangers I had led you, myaeff, your leader, 
without labours and without dangers, you would not 
unnaturally have become weary in your hearts; 
when you alone had all the labours, and were pro- 
curing the prises thereof for othm; but it is not 
so; our labours are shared in mmmnn ; we bear 
an enua) |iart in dangers; the prises are open to 
all. For the land is yours; it » you who are its 
viceroys ; the greater part of the treasure comes to 
you, and when we master all Asia, then— by Heaven ! 
— I will not merely satisfy you, but will surpass the 
utaiott hope of good things for each of you, I will 
* home all who desire to go home or will myself 

Vol. II. 

wifiyjrtf Tj iwaudfm avros' rov^ S« avrov fU* 

JLJLYII, TavTa «al rd rotaina tiwomo^ 
'AXcfat^pov woXvp ftiv Xpopop aiwir^ ^v oCrt 
amXcyciy roXfimtrrmp voof rw ffaaiXta i€ rov 
9v6io^ oCt€ (vyvttptuf ifftXommp, *Ev hi roirr^ 
iroXXoiTi^ fA4w AXifai^hpo^ i'ei\tv€ Ary«iy rov 
0ov\6fi€vov, «« 5i; Ti^ rd ^pamia roU vw avrov 
Xtx'^Mi ytyptiaMMi* ffitPt hi koX t>^ M iroXxf 1} 
^lanrij* 0^4 hi won $apc^oa<: K-"- «^ noXf^io- 
gpdrov^ IXcff TO<a&. 

"*EirfiS^ ai^Tik* • ffaaiXiv, ov xard irpoa- 
rayfia ^OiXn^ Ma^rcSortfy ifffyila^at, aXXd 
rttica^ ^4P d(u¥ ^17^, waadils hk ov ^idataOai, 
ovx vrrip iipMP rmpO€ woi^Ofuu iym rov^ Xoyov^, 
ot «<u wporifAmfi4Pot rmp iXXmp ical rd i0Xa rmp 
wopmp 01 V0XX04 yhfj KtKOfuafiivoi icaX r^ xpan- 
^rtmtp wapd rov^ aXXot;^ rrpoBv^toi aoi <9 
wdrra icfAip, dW inrkp t^ arpand^ 7% 
voXX^. Ovtk vwip ravrtj^ rd Koff fjlhonf^w 
iictipoi^ ipUt <tXX* h POfu(tt (vfA^opd ri coi 4^ 
rd wapdura iral i^ rd fUXXoma fidXiara da^Xtj 
tlptu. AuroiOf hi tifu xad* rfXiKiav re fifj 
diwOMpvirreaStu rd hotcovvra ffiXnara Koi xard 
rj^ itc aov fioi ovaa» i^ roif^ aXXov^ d^itoaiv teal 
xard rrjv ip roiK wopot^ re teal Mtvhvpoi^ is rohe 
dwpo^dagffrop roXfiap, "Oatp yap rot irXglara 
ical fiiytard aoi re tjyovfupip Karairiirpa/crai teal 
roU dpa <To\ oitcoBep opfitjtfeiai, roaj^he fidXXop 
Ti (vfA4pop6p fLoi hoteel wepas ri imdelvai roU 


lead them back ; thoae who stay, I shall make to be 
enncd by those who go back." 

XXVII. To this effect* and in this manner, spoke 
Alexander ; and for a kmg time there was silence ; 
no one dared to oppose the King on the spur of the 
moment, nor was yet willing to agree. But in this 
interval Alexander often invited any to speak who 
wished to speak, if he reaDy held opposite views to 
those he had expressed ; yet even ao tilenoe reigned 
kmg, and only after tome time Coenut, Polemo- 
crates* son, plneked op hit eoorage aod apoke thus : 

** Seeing that yoii« sir, do not youneli desire to 
command the Macedonians tyrannically, but ex- 
pressly state that you will lead them on only by 
gaining their aporoval, and failing this yoo will not 
oompeT them, 1 shall not speaE these words oo 
behalf of us here present, who, befaig held In honoiir 
beyond the rest, have, most of us* already recdved 
the prises of our labours, and In virtiie of our authoritr, 
becanse we have power, are in all things heartily 
ready beyond others to forward your interests; 
rather I shall speak for most of the army. And 
even on their behalf I &hall not say merely what is 
pleasing to them, but what I con sider useful to youi^ 
self for the moment and safest for the future. In 
virtue of my age it b proper that I sliould not con- 
ceal such views as appear best, and also in virtue 
of my repute among my eomradcSf wnidi conies 
from you, and of my undisputed courage in aU 
labours and dangers hitherto. For just b eca u s e 
very manv and very great achievements have been 
wrought by yourself our leader, and by those who 
set out from home with you, just for that reason I 
judge it the more expeaient to set some limit to 



ir6poi^ T€ ical /CipBvvoi^, Avro9 yap t<m opa^ 
SffOi fUv MoMt^tmw Tc icaX 'EXKijpwv &fia aol 

5 mpfitfSfifUP, ta<n hk inro\€\eifAfA€0a* &¥ H€Tra- 
Xov^ fiiv awo BacT/M>y tvOik, ov wpoOvfiov^ fri 
^9 Tovf iropov^ aia66fi€vo^, otxahf» tcaXA^ iroi&», 
aircVc/i^av* rcvy h^ aXK^p 'EXKfjvtatf ol piv raU 
voXtat raU vpo^ aov OiMiaOtia'at^ icar^tciafUvoi 
ovh* ovToi irdyrrj itcotnt^ pivovaiv* oi d<, (vfiira- 
povmi^ T« fri xal (vytuphvptvomt^ atrroi t« teal 
^ Maxt6o¥tK^ arpartd^ rotf^ fiiv iw rai? tiaxai^ 
aifoXoaXiieaaiv, oi hi ^tc rifp rpavfidr»v airofUixoi 
frytprffUPOi d\\o€ a\\^ rrj^ *Acia^ tnroXtXtif/^ 

6 fUiMH ciVtV 01 wXiiov^ hi poa^ awoXtiXa^ip, 
oXiyoi St ix woXXmp inroXtiiroprai, teal ovt€ tok 
aoffioaip fri maavrmK tpptt^iipoi, rais Tt yptifiai^ 
iroXu fri paXXop irpote€x^f)tcoT€^. Kal rovroi^ 
(vfiwaci woOo^ flip yopttitp iarip, Saoi^ in 
otlt^oprai^ woOo^ Si yvpaiteAp ical walBwp, v6$o^ 
Bi hf) rij^ 7v^ airrfj^ t% oUtla^, fjp (vp t^ ix 
cov iropt<T0ipr$ c^i^i xoapip, fuyaXoi tc airrl 
fuxpmp xal wXovffiOi ix wtptfr^p dpaarpi^ovrt^, 

7 (vyyptiHrroi €iaip iwihttp voSovprt^. iv ht pvp 
111) dyttp QKopra^' ovhi yap ofiaiot^ hi XP'i^V ^^ 
rots Kiyhvpov^, ol^ to tKOvaiop ip to<9 dyataip 
dtriarai* iwaptXBiiP hi atrroi rt, ti Bo/cel, 4^ 
Tffp oiMtiop teal rrjp fitfripa rtfp aavrov IBwp teal 
ri tAi> 'EXXi^ptfP tearaarrf<rdfjL€PO^ teal rd^ pttca^ 
ravra^ t^c ttoXX^? teal fi^ydXa^ ^V top irarpipop 
oltcop KOfiiaa^t oOrm htf if ap^rj^ dXXov otoXop 
ariXXeadai, tl flip 0ov\€t, iir* avrd rain a rd 
wpo^ rrjp /m tpKUTfifpa *\ph&p yeprj* tl hi ffovXei, 
h TOP Evf€tPOP wopTOP' €i hi, eirl Kapxv^opa tcaX 


these Ubotm and these danffen. For joa yourself 
see what a large body of Macedonians and Greeks 
we are who set forth with joa, and how many we 
are who are now left ; the Thessalians yon sent home 
straight from Bactiia, peredTing that they had little 
heart for labours ; and yoa did welL But of the rest 
of the Greeks, tome have been settled in the cities 
which yoa have fbonded ; and they do not all remain 
there wilUnghr; others, sharing with yoo laboort 
and dangers, both they and the Macedonian forces, 
have kist part of their nomber in battle ; and part 
have beeome invalided firom wounds, and have been 
left behind, some here, some there, in Asia ; but most 
of them have died of iickncw, and of all that host 
only a few are left, and ciren they no k>ngcr with 
their okl bodily strength, and with their sp&it even 
more wearied. These, one and all, have longing 
for patents, if they yet snrvivey kmging §k fHvet 
and children, longing even Cor their homeland, 
which they may pardMiably long to revbit, with the 

treasure received from you, returning as great men, 

■ rich men instead of poor, 
(lo not be a leader of unwilling troops. You will not 

instead of little, and rich men instead of poor. But 

find them like-minded towards dangers, when in 
their eflbrts no spirit of wOlingDess will remain; 
rather do yon y o ufs clf, if so it lecmt good, return 
to jTour own mime, and revisit your own mother, 
and ordain the aflairsof the Greeks, and bring back 
the guerdon of these many neat victories to your 
ancestral house, and then, if so vou desire, fit out 
another expedition, to attack these same Indian 
tribes that dwell towards the east ; or if you prefer, 
to the Euzine sea; or else to Carcheckm and the 



MoKthovtK teal dWoi "EXktftff^, via t€ ^bnl 
ytpotnmp teal cLr/i^fv cUrrl tetKfAVfKormv, teal oU 
ra rov iroXJ^ou Bui to airtiparop I9 rt ro 
wapavrUa ov i^offtp^ teal tearik rtjp rov fU\' 
Xorro9 ikiriBa iv airovhfi Ifarar oDir teal ravTff 
frt irpoSvfiortpoP ateoXovOiiattp eoi tUo^, opwraK 
roif^ wportpop ^vfAWOPii^aprd^ t« teal (vytetyBv^ 
P9vaapTa^ #9 ra a^rtpa ffiff iwaptXtiXv^ora^ , 
wXovoiov^ Tt arri irffi/Tftyy teal urri a^opitp ritp 
f wdX4u €vteXttU. KaXop li, m 0aat\tv» tlwtp ri 
maX dXXo, teal 1} ip r^ ttrrvxtut em^pocvpfi, ]£o2 
f^ ykp ain^ tfyovfUp^ teal aroankp roiavrtpt 
dyotn^ ite fikp iroXtfumw hioK oudtV rk 5^ iie rov 
tiumopiov oBotetrrd r§ leaH ravrn teal d^vXatera 

XXVIIL Toiaiha f iVorrof rov KoIpov 66pv0op 
yth^iaBai ite rmp wapofrmp iwl tok X07019* 
iroXXoif hi S^ teal twepva rrpo\y$ipra hi pkoXXop 
h^Xitcai ro r€ dteovatop rrjs yv*»>tiV^ i^ roxf^ 
wooQm tetphvpov^ iral ro teaS* rflopi^p c^iaip tJpat 
ri^ dpax^ipv^if. *AXi(aphpo^ Bi rort fUv 
it')($€<r6tiK rov Tf \\0iP0v rj wapptfaia teal r^ 
itep^ r&p &XXmp rfyt^iopttp SiiXvat rop ^vXXoyop* 
t h Si rtfp ifcrMpaiop (ttyieaXiaa^ av6i% ft/p opy^ 
rov^ avrov^ avro^ flip Upeu e^rj rov rrpoctif, 
fiida§a6ai hi ovhiva dteopra WaKthopwp (vpi- 
wtffOav ffttp yap rovs dKoXov6ri<rovra^ r^ 
paaeXtl fr^mp iieopra^* roU hi teal drriivat 
otteah€ (OiXovatp inrdpxft'^ dmivai teal ifay- 
yiXXtip TOif oUeloi^ on rop ffaaiXia a^Stp h 



parts of Libya beyond Carcbedoo. It is for joo to 
Uke tbe lead in' all this. Tbere will follow yoa 
other Macedonians, other Greeks, xoanc in place of 
old, fresh in place of wearied ; men to whom warfare 
will have no terrors for the moment, for want of 
experience of war, and will inspire their eagerness 
from their hopes of the future, men who therefore 
will follow you with even greater heartiness, seeing 
those who hare borne labours and dared dangers 
before them returned safely to their own homes; 
rich, who once were poor, and fumous. who once 
were nameless. A noole thing, O King, above all 
others, is the spirit of weM-^nStnint when all goes 
well with OS. For yoa Indeed, as our leader, and iM 
commander of such an army, there Is no fear from 
any enemies; but to all men the stroke of fortune 
comes unlooked for, and thence unguarded." 

XXVIII. At the ck»e of Coenos' speech there 
was some applause among the bystanders, many 
even shed tcan, a proof, if it were needed, of tlie 
reluctance of their leeUiun towards further progress, 
and of the Jojr with whU they woukl hail a retreat 
But Alexander, irritated at G>entts' freedom of 
language and at the want of courage of the other 
olBocrs, disniissfd tbe eonference; and calling for 
next day the same oAeers once more he angrily 
affirmed that he himself was going on, but that he 
would compel no Macedonian, against his will, to 
go with htm; for he would have, he said, othen 
who wouki, oi free will, folknr their King. As for 
those who wished to return home, thev might do 
so, and might teU abroad to their fricndi that they 



S Tavra tlrrowra awXdtlv is rij¥ cKffp^tf, fAifhi rtpa 
riav rraipwp wpoatcBai avrrjs t« iicettn^ T^ 
^fiipa^ Kol h rf)¥ rpirffp in aw' ^«€ia^9, viro- 
fiiporra ti Si; tiv rpowtf raU yptafiais tAp Motet- 
lotmw Tff iTol (ufAfAax^v* ola Sif i» ^X^ crpa- 
rutrmp t^ voXAA ^iXci ylyv€a$ai, i^nrtaovca 

A €{nm$€aTipcvK wapiftt avToik. *Hs Bi aiyrj 
av iroXX^ ^v a»a to arpaTowilop ical axBo^itPOi 
fU¥ TJ opyj airrov BijXtH ^tuf, ov fAfjv firra0dk\6' 
fA€Poi yt irw avrff^, imatiBa hfi Xiyti WroXtiuito^ 
o Adyov OTi iwl rp hiofiaati oMp fuiop iBvrro, 
BvofAif^ Bi ovM iyiyvrrQ airrji ra Upd, Tort Bff 
rovs irfHofimdrov^ rf rmp iraipmp teal fidXiara 
roifs dwiTffBtiov^ avr^ avpotf a ymf, m^ irdina is 
r^9 aiMm dpax*^P^^ atrr^ f^ptv, ite^aivti 
^ Tfjp arpartip Sn iytmaroi awi^m dwo- 

XXIX. Oi hk ifio^p T9 o2a ibr ^^Xo^ (vfifuyifs 
Xtdpup ffoijaMti gai ihdxpvow oi woXKol ainSiv 
oi Ik ical r^ oscriPp rj ffaatXtM^ W€\d(om€S 
€yX^^^^ *A\tfdphp^ woXXd koI dyadd, ot$ wpos 
a^mp lAQvmy PiMtfdfjpoi fyycavcTo. ''EifOa hrj 
&«Xtt»v Kara rd(tts rtftf arpariav hoahtica fitafiovs 
iiara4rK€vd(€tv vpocrdrra, Oyjros p4p /card roi/s 
ftaylarovs irvpyovs, tvpos Bi ^ll^opas eri ij teard 
wvpyovs, X*ip^<rrrfpia TOif Stols rols is roaopht 
dyayovatp avrop pucttpra koX funjfuia rwr airrov 
S woptap, 'Cis Bi Kariaxtvaaptpoi avr^ oi fftapol 
^oop, dv€i Brj iir ainSiv w^ vofios koX dywpa 
woul yvfUfucop rt xai iwrrncov. Kal rT)v pkp 
X(»p€Uf rrjp fiixP^ "^^^ *T<t>d(Tios iroranov IIcop^ 


ANAB.\SIS OF ALEXANDER. V. 28. 2-29. 2 

had come back, leaving their King surrounded by 
foes. With this he went back to his tent, and did 
not admit even any of the Companions during that 
day and till the third day af^er, waiting to see if the 
Macedonians and allies might change their minds, 
as often happens in a crowd of soldiers, and such 
change coming over them might render them more 
amenable. But when there oontinned dead silence 
through the camp, and it was elear that the men 
were annoyed at his temper, bot in no mood to 
change thdr minds beeanse of it, then, Ptolemaeus 
son of Lagos tells as, be none the len offered sacri- 
fices with a view to erosring the river. But as he 
sacrificed, the victims proved unfavourable. Then 
he called together the eldest of the Compankms and 
chiefly his particular friends, and since everrthinff 
now was pointing to a withdrawal, he proclaimed 
openly to the army that he had decided to turn 

XXIX. At this they all cried ak>ud as a mixed 
multitude would shout in joy, and most of them 
began to weep ; others drew near the royal tent and 
invoked blessin« on Alexander, since he had allowed 
himself to be defeated by thcam, and none others. 
Then he divided the army into twelve parts and 
ordered an altar to be set up for each part, in height 
like to the greatest toweis, and in breadth greater 
even than towers would be, as thank-offerhigs to 
the gods who had brooght him so far victorious, and 
as niemoriab of hit laboors. And when the altars 
were made ready, he sacrificed upon them, accord- 
ing to custom, and held a contest of athletics and 
cavalry exercises. All the territory as far as the 
llyphasis he gave also to Porus to rule over, and 



ipX€i¥ wpoatOffKtVt avrh^ B^ iirl top 'Thpatinffv 
iiiorp€^€. ^taffa^ Sk tov 'TBpamTfiP, iirl top 

1 ^Aictaiprfp av iwaffjft oitiatit, Kal ipravBa Kara- 
Xa^Qapti rtiP itoXiP iftticoBofAfifUptfp fjtnifa 
'H^aterlmp airr^ iicr§t\iaai irdx^V ^aI ^9 
ravrrjp (vi^onciaa^ riap t« irpoaxiLfymp ocok 
iB^XopraX Kar^Ki(opro xeu ri»p fjucBo^pmp S 
riW€p diro/iaxop, avros rk iwl 7^ tcardirX^ 
waptetc€vd(tro rA i^ rrjp foydXffp OdXaaaav, 

4 *Ey TOiTTM hk a^ucopro wp^ avrop ^Apad/trj^ 
Tt o T^ ofAopov ^Afftadpfj yw/m^ Owapx^^ ^a4 o 
dB^X^ot; *Afftedpov leal oi aXXot oUiUn, Biiipd rt 
MOfu(opT§^ A fUytara vap* *1pBoU ical roi/^ wap* 
^Afitadpov iXj^pras, ^9 rptdteopra top dptSfAOP* 
^AfftadpfiP yap poa^ dlvpaiop ytviaOai iKBtlp, 
ivpifiaipop Bk rovroi^ Koi oi trap* * AXifdvBpov 

6 imrtfi^Siprts wp4aff4t^ wpo^ 'AfficdpffP. Kal 
ratha ou ;^aX«irM« irtargvaa^ o^tK ^fiv 
*Afftadp]lf Tf T^ alnou ydtpa^ ffarpairtveip 
iBmxt xal *Apad/cfjp rff ^ Apiirdpov iirixpartltf 
wpoaiOfjiCM* gal i^opovs ovar^pas diroiaovai rdfa^ 
0vti ai; Koi iwl r^ ^AkmcLp'^ worafA^. Kal top 
^AxtoimiP at Bia0ik< i-wl top 'TBdawtjp ^tctp^ Ipa 
Kal ri$p woXtti^p t^^ t« Ni^roiof ical r&p Bot/iCf- 
^Xmp Sea irphs tAp Sfiffp^p irtwoprfKora ^p (vp 
Tp arparta €weaxtvac€ tcnl ra dXXa t^ icarii 

TffP Xtitpap tKOCfiti. 



then he himself began to return towards the Hydra- 
otes. Crossing this, he came again to the Acesines, 
and there he found the city already built which 
Hcphaestkm had been appointed by him to fortify ; 
into this he settled any of the neighbouring tribes- 
men who Tolonteered, and such of the mercenaries 
as were no kNiger fit for service, and himself made 
preparations ibr the voyage down to the Great Sea. 
Meantime there came to him Arsaces the governor 
of the territorr next to Abisares, with Abisarea' 
brother, and his other relatives, bringing ffifts, 
such as the Indians aoooont of chief value, and the 
elephants from Abisares, up to the number of 
thirty; for Abbaret himself had been unable, 
through illness, to attend. There came also wlUi 
these the envoyt sent by Alexander to Abisares. 
Thus, being easfly assured that the facts were as 
stated, he gave to Abisares the governorship of his 
own province, and attached ArsMCS to the admini- 
stration of Abisares; and ha\ing arranged for the 
tributes they should pay he saeri6ced also at the 
river Acesines. Then crossing the Aecslnes he came 
to the Hrdaspes, where he re s t o red, by help of his 
troops, the parts of the dtles of Nicaea and Buee- 
phaU which had been damaged by rains, and also 
put all cUc in order in the province. 




I. *AX#favSpo^ B4, /irtiS^ irap€atctvaa$rja€Uf 
ain^ hrl rov 'TBtiawov toXv Sx^a^ woXXal ftip 
rpuucomopoi koX 17/aoXiai, iroXX^ ^ koX iirwa' 
y^trfk irXoia xaX SXKa oca ^9 irapaxofuhifp 
crparta^ worafA^ fvwopa, ffpm xarawXtip learii 
TOP 'TBdcmip tt»9 ^irl rhp /iryaXiyr OdXaoaav, 

t Upartpop lUP y€ ip r^ *lr^ worafi^ icpOitoStiXou^ 
iimp, fiop^ rmp ^XXmv waratiAp irXifp NciXov, 
wpa^ M Tcu« Sx^oiS rou ^AkmoIpov xudftov^ 
wt^Kora^ owoiov^ ^ 7^ ^«^p«i ^ \lyinrr[a, teal 
JkM9vaa^6ri 6 'AK€cipvf^ 4fiffdWti tU toi' *\v66p, 

t ISoffv t^€vpf)Khai roQ Nf/X^v rAt J^px^^* ^ '''^'^ 
NciXoy irfiir^ woBhi^ '\pI&p iLpUfxopra /rol hC 
iptlfunf woWtf^ yrf^ f^iopra koI ravnrff diroWvoma 
rev *IpBop to Spofia, fwMira inr66§p ipyrrai hh 
rtj^ oUovfUpffS X^f^^ h'^^ NfiAov tjd»7 irph^ 
KWUtwmp Tff rw ravTfj gal \iyvwrtmp KaXov- 
imif9P, m "OfiTjpo^ iiroitf<r€P hrtmpvfjLOP t^ 
KlyvwTOV Atytnrrotf, ovrm ^ iichiluvai is rrjp 

4 4pt6s BdXacaap. Kal hri koX irpos ^OkupwidBa 
ypd^opra inrtp rmp *Iph«ifP rffs 79^ d\Xa t« 
ypd^frai Kal on BoKoltf air^ ifivprjtcipai toO 
NiDlov ras mjyds, pticpoU Btj ri<ri kuI ^avXois 

* litandly, of oo0-«iid-*-h*U banki of omb. PlrMaiii*bljr 
AaUp miflil bo doablo-bftakad Miiiddiips mm! ■iofte-bMilwd 



I. Sisat Alexander had all ready for him on the 
iMuiks of the H jdaspet a good manj thirt j-oan and 
unaQer galleys,^ and several transports for horses 
and other vesseb useful for the conveiranee of an 
army bj river, he determined to sail down the 
Hjdaspes to the Great Sea. He had already seen 
crocodiles in the Indus, and in no other river except 
the Nik;* and besides this had observed on the 
banks of the Accainet beant growing,* of the same 
sort as the land of Egypt |Modtices; and having 
heard that the Accsines r«ns into the Indus, he 
fancied that he had found the origin of the Nile. 
His idea was that the Nile rose somewhere there- 
abouts in India* ilowed throogh a great expanse of 


desert, and there lost its name of Indiis; and tbeii« 
where it began to flow through dviUied c utmtfy , 
was now called Nile by the Ethiopians in those paita 
and the Eg]rptians, as Homer, in his epic, called it 
Kgyptus after Egypt ; and so finally ran out into the 
Inland Sea. Kay, when writing to Olympias about 
the country of India, Alexander among otiier things 
•itatcd that he thought he had diseoveied the springs 
of the Nile ; drawing a conclusion about matters of 

fofsaadaft. Baiil 

iiy u 

art DOi to ba talun litarally. bai bad ooaMu byoastoai, to 
liirigmsti Uw sias of Iba aidps, witboai iaiplyiaf tba aelaal 
naiDMr of tisni of rowsn. 

' Tbsrt art oraoodilM also in tba Gaafss. 

• Kaid to be Ntimtmbimm ^pee umu m, t£e Indian lotus. 



5 tnr^p tAp TfiKiKOvrmw rtie^aipoftitpop, *Eirfl 
fkhnoi arpfciartpov ^fiyXry^c t^ ap^i r^ wo' 
rafii^ T^ *lyh^, ovrm Bff paBtlv irapk r&v 
iinx»pi*»^ TOP flip 'TSaoinyv t^ ^Axt^ipff, roy 
*KK9aipf)¥ hk T^ *\ph^ TO Tf vh^p fvfjLfidXXopra^ 
ical T^ ovo/iari (vyx^povpra^, top 'IvJoi' 5< 
iichihopTa tjBrj «*9 r^v ^ir/aXi;^ Bdkacaap, tic- 
rofAOP TOP *\vhop Spra, ov6ip rt atn^ wpoerfjKOP rij^ 
yrj^ rij^ Aiyvirria^, jffptxatha 6i Ttj^ iwiaroXtf^ 
rrji^ irpo^ rrjp fiffrtpa rovro ro afi^l r^ Stik^ 

A ypa^p a^ffXfiv. Kal ror KardwXovp top icara 
roif^ warapoi/^ tart twl rrjp fAeydXtfp ddXaaaap 
iwipoovpra waoaaMtvaadfjpai oi iwl ripBt tttXtvaai 
T^« pavs, Ai Bi vrnipfaioi avr^ is r^s vaus 
(vpnrXnpmdffcap ix tup (vptwofUimp rj crparid 
^<hpUp»p Kol KvwpUtp «ai Kap^p moI Alyvwrimp, 
II. *Ep hi rovT^ KxHPos fUp, ip rois wiarord- 
T0I9 'AXi(dp^pY 4v T«i» iraipt0P, poa^ nXivrf' 
ical rotnop Sdwru ig rmp irapoprmp fi€yaXtrwp9' 
wifs, Avros W (upayaymp rovs Tf iraipous «a2 
Saoi *|y5«M* wpia^us itap avrop d^iypipot ^aap, 
ffa^iXea fikp rtf^ idXtttcvia^ {Si; *li^wy yrjs dvi- 
5«i(< \li»pop firr^ fii¥ i$vi»p rmp (v^ndprttp, 
woXt^p Bi iv Toif tBptaip vvkp T^9 StaxiXia^. 

S T^i' arpaTikp Bi Btiptifitp m5«. Avro^ flip rovs 
vwaawtards tc afia ol fvfivapras iirl r^s I'avs 
aP€0i0a4r€ /rcu rovs roforas /cal rous *Aypiapas 
teal TO dyrffia ritp iiririttp, Kpdrtpos Bk abr^ 
fioipdp T€ TMV irt^CiP Ka\ reap imrivp iraph rrjp 
Byuriv rov "TBdanov rrjp iv Be(ta ^€' tcark Bi 
rT)p tT€pap ^^Offp ro irXttarop t€ icai icpdnarop 
TVfi arfKtrw xal rov^ (\4<f>atrra^ 'UiPatarltap 



so much imporUnce from Teiy slender Indications. 
But when he had more accuratelj investigated the 
geography of the river Indus, he learnt from the 
inhaMtants that the Hydaspes joins its stream to 
the Acesines, and the Acesines to the Indns, and 
both there resign their names; but that the Indus 
then flows out into the Great Ocean, bj two mouths ; 
and that the Indus has nothing whatever to do with 
Rg3rpt. On this be cancelled the part of the letter 
to his mother which dealt with the Nile. Then, with 
the idea of sailing down the riven to the ocean, he 
caused the boats to be made ready for him for this 
purpose. The crewt of his boats were made op from 
the Phoenicians, Cyprians, Carians and Egyptians 
who had accompanied the expedition. 

II. At this thne G>coiis , one of the most trusty 
of the Companioiis of Alexander, died of illness. 
So far as could be done, Alexander gave him a 
magnificent funeral. Then, calling together the 
Companions and such Indian envoys as had oome 
to visit him, he prodaimed Porus King of so much 
of India as he bad captured up to that time, that 
is, of seven nations in all, and of cities in these 
nations more than two thousand in number. The 
army he then divided as follows; he embarked on 
the ships with him all the bodyguard, the archers, 
the Agrianes, and the Rpedal squadron of cavalry. 
Craterus led along the right bank of the Hydaspes 
a division of the infantry and the cavalry. Ak>ng 
the other bank Hephaestlon advanced, leading the 
greatest and s tr onge s t part of the army and the 



wpovy^^pti &ym¥, fihv^ Byra^ i^ Btaxociov^* rov- 
Tai9 ii ^p watnrfft\fUvo¥ m^ Td\iara &y€ip 
S ipavtp ra l^wtlBov /3a9iX«ui* <t>iX.tirir^ Bi r^ 
car paw fj t^« ^ir* imtwa tov ^Xwhov m^ iirX 
BoMTpiov^ y!)^ BiaXiwovTi rptU fj fUpa^ waptjy' 
y€\ro hrtcBai (tfv roU dp4>* airrow, Tov^ 
unreal hk rov^ 'Hvcaiov^ owiotn diroirifiirti h 
rtip Sucap. ToD fiip Btf pavrncou waPTO^ 
Nmp;^09 A^^jf ''('^7<«T0, ri/^ h4 ainoO wok 
KV^^ptn/Tft^ UiniaUptr<Kt h^ ip TJ (vyypa^j 
^pripa inrip * A\t(dphpov ^wtypa'^t icaX rovro 
i'^ivaaro, pavapx**^ iamop tlpai ypdyjraK, nvfitp- 

4 Piirrjp Spra, *Hv ^4 ro (ufiirap irX»7^ov ritp Ptotp, 
m yJyti nToX«/iauK o Aotou. ^ fidXtara tyi$ 
htofuu, rpULXopTopoi fUp h oyiotjxovra* rk Bk 
vorra wXoia avp roU iwiraytnyoU xal Ktpscovpoi^ 
Mil Saa SXXa wordfua ^ tAp wdXai wXtoprmp 
Marii roif^ worafiov^ ^ ip rf rart wotrjOimvp ov 
jtoXv dwMopra ritp ei^Mttp. 

III. 'fU t4 (v^wapra airr^ waptaxtvaaro, 
vwo rtfp h» o fikp arparo^ iwiffatPt ritp m«v, 
avTov B4 (i6v€ roU OtoU m^ pofio^ xai r^ norafi^ 
T^ 'Tldawff Swm^ oi fidprti^ ifriyouPTO. Kal 
iirtda^ rrj^ rciiK airo t^ irptopa^ iic XP^^^ 
^idXff^ icitfphw h TOP worafAOP, top rt 'Axtalpfjp 
(vpnrucaXovfitpo^ r^ 'TBdcwff, opripa fuyiarop 
ai T<»y &\Xmp worafiAp (vfiBdWttp r^ 'Tcdairff 
iwtwvaro xal ov iroppw ainitp tlvai tk^ i^t^' 
fioXd^, teal TOP *lpl6Pt is OPTipa 6 *Ax€<rlprf^ (up 

5 Ty *TBdcwff 4fi0d\Xtt. *Err€l^ 5< 'lipatcXtl T€ 

* iw\ A. and eoojeeUred abo bjr Siataoiii Tbac* 
to be a slight 


ekphants, of which there were now some two 
hundred; this force wms under orders to make at 
full speed for the palace of Sopeithes. Philip the 
satrap of the country west of the Indus, towards 
Bactria, had ofden also to wait three days and then 
follow with his forces. The cavalry of Nysa he tenl 
back there. Nearchus he appointed admiral of all 
the fleet, and the pik>t of his own vessel was Onesi- 
critus, who in the histocj he wrote of Alexander 
told this ftlfiA^wwi among others, that he was admiral, 
though a mete pilot. The entire number of ships, 
acoo^ing to Ptolemaens son of I^agus, whom I 
chiefly foflow, was eighty ships of thirty oars, and 
the entire number of boats with the horse-transports, 
tlie Ugfat gaUeyt, and any other river craft that had 
either been long pl]ring on the rivers or that had 
been then eonstmcted, came to nearly two thousand. 
III. Then, when everything had b«en got ready, 
at dawn the army began its emtMurkatlon, and 
Alexander sacrificed to the godi aoeording to his 
cnstom, and to the river Hydnipet aoeording to the 
instructions of the seers. Then himself embarking 
he poured a libation into the river out of a golden 
bowl 6twn the bows, calling upon the Accsinet 
together with the Hydaspes, since he had learned 
that it is the greatest of all the tributaries of the 
Hydaspes, and also that the meeting of the waters 
was not Ur away; and he also called upon the 
Indns, into which, with the Hydaspes, the Acesinet 
runs. And then when he had likewise poured a 



T^ irpowdropt CTttiaaK ma\ ''KfiftMrn koX roU 
SXXot^ &§ok ^o<9 avT^ pofio^ afjfiijpai it 
iiw yM7 i ^> «tXfUffft rj adkirtyyt, "AfUk re ^ 
icfifAOtSfi Ka\ avrj^wno iv tcoafA^. na^nffycXro 
7^/> ^^* oaop r« T^ aK€voi^6pa wXoui ixp^v 
TrrdyBtu koX €^' t^ov tk itrwaymydt i^* oaop 
r« ra^ fuixif^oi/t rmv ptmv, m^ fAtf avfAiriwrtUf 
dWijXoi^ Mark raw iropop ciV^ wXtovca^' Ked 
ralf raxvpauTov^att ^op^ip ovk i^irro e(» rrfs 

^IXX^ ioucmt, &r€ dwo woWitp ptitp ip raur^ 
iptaaofUpup, «ai ffotf dwo rt rmp K§Xtvcra>» 
MiZitnmp rks dftvdt t« moa dpawavXa^ rtj^ 
9ipmia%t Kok rmp Iptritp oirorc oBpooi ifAviw 
Torr«9 T^ A^^l* ^voXaXofciay* oT rt 6}(6a$, 
vyjrfiXorrtptu rmp ptAp woXXxgxn o^ai, is cr€p6p 
Tf rijp fioh^ (vpoyovatu xal rp (vpaymy^ avr§ 
iirl fUya vyu^fifi^yfr #f a\Xy;Xa« dmiirtfAWOP' tcai 
wov «ai pdrrtu iaaripmBtP rov wora^v r^ rt 
ipflfua KoX r$ dwriwifti^i rov xrvwou moX avrai 

4 (vptwtXdfifiapop' oX Tff Xmroi Bia^att6fi€P0i Bid 
rmp iwiraymymp wXoimp, ov irpdaBtp imroi iirl 
wtmp 6^ipr€t ip ri *\ptmp yp («4U ydp xal rop A«o- 
pvffov <V *IySoi^ aroXop ovk i^Ufitn^pro ytviaSai 
pavTiKOp), ticrrXi^iP rraptixop roU Otmfiifoi^ rmv 
fiapffdpmPt mart ol pip avrmp avroOtP rfj upa- 
7tr/$ irapaytPOfiMPOi iirX iroXv ii^mpdprovp' 

5 i^ ocov^ 64 rmp rjBri *A\€(dpBp^ irpofrtc'X^PV' 
Kormp *\pBmp ti 0orj rmp iprrmp ij 6 icrvno^ rrj^ 
eip€<rla^ i^ucrro, koX ovroi irrX rj ^X^V '^t^ft^top 
fcal {vpuwovro /ir^3orrf^ ffapfiapt/cm^, ^iX^Boi 



libfttioo to Heracies hit ancestor and to Ammoa 
and to the <»tber godi to whom he usuallj made 
offering, be bide the bugle sound for departure. 
On the sound of the bugle they started in due order. 
For instructions had been given as to the exact 
distances apart for the baggage vessels, for the horse 
transports, and for the warships, so that they should 
not, by sailing in^rgularlv, collide one with the other. 
Even those which sailed most swiftly were not per- 
mitted to break ranks. It was very remarkable to 
hear tbe sound of the rowing, when so large a fleet 
all becan rowing at one and the same moment* and 
the cub at the boatswains ginng the beginning and 
the pauses of each stroke, and the noise of the 
rowers, wben all together they fell upon the swirling 
water and raised their rowcn' chanties; the banks 
too, being often higher than the ships, enclosed the 
sound into a narrow funnel, and making it by this 
compression even more resonant, revmerated it 
from side to side« Glens also here and there on 
either side of the river bv their emptiness and their 
re-e ch o tog s all helped the swelling of the sound. 
The horses, too, visible in the horse-transports — and 
no horses had hitherto been seen 00 shipboard in 
India (for the Indians had no recoDeetkm that the 
expedition of Dionysus also to India was by ship) — 
caused the utmost astonishment to the tribesmen 
who beheki them ; so that those who were present 
at the departure of the fleet folk>wed with it a kmg 
distance, and those Indians from among those who 
had submitted to Alexander, to whom the clamour 
of the oarsmen and the beat of the oars reached, 
came also running down to the bank and followed 
singing their own wild songs. For the Indians are 


70/9, tl-wtp Tim &Wot, *lifBol teal ^Xo/>;^i;/iovffv ^ 

IV. O^i* 5^ irXiwv Tp4T|; Tt i}/A^f>f tcariaxw 
hmwtp 'H^tariwpi re /rai Kpar^pw carA to 
mvro arparoirth€vti¥ ^irl toi^ avriiripav Sx^ai^ 
wap4yy€Xro. MfiVa9 ^ itnavSa tj^tpa^ Bvo, 

d^Utro, rovrow fiiv iwl rov *AiC€fflinf¥ irorafuiv 
iKwifiwu (v¥ oU ^ywy ^irf, rafa^ wapii rov 

*Ak€cLiH>V WOrafUfU 7rj¥ Sx^fJP WOp€U€ff&€U' TOVf 

hk dfi^ Kpdr^pop T« tcai 'll^aiorimva avdi^ 
iicwifiwu, wapayy^tXa^ Swt^ Xph T»;y vopiia^ 

1 woitlc$ai» Airro^ Bk iwXtt xarii rov 'TBdcmjw 
worafAov, ov^pov ptlopa iw r^ Karawkm 9licoa^ 
9Tahim¥ TO fJ;^MK. Upocopful^ofttwo^ M iwfi 
Ti;;^oi raU SxBai^ rov^ irpocoiKotnna^ r^ 
'T^davff *Ii>5«k>f TOW9 piv h'Btcoyra^ c^a^ ipo^ 
X07UI19 icart\dp0€kV€P* ^Bif B4 TIM19 Kol 4^ 

S aXjcriv 'vrnptiaiurra^ /Si^ Kartarpi^aro, AM^ 
B^ m^ nrl Tfj¥ MaXXitv t« xal *0(vBp€U(&p yijv 
awovBj lirXfi, itXcuttoi^ tc xal paxtpti^rdrov^ 
rmp ravTjj *l¥Btt¥ wwOapopMyo^ xal on t^'fy- 
yiXXotno a\n^ vaiha^ pkw ical yvfaixas diroTe- 
0ttc0at i^ T^9 o;^i;p«rrdTac rctp iroXttitv, avrol 
Bi i'pmichfeii Bik pdxt^ iivai wpo^ ainoy 44^ 
irr^ Brj Kol awovBrf irXiiovi iwoitlro rov irXovv, 
Biwu^ pff tcaOtartjicoaiv atnoU, d\\A iv r^ ipB^ii 
T9 iri rij^ irapatTKevrf^ koX rerapayptv^ vpoc' 

4 ^ptfrai. *Ei'^ey hi ^pprfifj ro Btvrtpop, ical 
frip.vTfj ripipa d^ixero dirl rrjp (vpffoXifv rov 



of all people most mnsieal, and from the days of 
Dionysus down and of tliose who revelled with him 
in India are great lovers of the dance. 

IV. Sailing thus, on the third day Alexander pot 
in where orders had been given to HephaetlkMi and 
Cratems to camp at the same place but on opposite 
banks. There he stayed two dajrt, and when Philip 
pus joined him with the rest of the army, he sent 
him to the river Acesines with such troops as he had 
brought, bidding him march along the bank of the 
Accslnet. The troops with Cratems and Hrphaes- 
tion alto he sent on again, giving them instructions 
as to their route. But he himself tailed on down 
the river Hydaspes, which never had a Icit breadth, 
during the descent, than twenty ttades. Hien 
putting in, wherever it wat co tt vc nl ent, to the banks, 
he received in voluntary tobmltrioo many of the 
Indians who lived near the Hydaspet; tome, who 
had resisted, be had already tobdned. But he sailed 
at full speed towards the cUttrict of the Mallians and 
the Oxydracae, learning that they were the most 
numerous and the moat warlike of the Indians in 
these parts, and also because it was reported to htm 
that they had removed their wives and children to 
the strongest of their cities, and were themselves 
determined to do battle with him; and for this 
reason he urged on his voyage with the greater 
speed, to that he might come upon them not ready 
for war, but still short of their preparatioat and in 
a state of co nl brio o . And to he ttarted again 
thence, and on the fifth day came to the meeting of 



r€ 'Thdawov moI rov *A«<a'ivot/. "Ivahi PvfifiaK^ 
\ov<rt9 Oi worafAol ovroi, artviiraTO^ tK irora* 
/io^ isc rolw 5i;oiy ylyptrtu xtu ro jttviia avr^ 
ofv iwl rj arfpoTfjTi xai Biveu irowoi vwo' 
crai^ama^ rov pov, koX to Ijtmp icvfuuprrai re 
Mtu Kax^i^i ^* M^ya* *^ 'o^ ^oppm Iri 6mup 

$ 4fm€9V€C0a* rep tcrvirop rov MVfuiTo^. KaX ^w 
fUP wpo€fTjYf€\fU¥a Taura *A\t(d¥lp^ im rtuf 
iyXt»(iim9 Koi *AXt(ai^pov r^ arpanf* Sftm^ S^ 
hmiff iwiXatfP avr^ raU (ufiffoXaU o crparo^, 
^ TO^or^ o av^ rov pov icrywo^ tcaruyfi^i &c-r9 
htiartiaap rk^ tiptaiti^ oi yavra^, ovu itt irapay- 
yikfuiro^, a\\k tmk rf xtXtvaritp inro BaxffAaro^ 
igoimw^adprmp xal ainol furimpoi rrpo^ rov 
mrvwop ytvofAtvot. 

V. 'Of li ov rfoppm rmp (ufiffoXmp ^oaw, 
irravBa 6if oi KV0€pinjrat rrapayyiWovav m^ 
/3$aiordrp tipteia XP^P^^^ i(t\avv^iv iic ri>y 
9rvfit¥, rov fifi t^wtvrovaa^ ra^ vav^ 4s t^9 
5iVa9 d»aaypi^€t>6ai wpos avriap, dWii Kpartilv 
ykp^ r^ Mtptoiif ritp iirtarpo^mp rov vharos. 

S T^ fihf tfi arpoyyvXa rrXoia oca icaX trvytp 
avriiP wtfHorpa^ipra rrpos rov pou, ovhip n 
watfopra ip TJ hnorpo^, ota fit) avvrapd^apra 
rovs ifiifXiopras, xariorrf V9 €v0v, rrpos avrov 
rov hov opdmBtura' ai Bk iiaxpcH prjts ovx 
ucavrtt^ ditaBiU airijXSop cV t$ imcrpo^^, 
ovr€ furimpoi <irl rov teaxXd^opros tcv^ros 
maavrtts ova at, oaai re BiKporoi ainitp ras Kartt 
Kwnas ovK Iwl rroXv c(«» i\ovaai rov vharos* 

S iroi eu Konra* Bi avroU, vXayioiS ip raU Bipais 

* 74^ is diflknlt ; query, nrnfti^ rf . 


the Hjdaspes and the Acetiiies. Where these riven 
meet, finom the two ttreons one verj narrow stream 
resohs; its current is verj rapid because of this 
narrowing, and from the swirling of the stream there 
are formed dreadful whirlpoob; the water boib 
and dashes noisUj, so that even from afar one can hear 
the tomult of the waves. All thU had been told to 
Alexander beforehand by the inhabitants, and by him 
to his army; but yet when the army approached 
the meeting waters the nobe of the rapkls was to 
bud that the tailon stopped their rowing, not by 
order, but bccaoae the boeUw a ins were strock domb 
with amaiement, and the sailors themselves were 
out of their wHs from the tomult. 

V. When, however, they drew near the meeting 
of the waters, then the steersmen bade them row 
as strenuously as possible and drive their vesMb 
through the narrows, so that the ships might not be 
caught in the whiHpools and be capsised by them, 
but rather that they should by their rowing over- 
come the turmoil of the water. The rounder types 
of boats, which were twisted about by the stream, 
suffered nothing serious in this dbturbance, except 
that they caused much anxiety to the crews ; they 
kept a straight course, being in fact held to their 
direction by the current itself. The warships, how- 
ever, did not come off so scathless in the turmoil; 
they did not ride so easily over the roaring waters ; 
and those that had two tiers of oars hardly kept 
their lower tier clear of the stream. Moreover, their 
oars, when the boats were brought broadside on in 


ytvofi<POt^» evptrpiffcrro, tamp yt iyicartXff^Bfi* 
aa¥ inro rov vSaro^ ov ^aadtnmp avrk^ furtm* 
piaa*, flk iroXX^f nip mpriatu rAp p^Ap, Bvq 
I4 S^ wtp*W€aovaa^ a\\t)\ai^ atrrd^ rt hio^Ba" 
fn/pa^ irol rmp ifAwXtoprmp ip avroK iroXXoi^. 
'n« Ik h vXarov 4^ o vora/i^ hU^xt^* ipratfBn 
5J^ I Tt pov^ ovmhi mcavrm^ >^Xnr^ ^p koX al 

4 te«4 01^ ofMoia TJ 0ia iwicrpt^op, Upocop- 
fuca^ ouv T^ h Btfia 6x^ o *AKi(aphpo^ 
rhp or par OP, Xpa axiwri rt ^p rov fov teal 
wpooffoXrf raU pavol koI rt^ xal &Kpa rov 
wcrm^iio6 hnniMip^ apu^tp is rmp pavayimp rt 
tV (y Mi y myii P Mai ci rtpts tfV* avrmp (mpTfs hi 
i^ipopro, rovrovs t« luomot gal iwiox^vdoas 
ras wtwopfiKvias rmp Mcvr, Siaoxop flip Mara- 
wXtw luXtvti for Up ddfiMnrai iwl ri 6pta rov 
MaXXAp iOpovs* avrbt 04 rmp ffapddpmp rmp ov 
wpoox^p^vprmp garaipofAffP rrjs X^P*^^ iroif)od' 
unpos MoX KmXvoos iwiKOvpffoai avrous roU 
MaXXoU, oOrm Itf avfis (i^f/u(t r^ pavrucm. 

ft Kal ipravBa 'H^tarimp rt ain^ xal K/mi- 
Tcpot Mol ^tkiirwos (vp rots dft4^* avroifS Ofiov 
4fifl ^oap. '() hk rovs fUP tKi^pras icai rrjp 
TloXvowipxoPTOS rd(ip teal rovs tirworoforas xal 
^iXd'WWOP (vp rj dfiipi' avrop arpar$^ Biafiiffdoas 
[rop 'TBdowifP worafiop] Kparip^ if>f€ip wpooi' 
raff Nfap^^ov B4 (vp r^ pavrnt^ irifivtt, rpiolv 
ri fit pais TTjp a r par tap xtXtvoas ^dpgip icark rop 

• w\ovp. Top hk dWop orparop rpixfj 3i<Wifi€- 
Kal 'H^Miorimpa fup ircWf rifiipais irpoitveu 
fraftv, ms ti riP€s rovs fvp avr^ rrrayfUpovs 
^vyoprts is ro wpoom tsarii OTTOvBffP toiMP, roh 



the twirttng waters, were brokcD— of toch, at anj 
rate, M were actually caught by the rapids and did 
not raise their oan' in time, to that many ships 
were in distress, and two ooUided with one another, 
and were themsehres wrecked and many from their 
crews lost. When, however, the river broadened 
out, at last the stream no loncer ran so roughly; 
and the eddies did not twist the ships about with 
so much violence. Alexander then briiwing his 
army to land oo the right bank— where there was 
shelter horn the current and a landing plaee Ibr 
the shipst and where a headland ran cot faito the 
river conveniently for the gathering In of the wrecked 
ships, and any of the crew still 1^ alive on them — 
contrived to save these, and repaired the damaged 
ships ; after this he bade Nearchus sail down tillhe 
reached the boundaries of the Mallian people ; he 
himaelf made a hasty raid through the country of 
the tribesmen who had not submitted to him, and 
so prevented them from bringing help to the MaDians. 
On this he acain joined the flotilla. 

Here Hephaestion and Cratcrus and Philip with 
their troops joined him again. Alexander then 
took the elephants, and Polyspcrchon's brigade, and 
the mounted archers, and Philip with his force, 
across the river Hydaspes, and ordered Cratcrus to 
take command of them ; Nearchus he sent with the 
fleet, ordering him to be three days in advance of 
the army in the descent of the river. The remain- 
ing forces he divided into three parts ; Hephaestion 
he ordered to go on five days in advance, so that if 
any who had escaped from his own force were 
advanriny rapidly into the country farther on. they 



afi^* ' \\^aiarim¥«i ifiwiwrotrrt^ aXiatcmmai' 
riToXtf/iaZoy hi toi» Adyov, Sow^ teal Toirra» t^ 
orpartaK fitpo^, rpiatw rtfitpai^ vwoXttirofAfyov 
9w9c$ai iiciXtvatv, cv^ o^oi Tot/M^raXiv inroarpi- 
^Oi€9 aino9 ^€vyoirr€^t ovroi hi «V rov^ d^l 
7 TOP UroXtfuaZop iftiriirroiMP. *Evib^ hk d^ic^¥' 
ra^ h T^c fvfiffoXA^ roO Tf 'Asttaipov koI rov 
"Thpamrov wora^v, imavBa hk rov^ Tf ^d- 
909ra% Inroiiiwup tfVcXfi^fv lor' ^ ^Kfi a%no^ koX 
rOVV a/*^ K/MIT«/K>V «a2 TTroX^uaroi' airr^f 

VI. Ainh^ hk d¥a\afim¥ TOtn imaoTnaras Tff 

col To&^ Tofora^ gal roif^ *Aypuipa^ teal r&» 
wtl^rraip^w ^ taXovfUv^w rvjv Ilfi^Mvov rd(^p xal 
TOW iwworofora^ Tf wdtna^ gal rmv iwwimp rm9 
iraip^p rous fifiurta^ htd yf)^ dMpav «9 M 
MaXXovv ^lytP, iOpo^ *li^«ov *IpU$¥ tmv avToyo- 

t /Miv. Kai T^ /ify irpmrjf KarM^rparowihtVfft irpo^ 
{flan ou woXXjp, h Bff dw^l^t rov * Aic9<ripov 
worafAov araliov^ tiV iicaroif Sttwpfnroiffffd- 
/MP09 Bi /cal opawavcaK rijp arpanhp ov iroXup 
XpMK>ar wapayyiXXfi 6 ri T19 ix^i &Tt^ ifiirXficai 
rov vlaro^, AifX^«»v Bk t% rt tffupa^ ro frt 
vwoXuirofitPop irol rrjp pviera SXfjp i^ rtrpa- 
Koaiovs fidXiara araHovs dfia fjfup^ vpo^ 
mo\i9 Ji^Urro fiV ^p (v/itr f^ftfyc^oi^ iroXXol tAp 

t MaXK&p. Oi 5^ ovwor ip oiffOiprt^ Bi^ rrj^ 
dpvBpou iX0€iP firl 9^9 ^AXifophpop Hftt Tf t^ 
iroXfAK oi woXXol xal dpowXoi ^cap' i^* ortjp 
Koi hriXo^ iytPTTO ravTTjp dyaymp 'AXifapBpo^, 
t^p 6ti avr^ dyaygiP xaXtitoi' ^, M r^l€ ovBi 

* ia4.ral0mm A. 


sboald taXl in with Hephaestion't troops and be 
captured; bat Ptolemaeus ton of Lagus, to whom 
be banded over a part of the arnij, be bade follow 
him at the internal of three dajt, so that any who 
turned back again, fleeing from himself, might like- 
wise fall in with Ptolemaeus and his troops. And 
as soon as their should arrive at the junction of the 
Acesfnes and Hjdraotes, there he bade thoae who 
went in advance to wait till be himself sboald arrive 
and till the foreet of Crmterot and Ptolemaens tboakl 
join up with him. 

VI. Then he bfanself took with him the body- 
goards, the areben, the Agriaiies« and Peitbo't 
brigade of the so<alled Infantry Compankms, with 
all the mounted archcni, ami half the Co mp a n ioPi' 
cavalrv ; and led them through a waterless coantry 
towards the MaUians, an IndUm tribe, part of the 
self-governing Indians. On the first dav he camped 
by a small pood* about a hundred stadcs from the 
river Acesines; and when he bad dined, and bad 

rested bis army a short time, be passed the word 

rcvT vessel anyone baa was to 

with water. Tnen marching aboat four hundred 

stadcs, during the remainder of that day and through 
the night, at daybreak he arrived at a city Into whieh 
many of the Mallians had fled for refuge ; but they, 
never dreaming that Alexander would march agaiiwt 
them through this waterless regloa, were for the 
most part outside the city and onanned; Alexander 
clearly had marched br this rootet ilnnplT beeonse 
it was eapedally dUBcaU for him to marcli br it, and 
for that very reaaoo none of his enemies ooald believe 



ftip Brj ov wpochoKT^aai¥ iwnrtamv rov^ fthf 
woKKoO^ avc«Tfir«ir avrtap ov^ th aXMfjy, ola 
^ dtfomXov^, TpoMirraK' rmp 6k itXXmp 4^ r^ 
woXuf KmrtutKtioBhnmp Kvm\^ wtpiarrjaa^ r^ 

Vij^Mr fjtgo\ov$^icu airr^, dprl xaftaxo^ ixpn9O,T0 
4 rn Tw^. 'n^ Ik Ta;(^i0Ta ol irtj^oi d^Uopro, 
txtpliM^ap flip r^p re avrov twwapx^'^ Syppra 
xal rrjp KXtirou mal rov^ 'Ayptdpas wpo^ aXXf|v 
wiXuf ^«vtfMVfi rmp MaWmp» ot (vfiW€^vy6rt^ 
ictuf voXXoi TM» ravT]f *IpI*!»p, ^vXdaoup rovs 
or rn 9oKu «fX4uaa«, ipycv Bi /*^ lx^a0a* icr 
Ap a^iofTtu avri%, mt /i«fM airo rai^riT^ T99 

ym4c0ai TOif 4[XX^9 ffapffdpa^ on wpovdrpi 
4^ *AXi(apipar atrro^ Ik wpociffi^Jk^ rA 

6 rux^t. 0« M 0dp0apoi to m^ '''^X^ ^«Xtfi- 
wftvciPt «f 0U4r ^y ^la^i/Xa^orrtv aiV^ fri, 
voXXmt /» T^ jcaraXi/^fi rt^pfj/cdrmp, rmp 6k koX 
dwh rpavfuirmp dwofidxmp yrftPtifUpmp' ^9 6k 
TffP JUpop ^y/i^iryorrfv xpopfm fUp riwi ^ftvpopro 
i( inrtp6€(iov rt xmpiov moI x^^*^'^^ ^^ wpoa- 
0o\^p- wpocKtifAiprnp 6k wdproO^p Mvpmarm^ rmp 
}AaKMipmp Moi avrov *AX§(dp6pov dXXort SXkjf 
iwi^ipofUvov T^ ^tn^ 4 ^^ dtpa xark updro^ 
idXm gal ot ^vfi^vyopT^^ U avrifp wdprt^ air<- 
Bapop* ^ap ok i^ £4a;^iXioi;v. 

6 ll€p6iMKa^ 6k i^ rifp rroXiP ^^* ijprtpa itrrdXrj 
A^ncofifpo^, rifp fikp woXiP ipijfirjv tcaraXa^- 
Pdptr paBmp 6k ort ov irpo jroWov vt^tvyeoav 
i^ airrrf^ oi ipoucovprts 6p6fi^ rjXavpg icard 


it povibk that he would come that waj. So then 
falling ODOQ them all unexpeeting be slew the greater 
part of toem, who did not even resbt« being as they 
were anarmed. The rest had fled into the dty; 
and Alexander stationed, therefore, his cavaky 
round in a eofdoo ; nsing the cavalry thus instead of 
a fence, slnee his infantry force had not vet come 
up with him. Eut as soon as ever the infantry did 
come up, he sent Perdioeas with his own cavalry 
regiment and that of Qeitiis, with the Agrianet, 
against another city of the Mallianst whither many 
of the Indians of this district bad fled for reftige, 
bidding him watch thmc in the city, but not to beglo 
action till he himself sliould arrive ; so as to preve nt 
any fugitives firoin this dty telling tiie other tribes 
men t£st Alexander was already well on the way. 
Ilien he himself attacked the dty wall; but the 
tribeanen deserted the wall, having do hope of 
defending it further; a good many oithem perished 
in the amanlt, others were no longer fit for service 
ftom woonds ; and taking relate m the dtadel, lor 
some time they oootinnea to dmnd tbemselvei from 
this, whk^h was a commanding podtkm, and, besides, 
diflknlt to assault. But as the Macedonians pressed 
on stoutly from all sides, and as Alexander nimself 
was here, there and ever]rwhere in the action, the 
citadel was taken by assaolt« and all who had taken 
n/Nmt there were pot to the sword, to the number 
of aboot two thousand. 

Perdioeas meanwhile arrived at the dty to which 
he had been sent, and found it desolate ; but learn- 
ing that the inhabitants had not long fled, he rode 



ttxpp voStMT avr^ i^wowTo, KaraXafimp ^ 
rmw ^wyoprmp Karixo^p Scoi yt fiff i^Bacap 
i^ rk tKfi (ufii^vyoprt^, 

Vn. 'AXifapBpo^ Bi httwpowoiff^dfitPO^ t« xal 
apawavca^ rov^ afi^* ainop If art ^irl wpwrtfp 
^uXaKfjp ^1 rov irpoam* icai rrjv pvxra BiMXBmp 
woXXffp oBop ifia fifUp^ at^Urro wpo^ top 
'Tlpttmrrip wcra^, "fii^a ^ rmp MaXXW 
Tovv fi^p iroXXovf Btti0t$iiMirm^ ^Bvf ifiaBt, toh 
hk Ka\ Buiff€U90vaiP 4wtyep6fi€Pa^ irtpi avrop rop 
S wopop froXXtfvv avrmp ht^^npt. Koi avrof m 
fZx< (vpBtaffa^ xark top mMm w6p€9 3i«Mri»y 


iroXXovv ^Mv Jkwi€r€i9€P atrrAp, rov^ Bi 

rovrov^ Ilc^ifMi n^v r« auroi; ral^iv i\ovra icaX 
rwp itrwimp Bvo IwwapxuL^- Kai ninoi Brj i( 
i^oBov vpo^ffdkotm^ Xafiffapovai ro x^P^^ ^ai 
Tout Kara'wt^tvyirraK tU atrro ^pBpairoBiaap, 
oaoi y€ fifi ip rj wpoafioX^ Bi€^dfnfcap, Tavra 
Bi oi Jiit^ rop HuBrnpa Biairpa^dfUPOi iirai^X- 
$99 tMt^ is ro orparomBop. 

AvTOf Bi *A\i(apBpos 0ts iwl ritp ^pa\fidpm9 
rtpk wokur ^tp, on xal is ravrffp (vfAV«^tuyipa$ 
ripiks rmp MaXkAp ipaStv, 'Cls M d^Urro 
wpos ainrgPt iinfyt rm rtix^i vdproBtP 'H'v/cpf)P 
rifp ^dXayya, Oi Bi inropvaaopepa rk nixt 
IBofrrfs teal itc r&p ffeXtav dvaareWofiepoi, ra 
ftht ftixn '^A^ ovroi itcXei-rrovdiv, is Bt rrjv 
1 20 


At full speed in the tntk of the fugitives ; and the 
light-armed infantnr followed with the best speed 
they could on foot. He caught up with and massacred 
■o many of the fugitives as had not managed to 
escape into the manhet. 

Vil. Alexander, after seeiiig that his tnx)ps had 
dined and rested, began hit advance acain about 
the 6rst watch. He marched a eomiderama distance 
during the night and at daybreak arrived at the 
river Hydraotes. There he learned that most of 
the MaUians had already eroded; he fell in with 

others who were actually crossfaig, and slew manv 


of them during the eroaring. He crossed 
there and then, with them br the same 
and still pursuing oreased hard upon those who heel 
got away ahead eif UBi. Many ol these too he slew ; 
some he captured eUre; but the neater number 
got lafe away to a stio^g fMrtilled position. But 
\leiander, aa soon aa hli Infantry came up with 

.-Om, aeol against these Peitho with his own br^ede 
and two regiments of cavalry. They attacked, and 
on the 6nt assault captured the stronghold, and 
enslaved all those who had taken refuge there, 
except such as had fallen in the assault. Then 
Peitho and his detachment, having 6nished all this, 
returned beek again to the camp. 

But Alexander hlmaelf was now advancing to a 
city of the Brachnans, learning that some of the 
Mallians had taken refuge there. And when he 
arrived there, he led up to the wall his phalani in 
close formation on all tides. The inhabitants, seeing 
their waUs undermined, and beinff dislodged by the 
missiles, deserted their walls, as ue o^en had, and 

vol- 11. 9 IMM 


VM'omir M avroiv oKijmw MoiTfJorwy, iirra- 

a%nu¥, awiKTUPOif hk ip rj vwocrpo^j ^k irhrrt 

5 KaX tUo^i, KaX ip rovr^ *AXi(apcpo^ rd^ re 
MXifUiKa^ wdpToOfp iCfX«uti wpocrtBipoi r^ ^pf 
Mtd vwopvrrtuf rh rfi^o^* 'Hv ^ wvpyo^ t« 
hn99P tnropvaa6/i4Po^ koX tov firrawvoyiov ri 
wupmppwykv ^wi/ui^^arrVMy rovrn iwoitia^ rtjp 
JUpAP, wpAro^ *A\M(tu^po^ iwiffk^ Tou tmIxovs 

6 M^if Iyw to Tfi;^. Kal rovrop ihoprts ol 
iiXoi Mamt^Pt^ ai^yp$4Pr^ SWo^ SXX^ 
Jufftcop.^ Efyrro rt ^6^ 4 ^«pa. Mai tmv *lv£«ir 
W |i^ T^ OMAf htwiifkwpaaop Koi ip aintiAi 
iymmrmXmftfim^^ttnmt inMw^oKOP, oi itoKkoi Ik 
fiax^fiUPOi avrup. *Awi$aPOP hi oi wdprt^ If 
wmnasttaxi^y^p (firm hi hi dphptiop cXiyoi 

Vlll. MfiMK 3^ ai^rov /uay ^fUpap «al aya- 
vavvar T^i^ arparidp, jji vcrtpaia wpovxt»pti 
m iwi rov^ iXXmf^ MaXXoi^. Kal t^9 fiip 
voXfiv «/rX«Xo«voTaf KaraXafifioPU, ainov^ Bk 

1 tpa$€P irn vf^vTorcv tlfv ^ r^y Uprffiop, Kal 
ipravOa at$i^ iiiap iffUpap dpawavca^ rtfp 
arparidp, d^ rijp iviovaap Utidrnpa flip teal 
^flfiifrpiOP TCP iwwdpxnp wpa^ top irorafiov 
owiam dwivtfiyfrtp ifp t« ainoi ^ovpro dyovra^ 
aaX wpa^ roirrotv ^iXinr T<i{(K hov^ atrroU oaai 

t Uopal irpo^ TO epyop, npociTa(€ Si vapa t$ 
|y^ TOW worapov lopra^, tl nci Trtpirvyx^pottp 
rmp i^ T^9 C\a^ fvpwt^vyormp, di hff woXXal 

* Ar^«#«' EUandt, AnWay A. 


Uldng refbge in the citAdel defended 
there. A few Macedonians, however, broke in with 
them, whereupon they, turning to baj and forming 
a solid maM, drove out iome of the attaclcers, and 
tlew tome twentr-five of them while thej attempted 
to withdraw. Meanwhile Alexander ordered ladden 
on all tides to be placed against the dtadel* and the 
wall to be undermined. And when a tower, being 
undermioed, fell, and part of the wall between the 
towers beinff breachea made the citadel easier of 
assault on that side, Alexander first mounted the 
wall and all could see him holding it. Observing 
him, the rest of the Macedonians, feeling ashamed, 
mounted, one here, and one there. And by this 
time the citadel was in their hands, and of the 
Indians tooie set fire to their houses, and being 
~ In them, were put to death, but most m 
perished fighting. Up to Bw9 thousand in 
afl fell, but owing to their brave defenee only a few 
were captured mlive. 

VII 1. Alexander remained there one day and 
rested his army, and on the next day began his 
advance against the remaining .Mallians. He found 
the cities deserted, but learned that the inhabitants 
had fied hito the desert. There again he rested his 
day, and for the next day sent Peitho and 

Demetrius the cavalrr commander back to the river, 
er bad 

with the troops they bad been In eommand of, giving 
them besides these such fwnpan ks of lifrht-armad 
as were enough lor theb enterprise. Alexander 
commanded them to go along the river bank, and if 
they should come across ainr of those who had fled 
for rdfuge to the woods, of which there was abun- 



wpo^ TV SvOff TOW worafiov ^€Uf, rovrov^ tcrtiiftiw, 

Mara\a06rT€S 4v rolv (?Xai9 ot dfu^l Uti^Mvil r« 
Mai Aiy/Affr^Mov Jtw4*Ttipav. 

froXir, Tmi «ai V« tmv £VX«»y iroXtf^y iroXXot^ 
(vfAW^^€vyipai aOrA ^^f/yyiXktro, *AXXa «ai 
ravTfiP i(4\iwop oi Ii^M •»« wpo^dyoma *AXif- 
avlpO¥ iiuiBow' ItaffdmtK ^ top 'TBpamrrjp 
vora/ior, /irl rai^ 6x^ai^ airrov, Srt vy^Xal 
ai Sx^^ 4^Air> wapartrayfUpoi ifupov, m 
« €tp(opr9^ rov wopov *AXi(ap6pop, Kal ravra 
m fiKO%fC€P, apaXaffmp TfiP twwop rf)p ifia aur^ 
waotuf fm «f M r^ 'T^prntirrfp, ipawtp wapa^ 

ht^cBoA avr^ irdxBtfcop, Of M d^xrri rt 
ht aitrh^ koI ip rm wipap rov^ woXmimIov^ xaruBt 
rrraypipov^^ m tiYtP if r^ olov ^/A/SaXXti ^9 

• rip w6pop (vp T$ iirir^ A*^* Oi S^, U6pr€^ ip 
pM9^ rot) itorapov Spra f^ *W4(apSpop, Mar^ 
ffwmf^p fUp, fvPTfiayfUpoi B^ opm^ dirrvtitpovp 
dwh T^f ^m\ ««i AX4(apBpo9^ (up pcpp rp 
nnry cfirrro. 'Of 5< Kartllop itrwias popov^, 
^itfTptf^rarrffT 01 *Ii^i xaprtp^ ipdyopro, 
wXfjBo^ 6prtK h frivT€ pvpidhas, Kal KKiP- 
ophpo^ m rrip Tff ^Xayya niniiv wvtcptjv tcartiB^ 
Kal avT^ oi ir€{bi dirriaavt trpoaffoX^^ pip ivoUi ^ 
is MvieXovs wapiwwtvmp* is X^^P*'^^ ^ ^^'^ 5'* "^^^^ 

7 *\vhoU. Kai ip rovrr^ wapayiypoprtu avr^ 01 
Tf *Aypidp€S Kal dXXai rd^€ts rmp ^iXAp, hs Btf 
iwiXiKTOvs Spa ot ^t , Kal ot roforai' ov iroppm 

' A ^•(«i r«^ff, which omj jostif/ Krflgar's iwtt'iy it. 


dance aloof the river bank, to put them to death, 
except such as voluntarily surrendered. Peitho's 
and Demetrius' troops did, in fact, find large numbers 
in the woods, and put them to death. 

Alexander himself, however, marched against the 
greatest city of the Mallians, whither it was reported 
to him many had fled oot of the other cities. 
But even this city the Indians deserted when they 
Icamt of Alexander's approach; and croning the 
Ilydraotet they stood their croond, drawn up in 
ofder, 00 the banks, ilnoe tSete were of a good 

height, wHh the idea of preraitliig Alexander from 
crossing. As soon as he heard that, he took all the 

► cavalrT which he had with him and marched towards 
the Hydraotes, where it was reported that the 
Malhans were marshalfed ; the infantry was ordered 
to follow. And when be reached the river and saw 
the enemy in battle order on the far side, without 
any hesitatioo he plunged from the road into the 
fond with the cavalry only. The enemy, seeing 
Alexander already In midstream, retired from the 
bank rapidly, but in good order, Alexander following 
on with ocuy his cavalry. But when the Indians 
saw he had cavalry only, they turned about and 
made a vigorous resistance, in number about fifty 
thousand. Alexander, seeing their infantry forma- 

ttkm solid, and with his own infantry not yet on the 
fieM, kept circling round and making charges, but 
pfthoot oominc to ekiae quarters with the Indiana. 
Pjr this tfane Uie Agrianes and other companies of 
me light troops had joined him ; these were oieked 
troops whieh oe had in his own force ; and auo the 



ii ovii tj ^d\ay( €^aiVcTO ritv v^(ih. Kol oi 
^IvM ofAOV 9^m wdtnmp rmp l^tpAp wpoaKU- 
fUtmp awo^rphft€ u rrt^ 4^ wporrpowa^p Mctryov 

8 h itiXuf oxvfmrdrfip tup irXifotor. Koa AXif- 
mphpo^ hroftMPO^ rf avroit woWoif^ 9xrttP0, xal 
^ h riip w6\ip ol luk^vyiirrtK maruXffi^^mPt 
wpmra flip tok Imttvcip if i^olov iicvicXmaaro 
rtip woXiP' m Bi oi vtfoA air^ wap^op, rainji 
fUp T^ 4/W/>f vf^M«Tparairf3«M« ip mvmX^ toO 
rtixovst Bfi ou woXv rf r^ fifupa% vwgXtiwtro 
^ TfiP wpoofioXrgp, maX ^ arparik avr^ irwo re 
woptia^ fuucpa^ ol irc(bi icai inro Sttyftm^ avi^xov^ 
o« imrot «ai ovx ^Miara tcark roy wopop rov 
wvTOfiov rtrdKoiirmpriKtoap, 

IX. T^$ Itf vartpaia Biyn 6i€Xmp r^ crparhp 
ToO /Uy iripcv airro^ rfiovptpo^ trpoaifiaW^ r^ 
Tfi\fi, TO J* frtpop UtpcUtcas wpocrjyg, Kal ip 
TOirr^ ou B4(dp€POt oi *\phol Ti$y }AaKthcpt»p rffp 
op/iffP T^ /MV ^**'X^ ^^ voX««K Xtiwovaiv, airrel 
A ^ T^v Am pap fi/rtf^n/Tor. 'AXifay^po^ /a^ 
•^«al 01 dp/^* airrop wvXUa tii^ xaraaxi^t^pr*^ 

S waprjXBop 4^ Tfjif woXiP iToXv irpo r^p SXXwp' oi 
B4 opoO lUphiiCMa Ttrayptyoi variprjaap inrtp- 
fimipmn^% xark rk rtixv ovk tinrrrit^, ovlk rd^ 
mXlpoKO^ Oi woXXol aini^p ^ipoprts, ^i iaXm- 
KiPtu avroU ihoitu 4i iroXic, ipfipovpMPa rmp 
wpopaxophmp ra rtix^ a»^ tcaTtl^v. *iU £^ 1^ 
dxpa iyophni wpo^ tAp woXtpioap ical trpo ravrrj^ 
rrrayptpoi caV to dwopdx^aScu voXXoi i^dprjaap, 
hnaiBa hfi oi pip inropvaaoprt^ ro t€4)^o^, oi Bt 
wpoc6€0€i owf) iraptiicoi tmv xXipafcvv fiidaacBeu 

S tiTdpt^PTO i^ rtjv dicpop. *AX€(apSpo^ B4, tt»f 


archen. Not far off the main body of the infantry 
was visihle. The Indians, then, with all these terrors 
co B r cigiu g npoo them, turned, now in full flight, to the 
most strongly Ibrtified of the near by cities. Alex- 
ander, howerer, following close upon them slew large 
numbers, and when the fugitives had been received 
nio the city, he first, marching on, tiircw his cavalry 
Ml a circle round the city, and when his infantry came 
up, for this day be encamped all round the wall, 
since he had not much daylight left for the attack, 
and his army, the infantry mm their long march, 
the cavalry from tiieir close pursuit, and aO ctpedalW 
from the cnMdQg of the river, were much distfcwe d. 
IX. The next day Alexander divided his army, 
and taking the command of one part himself, began 
his attadt 00 the wall The otticr part PerdioeM 
took command of. Meanwhile the Indians dhl not 
await the attack of the Men ed onhme , but deserted 
the walls of the city, and themsehct fM together 
to the dtadeL Alexander, however, and his troops 
tore down a small gate and penetrated into the city 
far in advanee of the rest. But those under Per- 
diccas' command fell behind, having difficulty in 
getting over the wall; and moat of them carried 
no ladlders, since they thought the city had actually 
been captured, when they saw the walls bereft of 
their defenders. When, however, it was obvious 
that the citadel was in the enemy's hands, and in 
front of it were seen many defenders drawn up to 
fight from thence, lomc at once began undermining 
the wall, others set ladders wherever opportunity 
offered and tried to force a way into tne citadel. 
But Alexander, tliinking that the Macedonians who 



^tpotrrt^ T^« tcXifiOMa^, apwaaa^ teXifiaKa hf^ 
rittf ^tporrmp irpoai$fiK9 r^ '''^X^^ ouro^ ttal 
fiXfj^fiv vwo rn Ji^irlSi avifiaufW M Ik avr^ 
Utv^iara^ 6 r^v Upiip &9irlha dipmp, fjv i* rov 

*AX«{ai^po« Kal wp6 avroO i^prro ip mU 

airtfjv MXifuuca 6 e^/iaTO^v\a(' icar^ Bk SWi/v 
mXJfuuca *Affp4a^ rmw hifu>ipni§¥ rif arpartvo- 

4 plvmp. "Hir; T« wph^ Tp tfvaXfci rov rtix^v^ 
0aoiktv% ^w MoX ip€iaa^ iir avrj rif» iffiriBa 
rois fikp iBu tXcm rov tci^oi/^ ritp *lpBmp, rov^ 
Bk xai airrov r^ (i^« awotcrtipa^ yryvfiPtiucti to 
ravrjf rtlxos' tt^ oi {n^acwivral \nrip6pfioi 
ytPOfiMPOi vwkp rov 0tt^$XSmK airovSj mSovfitPo* 
MiTik Tfip avrtfp gXifiOMa avprpiffovatp avrtiv, 
A^rt oi fikp ^^ ^lomt^ airritp tcdrm hr^cop, 
roU Ik HXXot^ Awopop hroLffcap ri)p Jbfolop, 

6 *AXi{ay^pov Bk m hri rov rtivov^ ^rk^ kvk\^ 
TM awo rmp wXtf^iop wvpymp ipdWtro (ov ykp 
wtXturtu y€ iroXpa ti9 axrr^ rmp *Mmp), teal 
vwo rmp im rifi voX««k» ovhk woppm ^ rovrmp yt 
iaaxoim(6prmp (Jhir^t yap n Koi Trpociux*^H^^^^ 
ravrjf wp^ ro ntx^X SfjXo^ flip ^i» 'AXifapBpo^ 
&p rmp Tc owXmp rj Xafiwportfri teal r^ drow^ 
T^ roXfLfi^, hfpu hk Sri avrov fikp iUpup tcipEv- 
P€va€i fi^hkp o Ti Koi Xoyov d^iou dwohtutpvfupo^, 
Kararrrihfjaa^ tk ttam rov rgix^v^ rvxop fikp 

* KrflfW w rf^ »» t » (M alao in viU. 7 ftbove). TheM 
atUmpU to umk9 ArrUo ooocMtent with biAMlf reralt in 
much tampering with the text. 



were bringing the Udders were malii^peitiigr ■^^■M 
a Udder from one of those who bore them, and him* 
self set it up against the wall, and gathering himself 
well under his shield mounted up; and next Peu* 
cestas, CMirying the sacred shield, which Alexander 
had taken from the temple of Athena of lUum and 
always kept bj him, and which was carried before 
him in battle; and then Leoonatvi, the officer of 
the bodyguard, climbed up; mod by another Udder 
Abreas, one of the Distingidfhed Senrloe Order.^ 
By this time the King was 1^ the battlement of the 
wall, and leaning his shield against it poshed some 
of the Indians within the wall, others there and then 
he slew with his sword, and so stripped that part of 
wall bare of defenders ; hot the bodyguardsi, bccom- 
tag nenrons for their King, hurriedly making their 
way op the same Udder broke it, so that those already 
mounting fell down, and prevented the rest from 

But Alexander, standing as he was upon the wall, 
was shot at all round from the neighbouring towers ; 
for none of the Indians dared to approach him; 
and also from those in the city, these indeed being 
within short range, for at this point there was a 
mound near the walL Alexander was indeed most 
coDspicoooSy both by the splendour of his arms and 
by bis miraculous courage; and he felt that by 
remaining where he was he would run a very great 
risk and yet do no achievement worthy of note; 
but that if he leapt down within the wall he might 

> litanHy, ooa 00 dovbU pay (for serrkM 00 the fleki). 



ici»hv9€vti¥ Bioi, fi€ya\a Spya leal roU hrttra 
wv6ia$ai Ji(ia ^pyatrd/Atvos ovtc dffiroiM diro- 
6aP€lrat, ravra yvov^ tcarawtfh^ diro rou tci'youv 
6 i^ rrfp Sucpoif, "Ei^a hrj ipttaOtU wpo^ r^ "^^^X^^ 
rov^ fiiv Tiya9 ^9 X^^P^^ fkBoma^ «al row yt 
fff€tui¥a TMr *\Mi¥ wpoa^pofAtPOP ol BpaavTtpov 
waiaa^ t^ (1^$ avo«TCiVci* <ltXXoy hi irtXafoirra 
XW^ ffdkmp lo^c. «a4 &\Xo¥ \i$^, ro¥ hk iyyv" 
ripm wpocdyatna r^ {(^«« a^i^. Oi ^ fidpffapa 
irfXa{>iv fA€P avr^ ovxiti fj6t\o»t iBdkkow Bk 
wd¥ro$€9 wtpi^artfKorts S ti ti« hC'^'^ Pi^o^ 

plnf^ *A0p4mt «ai cv* ai>roK Aron^ciro^, oi hfj 
ftopoi hvYOP wpip (urrpt0f^¥tu rik «Xi/Aa«09 
aMi^f/9«l«oTft M TO T«4;^09, /rara'n-f72iyaaKrf9 
cm avroi vpe rov fiavikim^ ipdxotno. KaX 
*A/3p4a^ pkp o tttiotpirri^ v4vtc« aiVroi), To^tvBti^ 
h TO wpoauwor- *AX<fav2pov 2i ^a\Xrra4 cai 
auTov 5i^ ToO Bmpamo^ is to arijdos roftVfUiTi 
tntip rap paarot^, &or€ Xiyti FlToXc/iaiOf ot4 koX 
irP€Vfia oficv rm aTfiari in rov rpavparos 
t ifnrptlro, *0 5*. ^oto fUp in Btpfiop ^v avr^ 
TO al/ia. Koitrtp Katies hc^^» rjfivt'tro* voXXoO 
Bt hrj rov a'fiaros xal dOpoov, ola Brj (vv rrvtv* 
fuin, impvipTOS, tXiyyos Tt airrop xal XMiiron^xia 
Kariax* koX wiwru avrov hrl r^p dtrviwi (vp- 
Ptvaas. HtVKiaras Bi rrtoipks irtirrtaicori icaX 
innpaxmp rtjp Updp rifp if *l\iov davlSa irpo 
avrov Kol A€oinfdros 4s r^ iirl Bdrtpa avroi Tt 



perhaps bj this very sctioo frighten the Indians, 
while if he must be endangered, he might die not 
icnobly, after doing great dee<ls, worthy for those 
that came aAer to hear of With this thought he 
leapt down frtxn the wall and into the citadel. 
There taking (inn stand br the wall, he smote with 
hit swofd and slew some who came to ffrips with him, 
and even the Indians' commander-in-chief, who came 
very boldly to attack him ; another as he approached 
he checked by hurling a stone, and anotner in the 
■ame way; but anyone who came within striking 
distance be smote again with his sword. The 
Indiaat were no longer ready to approach him ; but 
kecpinfp at a distance show er ed missJlct upoo him 
frem an sides, whatever anyone had in his hand, or 

lay iiis ^fftdt inxNib 
X. liUanwhOe Peoeettas and Abreas, of the Dia- 
tJngwished Service Order, and Leonnatus with them, 
the only men who had managed to get on to the wall 
before the ladders broke, leapt down abo and foncht 
to defend their King. Abreas indeed fell there, shot 
with an arrow in the face; and Alexander hinv^clf also 
was struck, right through the corslet into his breast 
over the lung, so that, accor din g to Ptolemy, breath 
together wiUi blood shot forth from the wound. 
Yet Alexander, as long as the bk>od was ftUl warm, 
although faint, kept defending himself; but when a 
good deal of blood came forth, in a thick stream, as 
would be with the breath, he was overcome by 
diaiiness and faintncss, and fell there where he 
stood bending over his shieki. Peocestas stood 
astride of him as he lay there, mnd holding op before 
him the lacred shield from Ilium, and Leonnatus on 
the other side, the two received the showers of 



t ^f^ inro ToO aifiaro^ ^KXiirtl^. ToTf ykp 
MaKthoci tial ravrjf iv awop^f yrfimjro t^ t% 
wpocfiokri^, on oi toy *Wi^a¥^pO¥ ffaWofUfov 
rt frl T^ "f^f^X** i^t^n teal in7S«irra ciVm ^v 
ri^y dapap, vwo cirovl^ rt teal ^o^ov fti; ri 
avTOK o 0aai\€v^ wdSjf ov (vv pA tcipiuvtvwv, 
T^9 mXifiOMa^ (vtnrrpi^^oJt^ aXXo* oXXa^ fuj^oi'^f 
^ TO oj^X^cty tfVl TO Tff4;^o9 «K ^y airopoi^ 
ififJXawitvro, oi fup wacaoKov^ ifiinffvvoprt^ 4^ 
TO Tci^^oc, yriipop 6v, xal nark toinov^ itctep^" 
I^A»PVfk9¥oi xaXrrm^ avtip^op, oi hi, iXKoi iir 

4 iXXow JirtfiaipopTt^, 'O 6^ wptrros dp^XBrnp 
ippiiTTu iavTOP mot^ rov rtivov^ is rtfp voXtp, 
u'atrf p TOi» ffactXia kmpup Ktt^upop, (vp olfuoy^ 
Koi aXaXmyi^ wdwr^s, *H5i7 tc a/i^' avr^ 
wtwrmnort maprrtpk /mIx^ (vpttani^tt ^XXot; iv* 
SXX^ TUP \la««5oMiv wpoaaifil^opros, ical ip 
Toin*^ ol fUp TOP /io^Xoi^ OT^ itx^ro 17 tcark rh 
ft€Tawupyiop wvXfi icajaa\iaaPT€s, iir* 6\iyov< 
wappt^op' oi hi naff o ti ij iruXi; 6Ua\€ rovs 
^/ioi/9 vwo$hn^ KoX wrapTts is to ttcm rov 
ruYovs,^ oprviraaap ravrjf rifp iuepop, 

aL *Cr Toirr^ Bi oi fup tmrtipop rovs *\phov%^ 
KoX iiWiKrttpap yt wdpras oifhi yvvattca ij traiBa^ 
virtXiiirotrTO' oi li f(i4>€pop top fiaaiXia cVl t^9 
deirihos tcatctts txp*^^ ovwm ytyvtoatcoPTts ffidf^ 
aifiop Sma, T6 Bi ffiXos efcXxuacu tx rod 
rpavfiaros iwirtfiopra rtfp v\ffyi)v oi pkp Kpiro- 
Btffiop hpiypayfrap, iarpop KAop, ro y€P0s *Aa/c\rj' 
wtaSr)p* oi Si, llfpBiiCtcap Toy at^fiaro^iikajca, ov 
* rti Tf /x««« Krflg«r ; bat rh rtixM uamt mtUfaotory. 


inittflefl wUle Alexander from low of blood was near 
to fainting. For the conduct of the Macedonian 
assault had come to a deadlock at this point, since 
those who saw Alexander exposed to miniles on the 
wall and then leaping inside into the citadel, these* 
both through ardour and fear lest their Kinc thoold 
come to harm by this thoughtless daring, broke down 
the ladden, and contrived Tarious expedients for 
scaling the wall, in this difficultj ; some hammered 
pegs mto the wall, whidi was of clay, and clinging 
to these managed with difficuHj to clamber up; 
othen too mounted on their comrades* shoulders. 
The first to aseend threw himself down from the wall 
into the city, where ther saw the King Ijing; and all 
lamrntrd, and raised their battle-crj. Ar^ ahresdjf 
a severe battle was raging about the fallen King, 
now one, now another of the Maeedoiiians holding 
his shield over him» but in the meantime some ot 
the troops had severed the bar with which the gate 
between the towers was barred, and so passed in in 
small detachments ; others then put their shoulders 
to a gap broken in the door and pushed it towards 
the spaiee within the wall, and so opened up the 
citadel on this skle. 

XI. And now some began to slaughter the Indians, 
and they slew them all, leaving neither child nor 
woman ; while others carried ov tfie King, who was 
in very evil plight, on the shield, not yet knowing 
whether he could live. Some authorities recorded 
that Critodemus, a phvsician of Cos, by birth of the 
family of Asdepius, drew out the arrow from the 
wound, cutting the part which it had struck ; others 
that Perdiccas of the bodyguard, no surgeon being at 



wapwTO^ ip r^ S«ii^ iarpov, iyxtXtv^aithov 
*AXt(dt^f>ov T^ fi^i iwiTffitlp T^i> wXfiytfv xal 

S leoiiLoaaBeu ro ff4\o^, *E¥ Bi t$ KOfuBj ^opk 
aT/uiTov iroXAow 71 yrrrai. mart Xfiiro^i^ ^ai 
•^if *AXi(apBp09f ical ovru oxtBrjptu avrA to 
mtfim vwi ri Xtiwoftrxia^ UoXXA ^ koI d\\a 
hmy4ypairrai roi^ (vyypa^tv^ip Oirkp rov iraOij- 
fiaro^, xal tj ^tjfin -wapaBt^afUm) avrik tcark rovs 
wpmrov^ ^vcofUfOV^ fn teal ciV rj^ia^ ^affm(§t, 
oM a^tfctt wapaSilovaa xat <^f{^ SXXoi^ r^ 
^tu^. CI /Afi vwo T^Sf T»/^ ^(07pa^^ wavarrm, 

S Avruea hf *OfuJ/Kt4rai9 to wdth)pa rovro ywi- 
o$ai *A\tfdpip^ o wa^ Xoyo^ marixw to 8f A» 
MaXXoi^, i0¥4t avToyop^ IpSim^, ^vpififi, ical fj 
Tt iroXif M«XXiir4i'«ai oi ffa\6m€^ 'AXt^apBpop 
MaXXo^* of Si^ i yprnmcaw uip (v^^^aint^ roU 
*0(vSpdMa4K o^m haympit^toBtu, i^Ot) hk hik 
rif^ atnt^pov hr avrov^ iXdaa^ irpiv rtpa t^^i- 
Xciav airroU irapk tup *Of u^pa/cMv ygpi^deu ^ 

4 avroif^ /«<ikoi9 ti iwu^Xifaai, *Ktrf^ xal r^p 
rtXtvraiap fui)(yjp TffP wpa^ ^apttop ytpofihnfp, 
staff' ^pTipa i^vyt ^ap€io< ouSi wp6^€P i\ff(€ 
1% ^vyrj^ wp\p ^vXKt^Bripai \nrh rmp ap4^X 
bv^o'ov mai wpoadyopros rfiti ^AXtfdt^Bpov dwo- 
Boptip, wpo^ *Ap/9r;Xoi9 ytvicdeu o ira^ X0709 
KariyMi, gaBawtp ovp Kal rr)p irpo ravrrf^ ip 
\<rc^, ical TVfp irpmTffp lirwofiaxiap irpo^ Vpa- 

• puc^, *AXXa wpo^ TpaPiK^ fuu (viiffrj $uixn 
iwirutif xal wpo^ *\aa^ ^ aiSi^ vpo^ i\aptiop 
payrr "ApBrfKa hk rov X»pov ip ^ rrjp ia\dTqv 
fi^xn^ ^ap€i6^ rt leal 'AX<fav5/KK ipaxiaavro 
ot fikv ra irXthna (vyypdy^aprt^ \iyovaiP on 


hand in this emergenej, cut the wowod with his 
sword, mt Alexander • express command, and so drew 
out the arrow. In the withdrawal there was a great 
rush of blood, so that Alexander fainted again, and 
the haemorrhage was thus checked by his fainting. 
A great manj other stories have been written by the 
historians about this disaster, and legend has handed 
them 00 as the first fakifiers told them, and still 
keeps them alive to this day ; and wiU indeed never 
cease handing oo these falsehoods to others in turn, 
unless it be chedted by this my history. 

To becin with, tradition is unanimous that this 
disaster happened to Alexander among the Oxy- 
draeae ; whmas it took place among the Malliam, 
an independent Indian tribe ; the city was a Mallian 
dty, ana they were Mallians who wounded Alexander; 
ther had indeed determined to join the Oxydracae 
and so licht together, but Alexander reached them 
too quickly, marching thn>uf*h the drsert, before any 
help had time to reach thcni fruni the Oxydracae, or 
they give any help to the Oxydracae. In the same 
wav, univerud tradition has it that the Ust battle 
with Dareius, that in which Dareius fled and con- 
tinued his flight until he was captured by Bessos 
and his followers, and perished, while Alexander 
was pressing hard upon nim, took place at Arbela ; 
and the battle before this at Issus, and the first, 
the cavalry battle, at the Granlcns. Actually, a 
cavalrr battle took place at the Granlcus, and the 
seoood battle against Dareius at Issus; but those 
historians who put Arbela furthest was away from the 
place where Dareius and Alexander fought their last 



ifaxoaiov^ araB/ovs aw€X€i» oi Sk rk Aoxt^ro, 
8ri h warraxoa iov%. *AXA^ iv TairpifATiXoi^ ykp 
y€i4a$tu ri)v fi^x^ irpo^ r^ irora/i^ BovfM*^ ^ 

6 Xi>y«i UroXtfialo^ gai *Apnrr60ov\a^, floXiv Bk 
ovK ^¥ ra VavydfAf)\a, dXX^ /rw/Ai; fuydXfj, ovS^ 
QiMtfiaaro^ o X^P^ ^^^ ^^ uMoif^ rfiu to ^vo/ui* 
Mgp hi fAOi &«€ 4 voXif o^a ra "ApffrfXa dinf- 
p^y^aro rifp h6(ap rtj^ /AryoX^ ftaXV* ^ ^ 
ir/>09 *Apffr)\ot^ xph o!€a$tu y4p4a0a$ to tpyop 
iMtUfO, i^ roaopBt Apfff}XM¥ dwtxop, «ai rtfp 4p 
SaXo^iivc ytPOftitniP pav^x^" wp<K ia$fA^ t^ 
Kopip$imp i(€art \iy€iP oti iykprro, maX rifp hr* 
*ApT€fUCi^ rif^ Evffoia^ wpo^ Aiyipff H SovW^. 

7 Kol /i^y irir^^ T«ir vwtpaffwiadprmp hf r^ 
«ir£i^ *AX«{dy5pov, lltv/r^Toi^ /itfy y€p4e0ai 
(vfiiraPT^ OfioXoyovaip, vwio Atoppdrov Bi oth 
girt (vp/^ipoprat oM inrkp Afipiov rov hipoi' 
pirov, Kal oi pkp (i/Xm wXynhna xar^ rov 
Mpdpov^ *AXi(apBpop xai iXiyyidcopra wtatlp, 
atOi^ B^ dpocTupra fi\rfii)pai ffikti Biii rov 
Btipago^ i^ TO arrfio^' IlToXc/ialof V o Aa70i; 
ravTfiP popfjp rifp wXtjyijp wXfjyrjva^ Xiy€i rrjp 

8 ^9 TO arffOo^, To Bk Btf fuyiarop rrXuppiXripa 
rup (vyypa^dpr^p tA d/i^l * AXi^apBpop t/etipo 
rLBtptu Hymyt. UroXtfiaiop ykp rop Adyov 
ianp 6i op^ypayfrap ^vvavapiripai tc ^ AXt^dpBptf 
mark rv}p kXipaica opov Wtviciara icaX vntpeurwi- 
oat M€ip4POv, icai fvl r^Bt ^Ltprifpa ifnKXrjOrjpai 
rop UroXepaZop' Matron avro^ UroXepatos dpa- 

> 8m in. a. 7. W« tboald p^rhaiw kaep B^v^k^p here, 
UMMgh A*s rmiiag ii do«blfaL Cortiiu IV. 9. 10 hM 

13^ "^ 


battle say that it is 600 stadet away ; thoae who make 
the distance least, put it at 500stades. For Ptoleinaeut 
and Aristobulus state that the battle took place at 
Gaugaroela by the river Bumodus. Gaugamela« 
moreoYer, was not a city but a large village ; it was not 
an important place, and the name has rather an 
awkward sound ; and thus, as I opine, Arbela, being a 
dty, carried off the gk>ry of this great battle. If, 
however, we most bold that this engagement took 
place at Arbela when It was aetualhr at such a dtetamee 
from Arbela, we may aa weD boU that the naval battle 
at Salamis took place at the isthmus of Corinth, and 
the battle of Artemisium in Euboca at Aegina or 

Then again, as to thoae who protected Alexander 
with their ihields in his grave danger, all agree that 
one was Peucettas, but they do not agree about 
!<«itmatna nor jret about Abreaa, the winner of the 
Dittli^iiiibed Serrfee Order. Then tome sair that 
Alexander wea ttmck on the helmet with a clttb, and 
became diasy, and so fell ; and then, risinc up again, 
was ftmck with a shot in the breast« rU^t through 
his breastplate ; but Ptolemaeot too of Cagus states 
that there was only this one wound, that in the 
breast.^ But I reckon the greatest error of those 
who wrote hittoriet of Alexander to be this ; Ptole- 
maeui aoo of Lagos, according to tome authorities, 
mounted up with Alexander up the ladder, together 
with Peucestas, and held his shield over him aa he 
lay there, and for this Ptolemaena was always called 
in addition the Saviour; whereaa Ptolemaeus him- 

> This pMMgs is givsa as PtolaoMMis, Frsgrn. M, ia 
Dafaocr's sditioo. Curtios blaass CUtarehos and TInisgwiss 
for nlatfaif thai Ptnbmssas was pfssil. 



yiypa^€P ovSi wapay€P4a$eu rovr^ r^ fyfT' 
aXXA arparta^ ykp ainhi^ rjyovfUPiK d\\a^ 

Taura fiiv £^ iw ixffoXj rou koyov Ju^ytypd^m 
ftOi, m^ fifj draXaiwtapop yiy¥€a6ai roU hrwrtt 
dpOptiwoi^ Trj¥ inrip rAv rtiXncovr^p fpymw Tf 

XII. *Ep ^ Bk *A\4(aphpo^ airrou fjJwmp to 
rpavpa Wipaw^vrro, ^9 t^ arparowtlop Mwwtp 
upfAffBt) iirl rov^ MdXXovs o piw wp^ra^ Xoyo^ 
^K€P 5Tt T€^in7««K ffii| ix rov rpaiz/uiTO^. Kai 
T^ /Ur wpmrra olpmyii ^9 rtfs crpartd^ (vfi- 
wda^, JiXXou SXXm wapmMotrra^ rffv ^rjp.fjp' 
itavadpMvot hk t^ ot/ury^ &6vfkoL tc koX iwopoi 
^av oa^Ti9 lU^ i(^iyovfA€¥ai Hartu rrj^ orpariaK 

vpo« Ttf aiWoi) *AXM(dpcpay mmi woo^ Ma4r#SoM#y 
«a^9TV74r«Mi«)- 5iri»« M ivoaii^i|^orra4 Wf r^i^ 
oisniav, rocovrmtf fiiw iBpmv fia;^i/M»r wtpttip- 
yotrrmp a^a^ tp «i;«Xm, rmp fUv oinrt* mpoa- 
K^x^pV^ormp, h Brj vwtp r^ fkMvBtpia^ ttMa^op 
dfymputaSoi gaprtp^, iStp hi dwoarrjcofUprnp, 
iu^^ptBiino^ auTOi9 toi) *AX«((ii/5/>oi/ ^/Sav 
itorapjitv tc ^y f>^^f* dBtaffdrwp rort 2* ihoitovp 
cImu, icoi irairra a^i^ip ^vopa ical a^i7;^aMi 
S ipripois *A\t(dphpov c^oiVcTo. 'Oc £c {'^c ttotc 
X0709 OTi f5 AX<(ai/Spo^, ToaJry /My /^<V 
^vpr)(mpficap' ti hi cat fiiuxnpo^ ianp, ovtrtt 
iwiCTtvtro, *il^ hi ncu ypdppara irap* avrov 
^/c€P on oaop oinrtt /raTcXct^arrai iirl to arpa- 
rawthop, ovhi rairra roU iroXXo*^ trrro rov dyaw 



self haf recorded thmt he was not so much as present 
in this actkm; but in fact was at the head of his 
own force and was fighting other battles and against 
other tribeflBen. This much I mutt be permitted 
to ha¥e said, by waj of digrcwlon, so that those 
who eome afterwards maj give •ome paint to the 
narrative of such great deeds and disasters. 

XII. Uliile Alexander was resting here and 
getting treatment for his wound, the 6rst report 
reached the camp whence he had set out against 
the Mallian« that he had died from the wound. 
And first there was a lamentation firom all the 
armj aa one told the report to another; then, while 
ceadng their lamentation, thej were disheartened 
and despairing as to the future leader of the boat 
(for both in Alexander's opinion and In the Mace- 
donians' manj seemed to be equal in reputation), 
and despairing too how thej might get back safe to 
their own homes, with all these warlike nations closing 
them roond In a circle, some of whom had not yet 
surrendered, and these seemed likely to fight stoutly 
for their freedom ; and others were eertain to revolt, 
if the dread of Alexander was removed from them. 
Then they believed that they were, at the time, in the 
midst of impawible rivers ; and everything seemed 
to them helpless and hopeless if they had k»t 
Alexander. Yet when news came that Alexander 
was alive, they hardly believed it ; and they could 
not believe that he could yet survive. But when a 
letter came from him that he would shortly come to 
the camp, even then most of them could not believe 



hiov^ irtark ^^atvrro, dWA irXdrrtaOai ykp 
wpo^ TMV a/A^* avTov oto^ro^vXdtcmv rt teal 
crparrtyeav ftVufrro. 

aIII. Koi ravra (vvorfffa^ ^ KXi^avhpo^, fiij Ti 
vctirrtpMOtiff iv rp orpaTia. ort wptarov tjBvitrjOfi 
KOfu^rrtu dw\ rou wora^tov rov TBpatinov rAc 
i^OuK' xal irXiti0P icarii rov worafiov {^p yap to 
crparoirfSoiftwl raU (ufiffoXaU rou rt *TBpatirov 
gal Tov 'AtctaiiHiv, tpa *U^<uarlw» Tt M r^ 
arpand^ ^w gal Siapxo^ to pavntcov avr^ 
tl^fi'). ftK MXaf;€9 rj pavs ^^ t^ arparowiB^ 
rw ffaatXJa ^'povaa, ntXtvft Bf) d^^Xtlp rtfp 
aicrfinjp dwo rtfs wpvfAtnf^, m Kara4>a»fj^ tli^ai 

t wdaip, Oi 5^ hi ^wicTOVw, «f rt/rpoi) htfitv 
KOful^ofUpov *AXt(di^Bpov, wpip 7f htf wpoe^xov- 
crf^ T^ MMK T^ OY^jy o fikv rrjp yfitpa dpiTUP€P 
h rh wXifBar oi oi hptfforiaap, 7« rhp ovpophp 
^poffx^'^^ T^^ X'*P«*« o* ^^ ^/>^ avTOi' W\i(- 
apBpop' woWois Si leal Idicpva M t^ dvM\- 
iriar^ wpo€xv0fi dtcovaa, Koa oi /Up rtip 
intaciriarmp kKivi^p irpoci^pop avr^ ixKOfuf^o- 
fUp^ ix T^ P€m* o hi TOP Imrop irpoaayaytlv 

% Uiktvcw, 'n^ W iitiPd^ rov Jmrov w^iy av6t^, 
gpdr^ S^ woXkA hf€Kr\finictP ^ ffrpartd irdtra' 
iwTjxti^av hi ai rt 6\0a$ leal at trXrjaiov avrcjv 
pdwai, Upwrdyttp hi IjSfj rfj aicfjvrj KaraffaiPti 
diro rov ivirov, &ar€ icaX t^aBit^tap o<^6rjpai, Oi 
hi iwiXa^op dXXo^ &XXo$€P, oi flip \€ipwp, oi Si 
jopdrctp, oi hi rfj^ iaSriro^ avr^ dirr6fji€Por oi 
ii Kol iS^ip iyyvOip icai ri teal irrtv^rj^iri<ravr€^ 
dif€X0ti»r oi hi ratpiat^ tffaXXop, oi hi dpBtaiP, 
Off a (p r^ rort ij *lphdtp yf) ira/»i;^e. 


this for excess of fear; but they thought that it 
was made up by iiis bodyguards aod officers. 

XIII. Alcxander.leamingof this state of things, to 
prevent any disturbance in the army, was carried, so 
soon as ever be was able, to the bank of the river 
Hydraotes; and then sailing down-stream, for the 
camp was at the junction of the Hydraotes and the 
Acesines, where Hephacstioa was in command of 
the army and where Nearchut had his fleet, as soon 
as the boat with the King on board began to draw 
near to the camp, be ordered the awning to be taken 
oir the stem, to that everrooe might see him. But 
the troops even now disbelieved, saying to them- 
selves that Alexander's dead body was being brought 
down, till at length, when tlie ship had put in at the 
bank, Alexander held up his kand towards the 
multitude; and they sbooted aloud, tome holding 
up their hands to lieaveo, and others towards 
Alexander himself; and many involuntary tears 
were shed in the unexpectedness of their joy. Some 
of the bodyguard brought a litter for him, as he was 
being carried out of the ship ; but he bade hb horse 
be brought alongside. And when he mounted the 
horse, and all saw him, the whole armr clapped 
their hands again and again ; and the banks ana the 
glens near the banks re-echoed the sound. Then 
when Alexander drew near his pavilion he dis- 
moonted from his horse, so that tne armv behekl 
him walking. Then they all ran towards him from 
this aide and that, some touching his hands, 80010 
his knees, some his garment; others just looked on 
him from near at haml, and with a blessing opon him 
went his way; some cast wreaths upon nim, some 
such flowers as the c o untr y of India bare at that time, 



iyipctrro 6coi iKtuul^op in avro^ irpo r^ arp«k' 
riaf iftwhvtwu' o%f yap arparffjov ravra, ^\XA 
or par ^mrov cZvai. Kai /ini hoau ^xj^t^tu 
*AXtf{aySpo^ TotaSc roU XoyoiK, on aXffOiU r« 
6ma^ iyipt^tct xal auro^ (nrainoy TJ «iriTi/Ai7<rfi. 
Kal OfAm^ viro fU»o%f^ t< roO ^y roXf juLx^i^ teat 
rov ipmro^ rrf^ ^ofi^t, MoBdirtp ol aWti^ nvo^ 
^Soi^ cfirrTM/««yo<, ou maprrtpo^ ^9 awiY^aOai 
A TMV KUfhinmp. "Apdpmwop hi rtpa wp€cpvr€po¥ 
X^Tfi Boi^rrioi*, to 5^ Svofia rov apOpwwov ov 
X4y€t, m^ ayBofitPOP rt wpo^ t^v ^viTifii/9«<9 rit¥ 
^CKo»» nartfiaBw *A\i(avBpo¥ Ktu iaicv0p<awa' 
icora, wpootXBotrra rov top ffoimndf^orra &fia 
TJ ^«i^ ravra ^dpnv *n *AXVfai^f>f, dphpmif 
rk ipya* icai ti koX iafifiuoif irtt^irtuf, row hk 
wo^ flpcu rov iafiffuov on r^ ri hpSnrrt tcai 
wa0*lM icnv h^iXo^uvow, Ktu rovrov h rt r^ 
wapavrUa tvhoKifirjcai gal iwinrihtiortpop fiV to 

XIV. *Ey TOVT^ tk d^Mopro vap* *A\i(aphpop 
rmp SioKKStp tmv vwoXnwo/Aipup wpiff0*i^» €V£<- 
Sorrcv TO cd^yof, iral wafii *OfvlpaKitp ol rt 
ifPtMPt^ rup woXmup Kol oi pofuipxtu avroi 
Moi £kXoi ifta TOirroic itarop koX w€prtjicopra 
01 yprnpifuiraroi airroicpdropt^ rrtpl arrouhiop 
tttod T« oaa pAyttrra rrap *\vhoU icopifypr€% 
% KOi ro €$¥0^ itai oinoi ivoihopit^, ^irfyvmcrk 
hh dfULprtiP i^aaap ov wdXai irap* ainov irpta- 
PtvcdpMPOi' dmOvptip ydpt &cir€p npt^ dXXoi, 
frt futXXop avrol iXtvOepia^ rt teal avrovopoi 
tlpoi, ^jpripa iX(v6tpi€LP if 6rov Slower o^ 4^ 


Nearchns tells us that he was angry with those of 
hit friends who rebuked him for running so great a 
risk in advance of the army ; this, they said, was a 
soldier's part, not a commander s. My own idea it 
that Alexander was angry with these reproachet 
because he knew that they were true and that he had 
Uid himself open to this rebuke. And yet from his 
enthiHltMn in battle, and hit patrion lor glofy* he, 
jntt at others are overcame by tome pleasure, wat 
not strong enough to keep out of dangers. Nearchut 
goet on to say that an oldish man, a Boeotian — he 
does not give hto nam e —p er c ei v i ng that Alexander 
wat angry with his frienoi' repvoMbet and showed 
hit ind&nation in his features, came vp to him and 
fai bit Boeotian dialect takl : *' Alexander, noble 
deedt are mcn*t work " ; and added an iambie vene 
of which the ceoeral tenour wat *' Sufferii^ it the 
meed of him that doth great deed." ^ The toeaker 
won Alexander's immediate approval and tnence- 
forward his closer friendship. 

XIV. At tUt time came envojrs from the rest of 
the Malliant, ofering tnrrender of the tribe; and 
from the Oxydraeae the g ov er nor s of the cities and 
the dittriet governor s in person and others of their 
chief personages, op to the number of a hundred and 
6fty, at plenipotentiaries to discots terns, bringing 
the most precious Indian gifb, and they also offering 
surrender of their tribe. They urged that theb 
error was pardonable, in that they had not sent 
envoys earlier; they above all others were desirous 
to have freeckim and to be self-governing; tiiat 
freedom indeed they had preserved intact from the 

> FhND Aewhvlos; FrafOMOt S8S (Diodoff). 



hpa¥ 6.WO 6*iuf fMpiaOai Xoyo^ ttarij^ti, ffarpdwffp 
Tf ApaBifteOoi Svripa rdrrot *A\t{a»^po^ Mui 

topev^ awoiau» rov^ 'AXtftiyBp^ hofturrti^ 
tovai 5i mat ofufpov^ /^«\«ijr Scov^ ikw air^' 
9 *A\i(aMBpo^, 'O a x^^^^ ir^V^* Tpvv Kpa-na- 

ipuifmp Ka6i^€t¥t ti hk fi^, (varpaTtvorra^ i(u¥ 
iar Sip Bta-ro\€fAff0j ain^ wpo^ rov^ &K\ov^ 

KpatioTov^ iToi imjUrox^ a^i^p iwiXefdfigpoi^ 
mtu Sfifiara wwraMoauk ovx airif0ipr€^ nal rov^ 
dfifidraK trnp apfidrmp. *A\J(apBpo^ 64 aarpd- 
wifp fiip rovroi^ rt leal r&p SiaWmp ToJf fr» 

airroU <<^7«€, t^ Bi ipfiara iXafiw, 

4 'iU ^ Tai>Ta auT)» KtMocfif/ro xal irXoSs /wl 
r^ liarpifi^ t§ 4m roO rpavfiaro^ woXXA wpoc€p4' 
pavw^jfiTo, dpoffiffdaaK i^ rilv pav^ r&p fiip 

^iXmp Bi oaovcntp xai irpoTMpop, irffovt t^ h 
iwpiow, oXiyop fUP Ti T^ 'TBpamTff worofi^ 
MarrwXgvanr «k hi evpi^i(tP o 'TBpamrri^ 1^ 
*AK€cipjf, Br$ o *AM€auni^ xpar§i rou "Thpatauov 
ri iwmPVfUf, xara rop 'Axtaipffp av fwXit, iarg 
iwl Tffp (v/AfioXfjp TOU *AMtaiPOv Kal rou *Iv£oO 

5 4 «f. Tiaaapts yap ouroi firyaXoi worafiol /cal 
pawriwopoi oi ri<raap€^ «iV top *\pB6p norafiop 
ro CBmp (ufiffdWouaiP, ou (up tj c^tripq. 
itcacTo^ itrmpufua, d\XA 6 'TBdavtfs flip ^9 top 
*AK€aiPrfp 4fi0d\X€$, efA/5a>Jap Bi t6 Tt&» th»p 


cUjrs when Dkmysos came into India up to Alexander ; 
but if it so pleased Alexander, since report had it that 
Alexancier too was descended from gods, they would 
accept any governor whom Alexander should appoint 
and would pay such tribute as might seem good to 
Alexander ; and they would give hostages so many 
as Alexander should require. Alexander demandea 
a thousand of the chief men of the tribe, whom he 
should, if he desired, keep as hostages ; or if other- 
wise, should have them serving with his army, till he 
should finish his wars against Uie rest of the Indians. 
They duly sent the thoosaiid men, choosing out the 
most important and greatest of their tribe, and also, 
unasked, five hundred chariots, and the drivers of 
the cliariots. And Alexander appointed Philip as 
satrap over them and the tunriving Mallians ; he 
then retomed to them the hostages, but retained 
the chariots. 

When he had put all this in order, and as soon as 
a large number of additional boats had been coq- 
stnicted during the period of his ooovalesoenee from 
the wound, he emnurked 00 the ships seventeen 
hundred cavalry of the Companions, and of the light- 
armed troops tne same number as before, and up to 
ten thousand infantry, and sailed a short way down 
tiie Hydraotes ; but where the Hydraotes joined the 
Aeesines, since there the name Acesines takes pr^ 
cedenoe over Hydraotes, be sailed down the Aceriner, 
till he eame to the aieeting of the Aeesines and 
Indus. For these four great rivers, all navigable, 
pour their waters into the Indus, not each with its 
original name, but the Uydaspes runs into the 
AcesineSf and pouring in its whole stream accepts 



*AK€ai¥ffv wapi\rTtu KoXovfuvop* a^iv hk 6 
*A«faivi^ ovros (vfiffaWti r^ 'T^pamrjf, leal 
wapaXaftiuf toOtov ir^ 'Axtairff^ iari' maX tov 

'\pSo^ wpi¥ €9 TO AcXra 0^;^ia^^yai ouk dmarii 
cm Kal i^ igarop arahlov^ ipx^rai xal inrip rov^ 
(tearoy rvj^oif ipawtp Xtfu^dfti /tdWoif, 

XV. *E^avda ^vl rj (yfiffoXj rov *At(taipov 
ami TOt) *Jr3ov wpoaitmpw l^rc d^Utro avrm 
{vy rp aroartf UtpUMma^, Karaarp€^fi€vo9 iv 
wtMoif TO *Affacrapu¥ S&po^ mnwoiu»¥. *Er 
TovT^ tk &KXtu rt wpocyiyvctntu *A\t(d¥Bp^ 
rptagotnopo$ Mai wXola arpoyyvXa SXKa, A wf 
4p Sa^/io«f ipavmrpf^V a^^* oi Bfi SXXo HBwf^ 
*li4«»r avTCPOfiov wpoctx^Pf^^*^' ^^ ira/>^ 
*0^aa2(tiv, «ai rovrov yi^ovs avropofittv *ly5arot), 
wpicfftiK ^M0¥, ^p^Bdmt^ ttal o^oi roif^ 

t 'OaaoSiot^. <I>iXaw^ ia^ ^ t^ aarpairtia^ 
5pouf cTa{f T^c cvfiffoXa^ rou r§ *Aictaivov ica\ 
*\w^Vt KoX airoX«iWci ^up airr^ rovs tc ^patca^ 
wopra^ xal ix rtap rd(t^¥ oaoi i^ ^u'KaKf)v 
t^ X*^P^^ ^"^'^ i^oipotno, WoXiv t« imavBa 
Mricat ixiXivctp hr atrrj rj (vfi/3o\^ roip 
worafi4HP, iXwi^a^ fitydKtjp t« f^tffBai moX 
htti^upr) ^f dpdptinrov^, xai PtmcoUov^ noitf- 

t BHp i au 'Ep rovr^ ^ mal 'Ofvaprt)^ 6 Bd/crpio^, 
6 'FmfdpTf^ rrj^ yvptuxos ^AXtfdpSpov irarijp, 
^ic9 wap *A\ifapBpop' xal irpoariOrjatp avr^ 
HapajrafuaaBAp <rarpaw€V€ip, diraWd(a^ Ti- 



the name Aoesinet ; then Again the Acetinet 
the Hydraotet, and taking in this tributary 
the Aeeainca; then next the Acesines takes in the 
Hyphasifl and still in its own name runs into the 
Indus, bat once having done so Is merged into the 
Indus, and thence the Indus, before it splits into its 
delta, must be, I think, some hundred stades broad, 
and perhaps more, where it becooiet more lake than 

XV. There at the jooctkm of the Aoesinet and 
Indus Alexander remained till Perdieeat }4faied bfan 
with his army, after subduing on his march the 
independent tribe of Abastanes. At this time also 
there loined Alexander further thirty-oared ships 
and other transp or t vessels, which had been built 
for him among tne Xathrians, who had surrendered 
to him, being another independent Indian tribe. 
Envoys came too from the Ossadlanst who also are 
an independent tribe of Indians; they ofered the 
submiwion of the OssadUms ; Alexandler then fixed 
as the boondaries of Philip's satrapy the junction of 
the Acesines and Indus, and left with htm all the 
Thradans, and from the ordinary brigades such 
troops as seemed enough to garrbon the country. 
He Dade him dso fbond there a city,' just at the 
meeting of the two riven, having entertained a hope 
- hat such a city would become great and famous In 
the world; he also ordered dodcyards to be built. 
And about this time Oxyartes the Bactrian, fother of 
Roxane, Alexander's wife, came to visit Alexander ; 
and Alexander gave him in addition the satrapr over 
the Parapamisadae, removing Tiryaspes the former 

> Om of tiM SMoy AlttandclBS. 80M think ii is ths 


pvd^mtP rw wpoaOtp aarpdwrfv, Srt ov€ ip 

4 *£a^a Bf) hia^ifidaa^ Kpdrtpow rt xal r/)^ 
trrpaTta^ rtjp iroWrfp k<u rov^ ikk^atrra^ iv 
apt art pa tou *lphou warafiov, on tinropmrMpd 
Tf ravTTf ra wapk top worafAop arpan^ ffapdf 
^oiMTO gal ra iSpf) rk wpocoucovpra ov wtunrj 
^ikta ^p, avTo^ MariwXu i^ rwy l,crf^p to 
J3aai\t^op. Kal ipraitSa woKiP re h'tix^f^p 
dXkfip Ktu ptmaoUovt iwoUi aXXoi*^ Ktu r^ 
w\oia airr^ r^ vwonf^ora iirtdctvacBfi. T^ 
M awo Tw (vfiSoXifP Totf Tf *I»SoD xal ^KkmoIpov 
v«^9 lore iwi $d\acaap aarpdirrip diriBn^tp 
x)fvdpTtip «al HMmpa ^ (vp rj wapaXif wdajf 

5 K«i KpaTtpop i»kp itrwifiwu a^t^ fifp r^ 
rrpaTta [6tA r^ 'A/M^^rMj^ «ai ^pdyymp 7^]* * 
auTOf M «aTfirX«« /t r^y Mov^ucapov IwiKpd- 
Tmap, ^rrcMi €v^fiOP€aTdTt)P r^ *li^<»v y^ 
ffliHU ^f777/XArro, Sti oCwm oCt9 dwrjpriiMti 
atrr^ Moi/aicavo^ ip^ihov^ avrop t« /ral Trfv 
;^Mpaj' otrrf wp4^0€iK i^rl ^Xi^ i/nrifiwti, ovBi 
Ti otrrc ai^ot iwrroft^u & S^ /ie/ciX^ /9a^iXc4 

6 cu(09» otn*! r« nTtfggi i( *A\t(dvhpov, Kal 
yiyprrai atrr^ o wXoth xaTk top irorafiop i^ 
TO^Oph€ iairovhaafUPO^ &ct€ i^ri itrl toU 
•/MMf ytPttrOai ttjs Movaixapov x^P^^ '"'P^'^ 
wvBmrSai Wovcucopop on &p^rfra^ ats iir^ avrop 
*AX((aplpo^, 0&r« Btf ixwXayti^ irar^ Tdxo^ 

' Some word perhapt (erpmnrr^) lost after flciivre. Bot 
Me XTii 1. A JoiBi rale it powible. 

• [M . . . T^f ) eonflioU with f 7 below ; wm bnuiketed 
uj BcBHiiedtr. 



satrap, tince this Tirjaspes was reported to him to 
be conductiiig his office in a disorderly manner. 

Then Alexander caused Cratems and the greater 
part of the army and the elephants to be ferried acroM 
to the left bank of the river Indns ; since the jouraej 
along the river^bank seemed easier 00 that side to 
heavy troops, and also since the tribes on the river- 
bank were not everywhere friendly. Then he him- 
self sailed down towards the royal city of Sogdia. 
There he built and fortified a new city, and made 
new dockyards, and had his damaged boats refitted. 
As satrap of tlie eoantry finon die meeting of the 
Indus and the Acesines up to the sea, with all the 
coast-line of the country of India, he appointed 
Oxyartes with Peitho. 

Craterus then he sent back again with his army 
(through the territory of the Arachotians and Dran- 
gians) while he himself sailed down-ttream t o w ar d s 
the kingdom of Musicanus, which was reported to 
be the riehest of all India, ainee Muskranus had not 
yet ptetented himself to surrender himself and his 
country, nor had sent envoys to establish friendly 
relations; nor indeed had sent anything at all, as 
one naturally would to a great King, nor had made 
any request from Alexander. The voyage down the 
river proved so swift that he arrived at the borders 
of Musicanus' realm before Musicanus became aware 
that Alexander had started in his direction. Amased 
then by this swiftness of movement, Musicanus at 



dyuif ical TO HBt^a^ tc «al auroy MtBov^ «al 
o/«oXo7MV dhi/ctlw, Sirtp firfiffTop wap *AX«- 

fapiff^ ^¥ ^9 TO TU^^^CII' &» TI9 S«0<TO. Kfll 01^ 

«sl Movai4rai^ <vl to«o5« aS«ia iB6$r) t( *AX«- 
^i4pov, ffoi r^ voXiv idavfiofftp *A\i(apBpoK 
xal Tffp ympa9, mal dpx^i^ airrif^ Movcttcat^ 
iUtKt. Kpdr9p9^ hi ^p TJ woXti irdx^n ^h^ 
iUpmp ^rrfi;^(904* «ai wapotna^ hi irtix^^ 
*AXt(tMpov Kol ^vXoMfi Kartard0ff, trt ^witi^ 
itiop aCrr^ i^dpti TO X^P^^ ^ ^^ itarix^cOai rk 

XVL *ei^fv Sa aMOa^wv Toi;^ rt ro(6ra^ xal 
rov^ ^Aypidpa^ xal rtip Xmrop Ti)r Sfia ol 
wXiovaap ^(^Xavptt M toi» POfidpj^p t^ ravrfj 
'm, SpofiA Bi ^p *0(vKap6^, Srt fiifrf aorh^ 
oAlrro /Ai;Tt wpicfi^i^ wap* avrov ^kop Mi- 
BoPTf^ avrop Tt Koi ty)v ;^«#oay. Auo f^ip htj 
r^9 fuytffra^ woXhk rmp vwo r^ *0(uKap^ i( 
^66ov garii xpdro^ iXafitP* ip hi r^ Mp<f 
tovrmp KoX aino^ *0^map{t^ koKm. 'O hk Tnv 
pJkp Xjtiap rj arpana BiBmci, rov^ iXJ^pra^ ci 
&fia ol ^€. Kal SXXoi Bi iroXti^ avr^ ai ip rp 
airr^ X^Pf ipthihowro itriovri ovhi ri^ irpdvero k 
dXxTiP' ovrm /rol *lrSol itdvrt^ ihtlovXtamo fjSfj rj 
7W»/*J? irpo? 'AXffdyhpov t« teal rr/^ 'AXtfdpSpov 

O Bi iwl ^fiffop a^ ^7«, TCtfy optittp *lph&p 
aarpdwrjp irw* axnov tcaracradivra, t^ Trc^ci;- 



oDce went to meet Alexander, bringing ffifts such as 
are accounted most valuable among the Indians, and 
leading thither all his elephants; moreover, sub- 
mitting himself and his people and acknowledging 
his error, which was the moat potent method with 
Alexander of obtaining what anjone might deiire. 
Andt tore enough, Muvicanus received pardon fttMn 
Alexander ; and Alexander much admirea his coontfj 
and his capital, and permitted Musicantts to remafai 
sovereign over it Cratenu was orde t e d to fortify 
the citadel in this citv ; and it waa to fortified while 
Alexander was still there, and a garrison was placed 
there, since the position seemed to Alexander very 
convenient for keeping a hold over the tribes over 
which he WM keeping watch in the neighbour* 

X\1. From there Alexander, taking with him 
the archers and the Agrianes and the cavalry which 
was sailing with him, made ao exp e dlti oo ^Vdosl the 
g<yvemor of thu dutrict, who was named O tycmu s; 
since he had neither come himself nor had envoys 
come from him, to surrender himself and his district. 
Two of the largest dtics in Oxycanus' province 
he took at the first assatdt, and in the second of 
these Oxycanus hlBMlf was captured. All the 
plunder Alexander handed over to the army, but 
the elephants be took away hfanself. Other dUes 
in the same distriet sorraidered on Alexander's 
approach, no one resisting, so completely had the 
spirit of all the Indians been broken by Alexander 
iind Alexander's good fortune. 

Next Alexander advanced against Sambus, who 
had been appointed by himself satrap of the Indian 
hillinen; he was reported to have made good his 



iUvow wpo^ *A\«(avSpov hrvBrro maX itj^ X^P^^ 
T^ iavTov ^pxptrra* tA y^p wpo^ \\ovattcay6p 
4 avr^ woXifua ^¥. 'Cl^ Bi iw4Xa(tP ^Btj 7^ iroXfi 
*AX^aySpo^ t^tii^ fifiroowoXiP flx^" 4 toO 
^d/ipov Yifpa, Spofia Bk rjp r^ iroX«i Xii^fii'/iai'af 
al rt wvXai avr^ amiyomtu wpoadyovji kcX ol 
oUtttH rov ^fiffov rd tc xprifiara dwrfp^Sfifiaap 

ov fkp h^ *AXM(upBpm y€ woXtfum^ fyoma 
'ldfi0€¥ ^yytlp, dXXA MovaiMaifoy rrjif o^c^iv 
6 Sft <rarra. 'O M mai SXktfV woXip ip tovt^ 
Awoaraaap clXtf, «ai rmp B/Mi;^/idM*y. oi &^ 
ao^cral TOK *Iy^ft« fiVu^, 5^o« alnot rrj^ dvo- 
ffrdatm^ iytvomo dir^«T«ivfy* v-wko up iym r^ 
90^i'a9. €4 ^ij T^f ^^Tir, ip ri *lvOi«^ f^TtP^V 

XVII. Kol iv rouT^ Mot;0'f4rai4f avr^ d^a^ 
rdpai iffTfyiWrro. Kol ^wi rovrop fthf ^«- 
wifiwu IIcii^MMi Tor ^AyifpopiH aarpdmjp (vp 
arpartd dwoxp^^^* Avr^ B^ rd^ iroX«if Ta9 
into Movaucap^ rtrayfUpa^ imXBup t^c fikp 
i(apBpawoBiaa^ avrup iraTiVfta^fv, fiV &« 5i 
^paupdq ti^trrayt maX dxpa^ ^(«TCiYitf«. TaOra 
M BuLvpa^dfiiPo^ iwl to arparowtlop t« 4irapfJK€ 
t Kid TOP aroKop, "EpOa 6i) Movcucopo^ re 
fvXAt^^fk dyrroi wpa^ TltiOmpo^, xal rovrop 
Kp€fi4iaai KiK€V€i *AXifapBpa9 ip r^ ainov y§ 
ical ritv llpaxf'uipup 6a(n oItkh t^ uwoardatu^ 
T^ Movcucap^ KartaTTjffap* d^Utro Bi avr^ 
icaX 6 ritp TiarrdXMP rij^ x^pa^ dp^^p, h Brj to 
^iXra i^rjp €ipai to vpo^ rov worafjLov rov *Ip6ov 


escape on learning that Alexander had forgiven 
MmicanQa and alfewed him to oontinae niler of 
his pcoYince; for Sambtis and Mnaicanas were at 
enmitj. But when Alexander was now approaching 
the dty which was the capital of Sambos' territory, 
its name being Sindimana, the gates were opened 
to him at his coming and the relatives of Sambus 
counted out his treasure and went to meet Alexander, 
bringing with them all the elephants; they repre- 
sented that Sambus' flight had not been due to any 
ill-will towards Alexander, bat he had been frightened 
At his clemency towaids MwleaniM. At t& Mme 
time Alexander captured another dty which bed 
rebeOedt and he put to death those of the Braeb- 
mans, the learned pundits of India, who had been 
responsible for the revolt. The wisdom of these 
men, such as it is, I shall discuss in my Indian 

XVII. In the midst of all this the revolt of Mori- 
canus was announced. Against him Alexander 
sent Peitho son of Agenor the satrap with a suflelent 
force. He himself advaneed against the eltfes 
subject to Musicanus, and of some he sold the in- 
habitants into slaverTt rating the cities to the croond, 
in others he established garrisons and fortified 
citadels. Then when he had completed this he 
returned to his camp and fleet. Hither too Musi- 
canus, now a captive, was brought by Pcitlio ; and 
Alexander bade them hang him in his own Und» 
together with such of the Brachmans who had been 
the instigators of Musicanus* revolt There arrived 
here also the governor of the territory of Pattala, 
the territory which I stated to be the delta made 

▼OL. n. 



wotovfUPOP» tA€i(ov (hi rov ^iKra rot) Alyvwrlov, 
gal ouTO^ Tf^r T« yiopap avr^ cmSiSov iraaav icaX 

% avrov Tf teal tA avrov iirhp€^9, *Xoinov fiiv hfi 
iw\ r$ a\nov apx§ iicwifAW€$ av6i^» irapa77C4Xa« 
wapaa€tvd(tt9 6<ra i^ (nroBoxh^ t^ arparia^ 
airrhiq M Kpdrtpop fitp Tifv re ^KrrdXov rdfiP 
&fOtrra xai rij¥ yitXtdypov ical *Ainiyi»ovs 
Koi TMr TofoTMy lariy ot^ ical tmi^ hraipmp 
Tf irol iXX^y MiurcSoi^v Saov^ ^^ Ma«€SoWai> 
^vo/Mi;^ovt ^rrof ^fSif I^TfXXt, r^y ^ir* *Apa- 
;^trri»r ircU Z<^k i yyo» iwtfiwtp is Kap/ia- 
pisy, c«l Tovv Aii^arrav rovr^ &y€iP UStaicM' 

4 T^ M iXXn crparta,^ S^rf yt fitj fw avT^ 
KariitXn aK Virl BaXaaaav^ 'H^tuaiitav iirt' 
rd'xBfi' rifi^MMi W TOW9 Tf iinraifoi»TiaT^9 
^Torra <rai tow^ * Ay ptaim^ ^t t^i^ ^ir' //rfu'a 
Sx^rjif rov 'IrJou Btaffiffdtra^, oux ^frtp 'H^oi- 
OTi^r Tij»» crpatiAp &yti¥ f;/i<\Xf, ra? t# iicrtrMi- 
y%9iUim^ 4^ voXfiV fvpoixiaai iici\Mva9 koX fi 
fcj TIKI 9f9trtpiXoiro wpif^ rStv ravrjf 'Ii'&rty iral 
raOra ^c xo^fiop Maraari^aura (vfifidXkttp oi 
^ T^ narroXa. 

6 "HS*! 5f rpirqv fifUpav avr^ rov wXov l)(Otni 
4(ayy4\Xrrai ori 6 rttv UarrdXtty vwapxo^ 
(vXKa^p rmp HarraXittv rovs iroWov^ drro- 
tthpatci^ otxoiro, avoXitroiy T^y x^P*^ fpnf*otr 
gal ^'rrl toutm irXftovi ^ rrp6o0€v arrovSfj xari- 
irXfi *A\€Pavbpo^. 'H? hk d^Utro ^9 tA 1 1 drraXa, 
rtjp Tf TToXiP ital rtiP ;^»/>ay ipt^pov tcaraXafi- 

* ri M ixAa rr^cTt| Ellcndt : tezU gire aooaafttivw, which 
may be retAiMd by ■appouog • Ucuoa «fUr MA«#rar (m 




bjr the river Indus, greater than the Egyptian delta ; 
he offered in farrender all his territory and com- 
mitted himself and all that he had to Alexander. 
Alexander sent him back again to his own realm, 
bidding him make all ready for the reception of 
'he army; then he despatched Crmtems with the 
origade of Attaint and those of Meleager and 
Antigenes, some of the archers, and so many of the 
Conqpanioas and the other Macedonians as he was 
already sending bade to Ma e cd on Ja as being past 
service, to go by the road through the Arachotiaas 
and Zarangians to Carmania ; he abo gave Cralenis 
the elephanii to take with him. Over the rest of 
the army Hepbaestkm was pUced in command — 
except tach part of it as was sailing with Alexander 
himself to the sea; but Peltho, with the moonled 
javcUn-men and the Agrianes, he transported to 
the other side of the Indus, not that by whkh 
Ilephacstioo was to take his army ; he gave orders 
to Pdtlio to settle such dties as were already fortiBed, 
and deal with any attempted rebellbin among the 
Indians in these parts, and finally meet him at 

Now wlien Alexander had been already three 
days on the voyage, he recdved news that the chief 
of Pattala had taken with him the greater number 
of the tribesmen and had absconded, leaving his 
country desolate, and on this Alexander sailed 
down with even greater speed than before. On 
hit arrival at PnttaU. he found both citv and ter- 



iXkov^, irr€$XdfA€po^ iwavtiptu Bappovma^ thai 
yitp airroU r^ rt woKiP oIkup m^ irpoaBtP naX 
rtip x^P^'^ ipydl^ta Bau Kol iirQpriXBop oi mWoi 

XVIII. Ai>ro« Bk 'H^ai^TM»r« wpoarafa^ 
r«i;^i{lf»i» ip TOi« UarraXoi^ &Mpap dtrowifiirti 
is rijp &pvhpop r^ irXn^wp ytj^ ^piard rt 
ipufopras iroi oUrta^fiop rijp X'^P'^ Maraatnvd' 
aopra^. Kal toutoiv hriBtpro rmp irooa-vrnprnp 
rtpks ffapffdpwp. Hal ian flip ots tii^upap 
avrmp &^pm wpocirgaopTts, iroXXo^ Ik Koi 
a^ntp dwoffaXoPTtt i^yyw h rnp ^p^ifipp, &cr€ 
iwirtXtaBqpai rois iKWtii/^BMi rk ipya, wpoc- 
ffpOfUpvis aifToU «al <IXXi|« arparias, Ijp 'AXi(- 
opBpos wvBoii»P9% ritp papBdpmp Tffp iwlBtaiv 
iardXM€i fiftBilopras rov ipyov, 

S Ilf/M tk TOK IlaTToXoK cxi^t'Tai rot) *\photf 
rh C6mp ds Bvo vorafiovs firydKous, teal ovroi 
dfi^Ttpoi amfovci roO 'lySoO to Spofia icT€ iirX 
Tf)p BdXaaaap. *JLpravBa pavaraBfiop rt teal 
ptttaoUovs hroUi *A\ifapBpos. 'its Bi wpotf/c€' 
jmf^Kti avr^ rk epya, 6 Bi KarawXtip (wtPO€$ 
tart M TfiP iKficXrjp rov iv 5<fi^ jtiopros trora- 

3 pov h rtfp BdXaaaap. Atopparop fiip 5i;, Bovs 
airr^ tmi^ rt iwiri^p h XiXiov^ koX rmv oirXniiP 

^ ^«tf>. . . . Polak fiigffesU 'rvfy. . . .* bot ocm dwells m 
* dty, and work* ra thaUod. 1 reUin UMrefort Um liStt. 



ritorj emptjy both of inbabiUnts and of Uboureis. 
iie therefere despatched the lightest of his troops 
in pursuit of the fugitires, and when tome of these 
had been captured, sent them away to the others, 
bidding them to come back without fear ; for their 
dtj was theirs to dwell in as before, and their country 
was theirs to tilL And the greater part of them did 

XVIII. Alexander then bade HephMStkMi to 
fortHy the citadel in PattaU, and sent out others 
to the desert parts of the sarroandlng country to 
dig wells and to make the country inhabitable. 
Some of tibe neighboiirinig tribesment bowerery set 
npoo this party; some Indeed they destroyed, by 
the suddenness of their attack, but they lost also 
many of their own nookber, and fled away into the 
desert, so that those who had been sent to complete 
the work did so, another force having joined them, 
which Alexander, on hearing of the attack of the 
natlTcs, had tent to bdp with the work. 

At Pattala the stream of the Indus parts into 
two large rivers, both of these retaining the name 
" Indus " till they reach the sea. Here Alexander 
began to buik) a harbour and dockyards, and when 
these works had got well advanced, he proposed 
to sail down to the outlet of the right-hand stream 
where it joined the sea. He sent therefore Leon- 
natus, giving him a thousand of the cavalry and 



rt Ktd ^iXitfv ^9 6tcraxt<ryt\icv^, tear a rijp yt^aoy 
rk UdrraXa iitnifivti amtwapayttp r^ ffroX^' 
aino^ ^ T^9 fuiXtara rm¥ ¥€t»v raxwavrovaa^ 
opaXaffmi' aaai rt ^fUoXiat «al r^f rpuueomopov^ 
wdtra^ Ma\ r»if KMptcovpuw icri¥ oh^ htXii Kark 

4 ro¥ irorafAOv rov €¥ ^fia. Ov« iyorri tk avr^ 
i^yfjAOHi ToO irXoO, 5ti wt^vy^aaif oi ravrjj 
'Ipiol, Awoptmpa ra rou xardirXov ^y 'j^ttfttap rt 
iwiyiyvrrtu ^ r^r Iwrtpaiop dwo t^ avayMTM^ 
iral o SpffiO^ r^ po^ wvimv inrtPtuFrto^ icoiXop 
Tf ^iroui Toir wora/iop xal rk oxd^ Matitv, 
&9rn iwwf^av avr^ at wXtt^rtu rStw vtiav riap 
h^ rpuutopropmp fcrtp at koa wdmt) BttXvOffaap. 
*E^aaap hi iieoKtiKaprt^ aira^ irpiv iravrdiraat 
hiawteup ip T^ vhan, "Ertpm ovp (vptwijypvpro. 

6 Kal rmp ^tXip rov^ xov^ordrov^ ^nr^/i^a^ i^ 
rtfp wpocmript^ rrjs S^^n^ X^P^^ ^vXXafiffdpti 
Tiv^f ritp *\pimp, Kol oirot ro dwa rovit ifij- 
yoihrro avr^ rop wopop. *Cl^ Bi ^icop tpawtp 
dpax^^Tai i^ tvpo^ 6 worafio^, m ital hiaxoaiov^ 
ravTjf arahiov9 iirix^ip firtp €vpvraro^ aino^ 
a!nov ^p, ro rt wptvfia tcar^t A^a dwo rrj^ 
ff{€» OaXdtrafi^ xal ai xinrai i» xXvBwpi xaXtwit^ 
dpt^ipopro, (vfji^oyovatp av ^9 tttapvxo^ ^9 
l^pripa OI ffytfwpt^ avr^ xaOfr/ffaapro, 

XIX. *Eprav6a opfucdprup rh rrdBtjpa im- 
yiyptrat rfj^ fuydXfj^ BaXdactj^ ij dfiirmrt^, 
&ar€ rirl (^pov drrtXcit^Sf^aap avrol^ ai Ptjt^, 
Kol rovro ovrrt» irporcpov iyvtamoai rol^ ^M^* 
*AXi^apSpop €mrXy)^tv fiif /cal avro ov afutcpap 
wapiax^' iroXv hi hrj rr$ fuil^opa orrort httX- 



aboat eight thontand of the heavy and light anned 
troops, to the Island of PattaU, to march alongside 
the fleet Then Alexander himself, taking the 
swiftest sailers of his fleet and the ships of one and 
a half banks of oars, all the thirty-oar ships, and 
some of the fast galleys,^ sailed down the right- 
hand river. But as he had no pilot, since all the 
Indians of these parts had fled, there were grave 
dificnhiet in the aeteent, and on the day aAcr the 
fleet weighed, there came a great storm, and the 
wind blowing contrary to the current made tr o ngha 
in the stream and battered the flotilla; most of 
the shipa were damaged* and acme even of the 
thirty-oar shipa were eomplete wrecks. They ran 
ttirm to shore, however, before they were com- 
}*!' tcly shattered. Other ships therefore were 
buUt« Then he sent ofl^ the lightest of his auxiliary 
troops to the country on the farther bank to capture 
some of the Indians, and they ibr the rest oSf the 
way piloted the paasace. Then when they came 
to the broadening of the river, to that it extends 
at its broadest to two hundred stades, the wind 
was blowing violently from the ocean and the oars 
could hard^ be liAed in the waves, and they ran 
for shelter, therefore, into a side channel, to which 
.\lexander's pilots steered them. 

XIX. There they anchored, and there followed 
the usual feature of the ocean, the receding tide ; 
as a result their shipa were left high mad dry. 
This Alexander's troops had not before known of, 
and it caused them no small amasement; but it 
caused even more when the time passed by and 

> 8m above, VI, i. 1. TU miprnm^^ was a light, aad 
appareotly tvift, boat. 



t axd^ i^iertmpil^ovro, OaaK /<^y 5^ rmv ptmw 4v 
T^ WffX^ iBpaia^ xaTtKafitv, avrai B^ affXafim 
Tt iiUTtwpiuBqoay xal ovBkp ^^oXrrov iraOovaoi 
9w\€OP aiOt^' ociu hk ip ^p^nipa t< t^ j^ icaX 
ov 0€0aut^ ft rfj¥ araaip txovcai vwtXta^fiaap, 
avrai Bi oBpoov iirtXBoirro^ roO KVfiaro^ ai pup 
avrmp (vfAwtcoveoi ^s aWjfXa^, ai Bk wpo^ r^ 

t fS ap^x^MOi {vp^Tpiffffcap. Tavrd t« o^p 
iw^aKtvaatp *AXi(apBpo^ 4k titp wapoprmp ical 
ip xtpteovpotp hvolp wpowi^W€i xara rop worapip 
roi/^ Kataa Kt'^op4Po%f% rifp pffaop ^v ^rr**o oi 
iwix^P***^ i^aaxop opptaria ttpat avrA /carii 
rhp wXavp TOP dwl BdXatraap* KiXXoirrA hk rp 
r^y rh SpQpa iX^op, 'H^ W ihrrf^>^n Brg 
Sppci Tff ip T$ *^;0'^ ftVl Kal atrrtf ptydkff nal 
ihmp ixovaa, o pip aXXo9 ain^ ^toXov i^ rrfp 
pf^aw icariaxtp* avr^ Bi raU dpurra wXtovcoi^ 
rmf y«Mir iw igth^a wpovx^p^h •f^ dw^Bttp roO 
warapau rtpf ix^Xifp rtfp i^ rtfp ddXaaaop, €l 

4 wapix^^^ T^p ixirXovp tvwopop. IlpotX^orrK 3^ 
dwh Tff^ pijaov araliov^ aaop luLMOciov^ di^o- 
pAaiP dXXfiP pS}ffw, ravrrfp i^lvj ip r^ daXdaajj, 
Tore phf iff iwtunjkBop I9 rtip ip r^ worap^ 

Pn^OP, Kok Wp0^ TOlf OMpQi^ aVTfJ^ KoSoppiodMl^ 

6v9i TOK $€oi^ *AXifapBpa^ 6<Tot^ e^aax€P Sri 
wapd rov *Ap p t$pa ^ i wtfyy € \fi€POP rjp dvaai airr^. 
'E9 Bk TfiP vartpaiap /rartirXci ctf9 iirl rrjp dWrjp 
rtjp ip tA wopt^ pTjaop* xal vpoc<rx^v ««* ravrij 
i0v€ Ktu ipravOa dWa^ av Bvaw dWo*^ t« 
OtoU /rai ^XX^ rpoirip' icai ravra^ Bi icar 
6 iiridtairiaptn' uvmip tov "Appwpo^. Avro^ Bi 


the tide cmme ap again and the ships floated. Such 
of the ships as the tide found comfortably settled 
00 the mod floated off nnhanned, and sailed once 
more without tnttaining damage; but those that 
were caught on a drier bottom, and not remaining 
OD an even keel, as the onrushing tide came in all 
together, either collided one with another, or were 
dashed apoo the ground and shattered. These 
Alexander repaired as beat he ooald, and then 
despatched in two of his pinnaces down-ttream 
some of his men to explore the island by which 
the natives affirmed he matt andior on his vojage 
down to meet the sea. This island they called 
Cilluta. The scouts reported that there was good 
anchorage by the island, and that it was Urge, with 
fresh water, so the rest of his fleet put in at the 
island ; but Alexander himself with the best saileit 
from among his ships went to the far side of the 
island, to get a view of the outlet of the river into 
the sea, and see if it offered a safe passage out So 
advancing about two hondred ttades from the island 
they sighted a second island, right out in the sea. 
On this they returned to the river bland, and 
anchoring at a headland upon this island Alexander 
sacrificed to those gods to which, he oaed to say, 
Ammon had o tdc r e d him to sacrifice. Then the 
next day he sailed down to the island in the sea; 
he put in there too, and sacrificed there other sacri- 
fices to other gods and with different ceremonial ; these 
saerifiees also, be said, he offered in aeoordanee with 
the oracle given from Ammon. Then passing the 



uwtpffaXmp rov *lv^i) wtnafAov r^f iicffoXk^ ^ 
TO 'wiXaya^ aWirXci. ms luv iKtytv, awi^ty §1 
wov Tfv X"^^ wXffclop Mfiax^i ^ t^ irorra>* 
^/lol ik oecfi, ov^ rV'^'TA •»« wrwXtvmhftu rtip 
ft^ydK^P rfj¥ t^ta *ly^K OdXaccaw, *Et^av6a 
ravpov^ T« c4)€ifa^ t^ no0^ffiS«»v« a^ffic9¥ ^ 
r^r ^aXatf o'oi' «ai avmcav ^i t^ ^v^if rip 
Tf ^uiXiyi'. XP*^^^ ovcop, Kol Kparripa^ xpvcov^ 
4if*0a\\€>f is Toy wopjop ^^aptaTf/^a, tvxofifvo^ 
aAo¥ oi irapawi^ylfin rw arpaiov fov pavriicov, 
Smtpa (vp Nfapx^ iirtpUi ariWtip m M yoy 
KoKwop TOP Ufpcucop ical t^9 ^«/3oX^^ rov Tf 
Ev^parov Kol rov Tiypffro^, 

iX 'E^aP€\0mp A PVMTM ^9 tA IlarraXa 
rifr Tff JUpap rrrtiXi^fiipW^ garaXaftffdp^i xal 
UdSmpa fvp r^ arpana d^iyuitop moI rovr^ 
Pvftirapra Marawtwpayfitpa i^ olawtp iaraKtf, 
H6aiffrimp fUp 5^ irdx^ wapaomtvat^up rk 
wpos rop iicrnx^afiop tc rov pavardBpov icai 
rmp vtm^oUmp rrjp xaraaictw/jp' ical yhp icaX 
ipravBa hnwo€i oroXop vwoXtifrtadai vtitv ovic 
oXiymp wpi^ t§ voX«i roU WarrdXois, lyatrtp 
i^X'^K't^o o worapo^ 6 *M6s. 

t AuT09 W Mark TO frtpop cropa rov ^\phov 
MariwXti at$t^ h rtfP ptydXrjp OdXaaoav, ^ 
KarapaOup Swrj §vwopmripa rf iicfioXfj rov *Jv5oi; 
is row rroprop yiyvtrtw aircYCi Sk dXKi^XMP t^ 
arofiara rov worapov rov \vhov is arahiovt 

S pdyaara otcraxoaiovs teal ;^iXun;9. *Ev ^ rm 
teardnX^ d^Urro rrjs itcffoXfis rov irorapov is 
XippT)p ptydXffp, rjvrgya dpavfo^ievos 6 irorafioSf 
rvxop Bi Mat ix rǤp vipif vldrotv ipfiaXovTtah 



moathfl of the river Indus he set sail to the high 
seat, to tee, as he himself said, if any country stood 
out, near by, in the ocean ; but in my own judgment 
chiefly that he might have voyaged in the Great 
Oeean beyond India. Then he sacrificed bulb to 
Poaeidon, and cast them into the teav and po«tred, 
after the sacrifice, a libatioo ; eattliig also Into the 
sea the cup, a gold one, and golden bowb, as thank- 
offerings, prayteg abo that Poseidon wonld nfely 
convey hb naval fotee, which he puip oaed to deipatdi 
under Nearchus towards the Persian Gulf and the 
mouths of the Euphrates and Tigris. 

XX. After this he returned to Pattala, and found 
the citadel ahrady fortified and Peitho duly arrived 
with hb army, having meeeHlnUy accomplished 
hb whole minion. Hephaeslion waa now ordered 
to get ready everything necesaary for the fortifying 
of the harbour and for the building of the dock- 
yards; for Alexander purposed to leave behind 
there a fleet of several shipa at the city of PatUla, 
where the river Indus divided. 

Then Alexander sailed down to the ocean again 
by the other mouth of the Indus, to learn by which 
branch the outlet of the Indus to the ocean was 
safer ; these months of the river Indus are eighteen 
hundred stadcs apart from one another. And in 
the descent of the river he arrived at a great lake 
not for fipom the river outlet; thb the river as it 
spreads and possibly abo from the other neigh- 



it ainip, fitydkfjp tc iroici ical Mokwm $a\4urafft 
fiaXiara ioncvtair teal yap gal l^ivtt 4^ ^ 
ainff TMV avo $a\ac9f)^ ii^aivovro tA(i(oP€^ T«y 
iif T$3< rp tffUTip^ (fdkdaoff. Upoaop^taOti^ 
9^9 Mark rtiw Xlfun/v &«v«p oi ita$ny^fi6p€^ 
i^Vyovtrro, TMV fUp arpartmrmp rov^ woXKov^ 
caraXtiVfi avp Acori'cir^ avrov xal roift mpmoih 

4 pov^ Pv^irayra^. Aino^ hi raU rptaMomopOit 
T« xal li/aoXioif vw9pfia\iMf rifP igffoXfjv rov 
*Iy£oi) col wpotXBmp mai ravrjf h r^r BaXaaaap, 
€VWopmrip€ur rt gari^uiBt t^i^ M Ta£c rou *lv5ot; 
imffoXffp, gal avrh^ wpoaopfuaBtU r^ aiyioX^ 
gai rmp iwwimp Tiy<k it^a oi ^x^^ vapk BdXaa- 
cap p€i aroBfAovs rptU, rijp Tt X*^P^'^ iwoia ri^ 
iartp if hf r^ wapawX^ /vitf «f vro/MVOf xal 
^piara opvaataOai MtXtvipp, Sirmt fyoitp vhptvtc- 

6 $ai oi wXiopTts. Ayro^ fUP Bif iwaP€X$mp iwl 
Tikv MiOf aphrXti it ra TluTTaXa* fUpot hi ri 
rrj^ orpana^ r^ avrii raOra ipyaoopApovt Kara 
rifp wapaXiap iirtfiyfftp, iwapiipai xal toutoi^ 
woocrdfa^ kt rk UdrraXa. Al6$t hi «f iwl 
Tip Xifjunjp xarairXtvirat dXXop pauaraBfiOP 
Kol dXXavt pfm^oittovt ipravda xargatctvaat, 
teal ^vXaxffP /caraXivitp r^ X^P^T ^i^op tc 
50*01^ icaX tfV riaaapa^ fifjpa^ ifapxiaai rj arparia 
iwTfydyrro xai riXXa oca ip ry wapdwX^ ' 

XXI. *Hv hi ip ftip T^ t6t€ iwopot fj &pa it 
TOP jrXowr oi ykp ir^oioi dp€fioi xartixop, ot 

* R4MM Urr. mmI oantU 4r. But $pm 4^ r^ wfJiwk^ b • 
braehjrlogjr in Armo't mmmatet. 



bonring ttreunt which nm into it— enlarges to 
that it DMMt resemblet a gulf of the sea; in fact 
ocean 6shes were abeady to be seen in it, bigger 
than those in our own sea. Anchoring, therefore, 
at a point in the lake where the pilots advised him, 
he Icdft behind the greater part of his troops there 
with Leonnatos, and all the light galleys. Then 
he himself, with the ships of thirty oars, and tboM 
with one and a half banks of oarsmen, pissed bejood 
the outlet of the Indus, and proceeding hj this 
passage also reached the sea; discovering that the 
passage by this branch of the Indus was an easier 
one. He then anchored by the shore, and takliy 
with him some of the cavalry went three days* 
march along the coast, observing the nature of 
the country for the wiasthug voyage, and ordering 
wells to be dug, so that as they sailed along they 
might be able to get water. Then he himself re- 
turned to his ships and sailed back to PatUb; and 
sent part of his army along the Ibresbore to carry 
00 this same work, bklding tiiem abo return to 
Pattala. Then once more he sailed down to the 
lake, and built another harbour and other dock- 
yards ; and leaving there a garrison, collected four 
months' supplies for his army and made all other 
necessary preparations for the voyage. 

XXI. The season, however, was not suitable for 
sailing; for the trade winds ^ were bk>wing con- 

> TIm sooth-wssl saooiooa. 



iff r$ £pf ^vctrn ov Ka$ait€p wap* ^fup <lir* 
dpirrov, aXX' a'wo rrj^ /iryiiXv^ OaXaaai)^ icara 

2 porrop ftdXtara aptfAOP laraprat. *Airb B^ rov 
Yttf^f^o^ Tf/i ^X^ ^^ '^^^ 11 X«ia3t»v Sl^MK 

vXoifui f2Mi4 rairriy tff*ry7<XXrro* tot« 7a/> irarA 
T^v /AflXXoy, ola hfi iroWf CBart ^f ovpapov 
ffiffptyfUtnjp, avpa^ Xcraauai ^\0aMk^ icaX h 
TOP wapdirXoup raU t« Mtiwtu^ gal roif Irrioi^ 

3 Siapxo^ M^r 5^ /virav^fU r^ ravric^ wpoci- 
fi9P€ iffp upQ9 rav W€kpaw\ov airros ^ Apa^ ig 
HarraXmp 9arw fth M rhp worafwp top *Kpa0iw 
Mp TJ orparif wa^ irpovx«^p€i. ^EtctWtP S^, 
i tm Xa / S mf rmp inra^wtarAp rt teal rmp to^otAp 
rov^ vffilata^ leal rmp v«{irra//M»v ^ xaXovfihttp 
T^c rd{fi9 KaX T^ Xwirov t^ kratpiic^ to rt 
ayf)iuL Kal tKffp &^* imacTtf^ imrapxia^ icaX rov^ 
iwworofora^ avfAWOPra^, m^ iirl rwfp BdXacaap 
ip apMJMp^ hpdwrro, vhard t< opvcatip, m9 
Kara top irapdwXoup &^opa tXti^ rj arpana 
T^ wapawXtoOan gal &iia mk tok *npfiTCM9 roU 
ravrjf *\p^U, avropofun^ 4k voWov ovcip, &^pm 
iiriirgatip, ot« /i>y£cr ^iXiop airroU is avrop rt 
icol Tfjp arparikp iwtwpeucTO, Tfj^ Bi tnro\ti<^€i' 

4 aifs hvpdpMms 'H^tuciimp ain^ d<^rfyeiTO. *Apa- 
pirat fA4P ^, I16po9 koI rouro avropofiop rotp we pi 
TOP *Apd0tOP worafWP pefAopipmp, ovrt d^iOfiayp^ 
ho^tants tlpoi *A\e(dpSp^ ourt uwoBvpai iStX^- 
tf'orrtv, a»9 wpoadjopra iwvBopro *Wi(apBpov, 

• A •!, Ttoom ^^. 


wlikh in thmt season blow not, as with 
at, from the north, but from the oeean and from 
the aouth. But from the begfamfaig of winter, 
right from the setting of the Pleiads to the winter 
solstice, it was reported that the ocean here was 
fit for navigation ; for then, as would be when the 
land is drenched with heavy rains, there are light 
land breeses, convenient for the coasting vojage 
whether bj oars or sails. 

Neodiiis, then, the admiral of the fleet, awaited 
the leiiaon for the voyage. But Aleiander leaving 
Pattala advanced with his entire foree at for as the 
river Arabius; and thence, taking with him half 
the bodyguards and the archers and the brigades 
of the Companiont, at they were eaUed* the special 
squadron of the Companions' cavalry, and a squadron 
from each cavalry regiment, together with all the 
moonted archers, turned towards the ocean, keeping 
it on his left, in order to dig wells, so that there 
might be plenty of water for the army which waa 
sailing akmg the coast, and also with the intcntioo 
of making a surprise attack on the Oreitans, the 
Indian tribe in these parts, who had long been 
independent, since they had failed to make any 
friendly overtures to Alexander and his troops. 
Uephaestion was in command of such part of the 
army as Alexander had left behind. The Arabitae, 
however, ako an independent tribe of the Indians 
who dwell about the river Arabius, thin ltifrng 
they were no match for Alexander, and yet not 
to surrender, when they learned that 



^tvyouatp i^ rrfv fpfiftop, 'AXifop^po^ hi Bui0^% 
row *Apa0iOP '^oraftop, arvfop tc mai hXiyov 
vharo^, seal hitXBtmw ip pvxri ty}c ipri^iov rtjp 
woXXi^p, uwo rtfp Sm wpa^ Tff oUovfUi^ff f^v ical 
Tov^ fMitp vtfoif^ ip rdfti MXiu^tP hrtaOai, rov^ 
^ iwtfav opoXaffmp avro^ Mai i^ IXa^ xara- 
ptipaK, oirtK iwi wXtl^rop rov wtBiav iwi)fp$€P, 
6 iwptt Tffp X'^P^^ "^^ *np#»T«y. "Oaoi i3p 5^ 
^ aXxrip 4rpdw9PTO avrmf Kartxo'wtj^ap wph^ 
TUP iwwimp* woXXol 5i /rol (tapn^ iaXm^ap, 
'O 5^ TaT« fiip Mar99rparow4B€va€ vpo« ou woXX^ 
CSarr m M *td oi wcp* 'H^atarimt^ avr^ ofiov 
4^ ^ap^ wpo{n(mp€t i^ to wpoam, ^A^iMOfitpo^ 
ii i^ MmfAfiP 4^tp ^p ptyL^Tfi rov fapou^ rov 

*np«ITMV, 'PafiffoMUL tfVaXfiTO ff ««fl7, TOP T€ 

X^H>op iit^pfCM Koi ihoMtt Ap avrm wiiXi^ (vpo^ 
iti^Ma pgydXfj €al 9v^pmp ytPtcBai* 'H^oi- 
ffrlmpa atp 6ff ^wl roCrot^ vmXiitrtro. 

XXII. Ai>ro« 5tf apa\a0mp avOt^ tAp itirtM' 
vi^Tiiv «a2 TMi' *Aypidpup roif^ fipicta^ /roi t^ 
Syfipa rmp imriup koX rov^ iinrorofoTa^ ^pojl**^ 
m% hrl rk 6pUL rmp t« VaBprn^Ap ical *tlp€iTUfP, 
tpatnp orrvi; re rf wdpo^ avr^ tlptu ^fir/7^^' 
Xcro iroi oi ^tlptlrtu roi^ VafytitcoU fi/vreray- 
fM/hfOi wpo T«v cr€pmp arparaneBtvttp, us 
S €tp(opT€^ Tf}^ wapohov *AXi(apBpop. Kal ^op 
pip ravrjf rrrayp^pot* ms B^ irpoadyatp rjBtj 
i^fiyytXXiro, oi fUp woXXol e^uyop ix rotp 
9T€POiP Xiworrcv yrjp ^vXatctjP' oi Si rfytpoPts 
rmv *Clp€iri^p d4>iicopro irap avrov <r^a9 t€ 
avrous xal ro tdvo^ ipBMprt^, Tovrot^ pip 
hfi wpoindrrfit ( oy tcaXiffavra^ ro irXffOo^ riov 


Alexander was approaching, fled into the desert. 
Alexander, however, croaMd the river AraMiia, a 
narrow river with a mall stream, traversed a con- 
siderable part of the desert bj night, and at dawn 
was dose to the inhabited region. Here he ordered 
his infantry to follow in marching order, but the 
cavaW he took with him and dividra into souadrons, 
that tnej might cover the greatest extent ot country, 
and thus invaded the territory of the Oreitans. 
Such of them as offered rgifatance were cut down 
br the esvalry, and many were c ep t w e d alive. For 
tne time being, then, Alexander encamped by a small 
stream; but on being joined by Uephaestlon and 
his troops, be advanced further. Then arriving 
at a village which was the largest village of the 
Oreiteiis, called Rambada, he was improsed with 
the position, and felt that a dty founded there 
would become great and prosperous. He left 
behind Hephacstkm, therefore, to attend to this. 

XXII. IneQ Alexander, taking with him again 
half the bodyguards and the Agrianes, the sp«dal 

anadroo of tbie cavalry, and the mounted archers, 
Ivanoed towards the borders of the Gadrosians 
and the Ordtans, where it was reported that the 
approach was by a defile, and that the Gadrosiaiis 
and Ordtans liad joined together and were en- 
camped at the mouth of the defile to check Alex- 
ander's approach. They were, in fact, arrayed 
there; but when news was brought that he was 
nearing tbeai» the greater part of them fled from 
the ddQe« dceertfag theb post; but the chie£i of 
the Ordtans came to Alexander surrendering them- 
selves and thdr nation. These he commanded to 
call together the bulk of the Oreitans and send 



oiiip W€icofUpov^' carpdnrjp m koI toi/toi^ 
S hnrda9€t *Awo\Xo^dyrfv. Kal (vp rovrm dwo- 
Xnmi Atopparop top «rt»fuiTo^v\aMa ip Opoi^, 
fxppra rov^ t« *Ayptdpa^ (vfAvapra^ tcaX rmp 
roformp iarip ot^ mai tmv imrimp koX SXKov^ 
wff{bi^ T« KoX iwiria^ "EXKfiva^ fuaOo^pov^, teal 
TO Tf pauTtKOP SrwofA4ptiP i<rT* &p irtpiwXtviTif rrjp 
\<mptip KoX Tfip woKtp fvpoimi^up icaX rk Ka-rk 
roif^ *Q.p€ira^ /coafitlp, ^m% fiaWop ri wpoci- 
Xo**P fp oarpdiTfi roi^ poifp, Aino^ l^ (vp ry 
erpart^ t$ voXX^ {moX yap tgai *H^iaru»p 
d^Urro k-fup avr^ rov^ \nro\Mi^ipra%) wpoih 
X*^p*i ttK M PaSpw^'ovv fp^ifiop rnp iroXX'/y. 

4 Kat h rj ipfiiim ravTff Xiyu Aptaro^ovXo^ 
wmvptni^ wo\\k Upipa ww^vg^iai futlfM/a ^ icard 
rifif iXXijp afjLV/mop* xmi rovt ^oUnMan rov^ xar 
ifAWopiop T^ or par t^ (vprwofUpovt (vW^pra^ 
rh &urpvor t^ afivptn/t (woXv ydp tlpoi, ola Bff 
im furfakmp rt ritp wpiitpup xal ouwm wpocBtP 
(vWfXryfUpop) iiAir\r)capras rd vwof^vyta ay tip. 

5 'f^x^'^ ^ '^h'^ Hpffiop raOrriP xal pdplou pi(ap 
woXKiip Tf mal tvohfiop' gal ravrrfp (vXKiyup 
Tov^ ^oiPixa^ woXv hk §lpai airnj^ to tear a- 
warovfA€POP irpo^ t^ arpand^, ical atro toO 
'warovfut'ov olfAtjp tf^lap icarix*^^ ^^^ woXu rffs 

Yt»pa«* Toaov6c ilpai to wXijifo^, EJpot Bi teal 
aXXa hiyhpa ip rp iprin^, ro fUp ti Bd/^pij ioixo^ 
TO ^vXXop, Ko* rovro ip tok trpoaKXv^Ofiivoi^ 
T^ BaXdaafi y^pUn^ irt^vKivar icat dTroXtiwttr- 
0ai flip rd htpipa trpo^ rij^ dfiirdn€<D^ iirl (rfpoO, 
iwtXBopTO^ Bi rov vBaro^ ip rp daXd^crj ire^v- 


them home, with ^e awmrance that thej would 
suffer DO harm; as satrap over them he appointed 
ApoQophanes. Together with him he left behind 
Leofinatus, the officer of the bodyguard, in the 
country of the Orians, with all the Agrianes, some 
of the archers and of the cavalry, and a oonsiderable 
body betides of Greek mercenarv infantry and 
cavalry; Lcoonatiis was to await tne fleet, until it 
made its voyage past this district, to build the dty, 
and to put everything in good order in the country 
of the Oreitans, so that they might more diligently 
obey their satrap. Then he himself with the larger 
part of his army, for IIephac«tion had arrived, with 
the party whidi had been left behind, proceeded 
towards the Gadrosiant« tittoiigfa eotintry which for 
the most part was desert. 

In this desert Aristobnlns sajrs that many myrrh 
trees grow, a cood deal taller than the ordinary 
myrrh. The Phoenicians who followed the army 
as traders collected the gum of the myrrh, for it 
was abundant, coming from such large trunks and 
never having been gathered before, and loaded 
up their pa«-mules with it This desert also has 
a root or spikenard, plentiful and fragrant ; this 
too the Phoenicians gathered ; a good deal of It also 
was trodden underfoot by the army, and from sneh 
as was trodden there a delightful fragrance was 
wafted for some distance over the country, so 
abundant was it. There are alK> other trees in 
the desert, one with a leaf like laurel, and this grows 
in places which are washed by the sea; the trees 
are left high and dry by the receding tide, but when 
the tide returns, they sppear groiH^g in the sea; 



mora ^aimaSar tmv Stf koX a«l ra^ pifaK Tff 

itrt^vttft, Mfpw9p ovx \nr4¥ocru to thmp, Ka\ 
o/MK ov hia/^BtifMcBtu to hiphotm wp&s rfj^ 

7 OaXaa^ff^, Elvai Bi ri thfhpa ravrn wtfYfup «a2 
rpidftmnm Irriv h ainwf, rvx^uf rt avBovma 
im^^Tf rf Apa^mal to Sif$o^ tl^ai r^ Xtviti^ fAa^icra 

St wpo^^pt^, Tfi¥ 6i^i)p ^ wo\v Ti Inrtp^ipatf, 
td a\Xo¥ €i¥ai xavXo^ ix yrj^ wt^vKora atcd^- 
$ff^, /ral rovT^ intuHU i^vpav T^y tUa¥$€L¥, 
UOTM ^i^ TijrMv Koi vopiwft/orr«*v ifAw\a€€iaa» 
rf ioBffTi gara^wdatu dwo rov nrirov /AoXXoy ti 
Tov iwwia 4 tivriip Avo^>^f0^r}ra4 dwh roO 

8 Kmv Xo ik Kml rmp Xaymp Xiyrrtu oti irapa* 
Biimrmv ixowroi iif tm Bpi^p at &MatBtu, icaX 
oCrm roi t|XiV«orro ot' Xay^, xaBawMp vwo ifov 
mi SmnBt^ ij roi^ dyKiarpoi^ oi ixBvt^ aihripm hk 
&n OMuroir^i^m ou ;^aX4ir^ ^p* moI otrw on oWoi 
voXvr o gavXo^ rff^ djcdpBii^ rtfUfOfAivt^, fn 
wXtinpa 4 tu avKal rov fpof gal ^pifivrtpop, 

XX in. 'Ea^^cy Bi iiik rfjs PaSpw^Mv Y«>Pa9 
^« Mp x^^^^'^ '^"^ dwopop rtap ifrinjctu^p, 
rmp tc ^XXi»ir «al Clttp woWaxou rp trrpana 
OiW i)r* ttXXa PVitrvp rfparf»d(opTo yrjv iroWrjy 
wop€VtaBa^ «al wptHrmripp» dwo BaXdaatj^, ttrti 
avr^ yt ip awovh^ ^p iwtXBttp rd vapd Tf)P 
BdXaaaav rrj^ X^P^^ ^^ Xmipa^ tc IBtiP rou^ 
Spra^ Kol Saa y9 ip wapoB^ hvpard ytpoiro r^ 
vauTi/c^ iraptunctvdfftu, ^ <^p4ara opvfapra^ ^ 
2 dyopd^ wov 4 Spfxov iirifuXffBipra*;. W\d ^v yap 
ipfjfta iravrdweuri tA wpo^ rfj BaXdtnrjf rrj^ 
Ta^ptoaatv yrj^, 6 S^ ^oatrra rov ^lavSpoBwpov 



of Maie« wklch grow in hollow places, the roots are 
Ahrayt washed bj the sea, where the water does 
not recede, and yet the tree b not spoiled by the 
sea water. The trees here are sometimes even 
thirty cubits high, and at that season they were in 
Bower, the Bower being very like a white violet, 
but of a very much sweeter perfume. There is 
also a thistle on a long stalk growing out of the 
soil, and the spike on thb stalk is so strong that 
once and again when they were riding past it caught 
the rider's clothes, and pulled him from his horse 
rather than come away from its stalk. They say 
that the hares as they run through get their fur 
caught in the thistles, and so in fact are captured, 
just as birds with bird-lime or fishes with hooks; 
but it was fairly easy to cut through with an axe; 
and the stalk of this thistle when cut gives out 
considerable juice mote abundant and sharper to 
taste than that of figs In spring. 

XXIII. From thane Alexander went on through 
the country of the Gadrosians by a route both difficult 
and lacking in supplies ; in especial, the army often 
found no water ; but they were obliged to traverse a 
ooQsklerable psn of the ooontiy by night, and at a 
greater diitaiice from the see; Alexander himself 
desiring to work ak>og the sea-coast to see soeh 
as there were and to get ready what con- 
were possible for the navy, either by 
digging wells, or making pcovirion for a market or an 
anchorage. But the Ga^nosian eoontry was entirely 
desert akxig the coast-line, so he sent Thoas son of 



i€ara'wifiwt^ ^l BdXaaaav (i/p oXtyoi^ iww§vai, 
tearti^KtyftOfAtPinf tl wou r^^ SpfAO^ &v rvy^Wfti 
Tairrn ^ vBmp ov wopp^ Jiiro OaXda^ij^ ijf ^* 
S SXko rm» iwfnf^i^9, Ka« ovro^ iwav^XOmi^ 
iwijyy^iXtp aXtia^ ripa^ /roraXa/Sfiy <V1 roO 
aiytaXov iv naXvfftu^ wp^yripaU' wrwoifjcBoi Bi 

thai airrals t^9 Jitdpda^ rwy i\$%mir maX rov- 
TOW Toyv oXiiftf CUirt 0X179* ttaxpft^^tii, 
XoXtwm iiMfimfUpov^ roy iruYXr;«a. irm o^S^ 

TOinr^ WOPTTI 7Xl/««i T^ J^TI. 

Pa^/No^^ 2mi i^tfoMOTipo^ 4v tfiTo^, SiaWfifi 
^ rik ^ofiryia ror /raTaXty^^cWa* «al roihov 
^^MfVO/Afrov T^ tfairrov c^paylBt, Kara/cofu(ta$at 
KtXMvtt m rwl BdXaacav, *Ey ^ hk mi m iirl 
rov ara0fAOP Mirwtp 4yytndrtt ^¥ 17 6d\acaa, 
ip roinm oXiya ^popri^aprt^ oi crpanSireu t^ 
e^payioo^ airroi rt ol ^vXagt^ rA cir^ ^Xf^' 
aapTo xtu 6^0€ fidXiara Xj/a^ firi<{oirro xai 

5 TOt;704^ p4rihmica¥. *B« Toaoi'M ir/>09 toO iracoi) 
ipticmvTO Mf Toi* irpo^ijXoy «al wapopra ^htj 
6\t$pop rov d^apov^ rt «a4 wpoam irt Spto^ itc 
ToO ffaeiXttt^ miyBvyov (vp Xoyttr^St ISoff a^itriv 
ifiMpocBtP woirjaaffBai, Kai WXtfap^po^ fcara- 
IMoBmp rifp dpdyictjp ^vptypm roU irpd^aaiv. 
Airroi a 6aa im r^ X^P^^ iirthpafiwp (vra- 
yayglp rfSvpi^Bfi ok hrtcirtapop t^ arparia TJ 
W€piitKgov<nf avp ry aroXtp, ravra Ktmiaopra 

6 wifiwn Kpn0ia top KakXartavov. Kal roU 
iyX^pioiK wpocrrdxOq iic twv dvia roirtav al-rov 
r€ 6aop Svparol fjaap tcaraicofii<rai dXiaapra^ 


Mandrodoms to the le* with a few cavaiQ*, to see if 
there was any anchorage possible in this direction, or 
water near the sea, or any other necessarj. And he 
returned and reported that he had Ibmid tome fisher- 
men on the beach in stifling cabins, made oat of sbeDs 
fixed together, and for a roofing the backbones of 
fishes; but that these fishermen nted little fresh 
water, and this they dqg firom die grtTel, and eren 
that was not always fresh. 

But when Alexander arrived at a certain place in 
Gadrosia where p ro?i si on a were mote plentiful, he 
distributed what he obtained among the baggage 
trains; and this he sealed with his own seal, and bade 
them eonvey it to the sea. But while he was going 
towards the hahing-place from which the sea was 
nearest, the tioops, makii^^ light of this seal— even 
the gnaids them a el T C i ns e d these prov lil op s and 
gave shares also to those most beset by hanger. So 
far were they oreroome by their distress that they 
thoaght right to consider their obvioas and Immediate 
ndn before the yet uncertain and distant danger from 
their King. Indeed, Alexander, on learning of the 
grave necessity, paidoned the oflendcrs. Then he 
by overrunning the district got together what pro- 
visions he could for the army which was sailing with 
the fleet, and sent Cretheus of Callatis to convoy it. 
The inhabitants also were commanded to bring 
down provisioos from the interior, grinding as much 



xal tA« ffaXopov^ rd^ jmv ^furMv koX wpoffara 
if irfop^ r^ arpar^, Kal h dXXop ai rowo¥ 
Tif X i^o» Ktifr4w€fA^ rmw iraipmp av¥ cir^ ov 

XXIV. A^o^ Sk trpo^Mi ^ M tA 
0aaik€ia rmw Va^fmaup, o M X^P^ Uoupa 
6po^(rrai^ tni'wtp a^Urro i( ^tlp^p opfifiBtU 
4p fffupa*^ raU ifaaat^ i^rJKoma, Kal \4yoveip 
oi woWol ru¥ (vyypaylrdmmp rk a/A^* *A\ifap- 
Bpop ovhi rii (v/AiraPTa Saa iraXatwtipfi^w 
avTft Karik riip Waiap fi arpank (vfiffXffBrfptu 
t a(ta flmi to«9 rpht irorff$9lai wopoi^, Ov ft^p 
aypofjaatrra *A\i(ai^ipop r^ oSou rifP X^^ 
woTffra, ravTff iXStlp (rovro ftip fAoPO^ Siapxof 
Xryti «2f), aXXA ikMOvaarra fkp oti oinrm t«9 
wpoaOtP inXOtap raOrrf firr arpart^ aw^amBti 
in fAff ^fupafu^ i( *la^ir i^vyt' koX raurrfp 5i 
iXryov oi ivt^^p*^ (^ ^Imocti futpoi^ r^ arpa- 
rw & wo^ m09 i P €U' Kvpop hk top Kafiff vaou avp 

3 kirrk fUpoH »al rovrop. *EkBtlp ykp hii «ai 
Kvpop ^ rov^ x^P^^ roirroi/9 «9 iafiaXovpra 
it TifP *Ip^p yi)P, ^ddca* 5« tnro rrjt ipfffuat 
T« Moi awopia^ lift oBou ravrtft awoXiaapra rijp 
woWffp rift or par w, Kal ravra *A\M(dvBp^ 
i^ayytXXofiMPa Kptp ififfaXtip wpot Kvpop ical 
itfiipafup. Tovrmp rt ovp Irf/ra moI SfM «« 
T^ pavrix^ iyyvOgp iKWoplfyaSai rk kpaytcala, 
Xiyn fiiapxot ravrtfp rpawfjpoi *AXi(apBpop. 

4 To T* OVP Kavpa iiri^Xiyop xal rov 6harot rijp 
awopiop woXKffP t^ ar part as Bta^tlpai icai 
fuiXiara Btf rk irwo^vyia' ravra pkv hif irpos 
rov ffddovt T« rift yfrdfipov ical rift Oipfiyjs, on 


00m M fhtj could, with dates firom the pahn trees, 
and sheep for the army to purchase, and he sent 
Telephus abo, one of the fJompanions, to another 
plaee with a small supplv of groond 00m. 

XXIV. Then Alexander lulvanced towards the 
Gadrosian capital ; the district is called Pura ; and he 
arrived there from the district of the Orians in a total 
of sixty days. Most of the histories of Alexander 
affirm that not even all the triab that his armv 
en dur ed in Asia were worthy to be compared with 
the miterlet they sufered here. It was not became 
Alexander had no knowledge of the dificahj of the 
route that he went that way (it is Neaichot alone who 
says so^ ; but rather that he had heaid that no one 
yet had soooeMfully come through this way with an 
army, except that Semfaramis had fled this way from 
India. The natives had a tradition that even she 
only escaped with twenty of her whole ibcoe; Cymt 
son of Cambyses had got through with only teren 
sur vivor s . For Cyms did come into these parts 
intendin g to invade the eountry of India ; but before 
be eoold do to be loet the greater part of his army by 
the barrenness and diflicultv of this route. The 
relation of these stories to Alexander inspired him 
with emulation towards Cyrus and Scmiramis. It 
was, then, on this account, and also that, behig close 
to the fleet he might supply it with provision s , that, 
according to Nciunchus, he chose this route. At 
any rate, the heat of the sun beating down and the 
want of water destroyed a great pwt of the army, 
and especially of course the bamge animals ; for 
they, fitMn the depth of the sandand tU heat, for it 



K§Kav/Upfi ^, rk woXXA Bk irai Bi^i airoXXua- 
6at' /(oi yitp col 717X0^19 ivtT\rf)(a»€tv vyfnf 

hixtci^ai KoOdwtp H x»;Xov ^ ht fAuWov ^ 
XtOHi dirdrijTW iwtfiaiyorra^, Kal dfia iw TaU 
wpoafidatai tm ical Kara/3aimnna^ rotk rt 
nrvow mal rov^ rffuot-ov^ fri fidXXw MOscowaOtip 
r^ JumfidX^ rtj^ o^v Kal Sfia ov fftfftU^, Tw 
ii croBfimv rd mV^*I ^t^^^^ ovx f)Ktara rtfif 
trrpandp' itvopia ykp (^ro^ ov ^Vfifurpo^^ 
otca fioKKop n ^t iriMf apdyK^w t^9 woptia^ 
wottlc0a4. 'OvoTf fUP Bif Tii^ vy«TO« €WfX- 
$opT€^ Tffp olcp fjpTtpa dpvcoi ixP^^ UtBmf v/>ov 
OBmp iK$ot€p» ov wdpTfi iraXtuwmpovpro' wfiox^ 
povai^ hk Tf}« i9M4fM5r irKO fi^KOv^ rtfS oiov, it 
iBotwopovprts fri ^MaraXtjABtUp, ipravda iUf 
iraXaiwmpovp wpo^ rov tavftajo^ t« mal Sfia 

XXV. T»y Ik ^ vwof:vyit$p woXtf^ 6 fl>$6po9 
Moi kitov^tOK TJ arfiarta h/iyprro* (vttomt^ ydp, 
owoTt hrtXMtwo$ a^9 t^ ciria» xai tAp Xwirmp 
rov^ woXXov^ airoa^{brrcv gal riap iifuopup t^ 
xpia iciTovvro, KoX iXgyop Bi^u dwoBaPtUf 
avrov^ rj vwo xafidrov i^Xiwoprav xal 6 rrfp 
drp4Kttap Tov ipyov i^tXiyfttp into Tt rov vopov 
ovJfU ^P KoX on (vfAvapTis ra avrd rffidprapop, 
Kal *AXi(apBpop piv ovic iXtXtfiti ra yiypofispa, 
laaiP Bk TMV wapoprmp kmpa rrfP r^ dypoia^ 
wpoairoirfffip fuiXXop n ^ rtfp ti^ yiypmctcofUPWP 
httx^p^^tt^* Ovgovp ovBi roi/s poa^ xd/APOpra^ 

* famdrpuw. omitting •2#«, Krflgw, boi lipLp/trp^i, U 
fflffg?**!^ it quit« in Arriftn's ntj\m. 



burning, and the most part too firom thirst, 
peririied; for they even came acroas high hills of 
deep sand, not beaten down, but letting them sink in 
as if into liquid mud or into untrodden snow as they 
stepped upon it. Beridet this, in ascents, or when 
dfac»ndin g, the honet and mnlet were partleidarlj 
di it r cMcd bj the onerenneM and Insecurity of the 
snrliMe. Then the lengths of the marches very 
seriously oppressed the army; for want of water, 
which oocurrcd at farregular Interrab, drove them to 
make their marches at n e c es sity dictated. Then 
whenever at night they covered the distance which 
had to be traversed, and at dawn came upon water, 
they were not so very much distressed ; but if the 
day went on, by reason of the journey's length, and 
they were left still marching, then faideed they were 
in a sorry plight from the double sufferings of heat and 
unquenchable thiret. 

XXV. Of the transport animals there was then 
great loss, even canted deliberately by the army ; for 
whenever their provisions began to fail them they 
clubbed together and gradually killed off most of their 
horses and mnlet and ate their flesh, giving out that 
they had perished firom thirst or had collapsed from 
fatigue ; and there was no one to prove the actual 
fact, both because of their distress and because they 
were all involved in the same crime. Alexander 
himself, however, was not onaware of these happen- 
ings; but he saw that the remedy for their present 
dfa^tress lay rather in his pretended Ignorance than in 
any connivance of what went on. Nor was it easy to 



T^ arparta^ ovh^ rov^ BUt tcdftarov tntoXn' 
wonipov^ ip raU ohoU &y^tp hi ^ 9VfMapm 
aitopia T# TWM {nro^vyimv koX oti rk^ afuifa^ 
avTol xariMowrop, diropov^ ouaac avroU inro 
0ti0ov^ TTf^ yfrdfi^v dytaOai, ical on ip roU 
wotinoiK craBfioU litk raOra ^^rfpayicdl^opTO ou 
T«f ffpaxvrdraK Uiku rmp oht^p, dXXa ra^ fv~ 

5 wopmrdra^ roiq f^tvytci. Kal oihm^ ol ftip 
poa^ mark T«k< iioi^ inrtXtliropro, oi B^ vwo 
Ma/idrov ^ xavftara^ 4 t^ Uyjtti ovk drrixovr^* 
K€iX oOrg 01 Sfomg^ ^ap ourt oi fUpwrt^ Otpa- 
wwoQprts* VMovhfi yap woW^ iyiyptro o atoKo*:, 
Cttl hf T^ vwip roO wapro^ wp&0uu^ r6 «a^ 
Udarov^ (yp $tpdyicf) ^fuXtiro- m Bi ital (nrp^ 
xdroxoi Mark rk^ ocov^ y^poptvoi, nHa hii pvktos 
TO woXw rk^ wopiiaK wotovfitpoi, hrttra i^a^a- 
ardpTtK, oU pkp BvpaptK fn ^p xark rk Xxytj 
Tff^ arpand^ i^opaprrjaaprts oXiyoi diro voX- 
Xiuf iam$nca»' ol iroXX^l hk t^cwMp iw wtXdjMi 
IcfTO^orrfv T$ yfrdpp^ dwtitXopro* 

4 Svpifpix^fi B^ TJ orparta Ka\ SXKo wd$rjpa, 
h Bif ovx •i*ftrra hritatp airrov^ t« xtd roif^ 
T'nrov^ ical rk itwo^vyta, "Tirtu ykp ij VaBpta- 
olmp yn inr dpi^titp rSip irrjci^p, leaffdwtp otrp 
Koi 17 *\ph^p yT\, ov rk wtUa r&p VaBpt^cutp, 
dXXk rk Sprj, ipawtp irpoa^ipoprai rt ai vf^Xm 
^K rov wptvparo^ koX dpa\€oprait ov^ inrtpffdX- 

6 \ovaai rAp opttp rk^ Kopv4>d^. 'H^ tk tivXiaOrf ^ 
arpartk irpo^ x^^f^PP^ oXiyou l/Baro^t avrotf 
07 fptica rov t/5aTCK, dp4>\ htvripap ^vXoKtjv 
rrf^ putcro^ ip'rrXff(TB€U inro rS>p Sp0p<ap 6 
X*^po.ppo^ o raCrrj pitop, d<f>avuiv rj orparid 

A>Ai>.\:?iS OF ALEXANDER, VI. 25. t-5 

bring along those of the troops who were sick, nor 
those who were left lying in the way from fatigae, 
both from want of the transport animab and becaose 
the men themsehres kept destrojring the w a ggons, 
whkh it was impo«ible to drag ak>ng owing to the 
depth of the sand, and also because in the earlier 
marches they had been compelled for this reason not 
to go by the shortest routes bat by those that were 
easiest for the teams. And so some were left behind 
on the routes sick, and others from weariness or son- 
!ttn>ke, or no longer able to hoU oat against the thirst ; 
there was no one to lielp them forward, and no one 
to stay behind and take care of them ; for the mareb 
was hurried and in the general eigemdM the troobles 
of individuals were necessarily negleeled : and tliose 
who were borne down by sleep on the marches, tinoe 
they made most of their stages bw night, when they 
woke up again, if they had strengtn to do so, folk>wea 
in tlie track of the army, and so a few, oot of many, 
were saved; but most of them fell into tlie sand, like 
men who perished in the sea. 

The army receiYcd also a further disaster, which 
perhaps mote than anything else distressed both the 
troops, and their horses and transport animals. 
During? the trade winds there is heavy rain over the 
land of the Gadrosians, as also over Incua, not so much 
over the Gadrosian pkins as over the hills, whither 
the clouds are bonie by the wind and are poured oat 
in rain, not rising above tlie crests of the hills. Now 
the army bivouacked near a small stream, in fact for 
the sake of tlie water, and about the second watch of 
tlie night the stream which 6owed here became 
swoUen with rains, tlie rains themselves having fallen 


yrf^PfffAOmp tmv S^iffpw, yaaoirr^ iirS)\$€ r^ 
OBart, m9 yvptua Mai wathapia ra woXX^ rctv 
hwofih^mv rfj arparia Bta4>0tiptu /caX rf)¥ icara- 
a/ctvf)v rrjp ^aai\iKi)v (vfiiraaap a^tun^ai tea\ 
TMy \nro^\rfita¥ oca atrt\tiir€TO, atrrw^ B^ fioXi^ 
xal xaXrvM^ fifP roU owXoi^ ovBk rovrot^ va<rt¥ 
A airoatBiipai, Oi iroXXoi li icaX wifomt^, otrorc 
i/c Kauftaro^ rt gal ^"^ovs O^rt d$p6^ dirtTu- 
;^04<y, vpos avrov rov airavcrotf warov <kvMXorro, 
Mtu rovrm¥ S¥4Ma *A\J(a¥hpo^ t^v crparawtl^ia^ 
ov wpo^ TOK vha9i¥ dvTol^ TO voXu iiroUiJOt 
aXkik awix'^^ oco» ^Xxoai irraliovs fUMXiara, ak 
f^if aBpoovs ifmwrotnra^ rA Clart avrou^ t« koX 
ra MriJ¥9i AwoXXvaBat moI 6fui tov% ^idkiara 
oMpdropa^ c^p hnfifiaiporra^ i^ tAv wtfyds ^1 
Ti ^fimrm Ita ^Otiptip xal rp JLkXjf arpar^^ to 

XXVI. 'Ei^a S^ IpTOv gaXow MWtp ti SKKc 
rm¥ ^AXtfdp^pou o^ I^M ftM il^W^a4, ^ i¥ 
Tp^f T^ X^^ ^P^xP^ 4 ^' iikW009$9¥ 4p Ilaoa- 
wafuaatatK, 0*9 firrtfirtpQi Ju^iypa^p, *I<vcii 
/A4V T^i' crparta¥ &^ ^dfUMOV tc irol toO irau- 
fuiTo^ 45f| ^vi^Xryoin'CK, oti vpo^ ^5«»p ^v^i' 
4(a¥vcai' TO Si^ ^r jrpocm r^ o^O* col a\rr6¥ 
tc *A\€^aphpo¥ Biyffti «aTf;(0/A€Voy /ioXif fUy iuU 
yoXcrtK* ir«(oi' & o/mk ^yttaBar mo'tc ^ral tou^ 
ZxXouv tfT/MTMrrav. oLi wtp ^Xci ^i* t^ to<^5«, 
Kov^ripm% ^pttp tovv vo^^t^ ^y lao-rtin t% 
2 ToXfliifwpiyg'MK. *Ey hk Toxn^ ratp ^i\c»v Tii^a^ 
mitA (i;TY^iy u5aT0^ dirorpavivra^ a-wo t*^ 
^T/Mrriat cvptSr i^/> ^^i/XXcXry/iiMr & TiVi 



ANAbA:5iS OF ALEXANDEK, VI. 25. 5-26. 2 

out of sight of the anny, and cAine down with 80 great 
a spate <if water that it drowned most of the women 
and children from among those which followed the 
army, swept away all the royal pavilion and its con- 
tents, and so manir of the transport animals as had 
sonrived; and indeed the troops themselves were 
only saved with great difficulty, with their weapons 
only, and not even all of these. Then again most of 
those even who drank, whenever they met with 
abundant water after niQch drought and thfartt, 
perished by reason of their fate iupcrate drinldng { and 
for this reason Alexander did not, as a rule, have his 
enc a mpmeni actoaOy on the banks of the water- 
eonrsea* bot about twenty stades away, so that they 
should not, by a general rush at the stream, perish, 
themselves and their beasts, and at the same time 
the greediest of them, stepping into the springs or 
streuna, spoil the water for the rest of the nost. 

XXVI. At this point I have not thought well to 
leave unrecorded the noblest achievement of Alex- 
ander, whether it took place in this country 9 or among 
the ParapamUadae at an earlier date, as others have 
narrated. The army was marching thmugh land and 
while the heat was already burning, %ince thev were 
obliged to reach water at the end of the marcn ; and 
this was some distance ahead. Alexander himself 
>%'as much distressed by thint, and with much diiS- 
culty, but still as best be could, led the way on foot ; 
so that the rest of the troop« should (as usually 
happens in such a case) bear their toils more easilT, 
when all are sharing the distress alike. MeaawhUe 
9ome of the ligiit-armed troops had turned aride from 
the rest of the line to k)ok for water, and had found 
some, just a little water collected in a shallow river^ 



Xafdliptf, od poBttif,, SXiyfjv tcai ^uXrp^ nibajca' 
mu rovTo o^ ^ x^aXnrcus' aitXX^^atrras a»uu8g Uvcu 
wop* * AKifat'how, m fUya ^ n iIto^^ ^ipor- 
Ta9* m 3i iwiXafop »?^. ^fiffaXotnaK ^v Kpdwo^ 

I rh Ohmp wpac€P9y€€i¥ r^ ffaaiXtt, Tov Si 
XoiSfiT /4^ «a4 4wtut4aai rov^ KOfUcatna^' 
XmB^na Sk /» 5^i wtunmp d^xfai- icai M 
T^fc T^ ipy^ /c To^or& iitipfmc^yjvai rffp arpa- 
rut¥ (vfiwaaa* &crt tUaaoi dp npa vorop 
'ttPicOai waffip ixtipo TO vSmp to wpo^ ^AXtfdp- 
Cpov i^xySip, Totno iym, tlwtp t* SkXo, ro 
ipyop fic Maprtpiop rt xtd &^ crpartiyia^ 
#vaiM* * Wa^dpSpov, 

4 s.i'pr)vixOfi S4 ti gal rtnopS^ rj arparta 4p 
t^ yj ^<«*«^« Oi 7^/) ^f^oMV T^ o5oi> TfXtv- 
Twarrtv ov«fri /MfftP^Bm f^atop rrip Mp, dW* 
Jt^aPia$ffPtu T^ atifAiia aintf^ irpo9 Tot) Mfiov 
hnwpwemm^* xtd ov yiip §Ip{u ip ij ^a/AMf* 
voXX^ Tf ral oi«o^ iramj ptPfffUpff fr^ rticiixf' 
pUtaoproi Ttjp Mp, oCt' otm lipSpa (innfifi wap 
aMfp irf^vKvra, oCr€ ripii yifXo^ap ffifftuop 
ilvfonycoTa* ov6i wpa^ t^ aarpa /r pvtcrl ij p/gff 
flfupap wpo^ TOP fjXiOp ^tAtXrryjadai a^iai t^9 
wop^^, MoBdittp tok pavrai^ irpo^ rAp dpgrttp 
tV fff^ ^oipifi, TJfP oXiyfjp, rtfp &} tok otXXoic 

B iLpBpwmi^, Ti}p fi€iZopa. "EtSa Bff 'AXtfaphpoi' 
(yphmi ore iv dourrapq, [S^i] • diroKXlvayra 
dy€W, dvaXafiovra oXiyovi dfia ot Imria^ ['"P^' 
icc¥«upi}«(€»tu]* * c^ hi teal rovrwv ol iirrroi 
4(€KafLvov vno tov KOVfiaTO^, dnoXintw kom 

' o^ Teuboer t«zt for MSS. 6v. 

" Set Added br Voleaniot. 

* wpoK^xmfYnvai added bj ValcaaiM. 



bed* a poor and wretched water-hole ; they gathered 
op this water with difficultj and hurried to Alexander 
as if they were bringing him some great boon ; but 
when they drew near, they brought the water, which 
they had poured into a hehnet, to the King. He 
received it, and thanked those who had brought it ; 
and taking it poured it out in the sight of all the 
troops; and at this action the whole army was so 
mudi heartened that you would have said that each 
and every man had drunk that water which Alexander 
thus pooved out. This deed of Alexander's above all 
I commend most warmly as a proof both of his 
endurance and his excellence as a general 

There was also a further incident which happened 
to the army in this district. The guides of the route 
finally said that they could not remember the way, 
but that its marks of direction had been obliterated 
by the violence of the wind ; and, of course, in the 
sand which was everywhere and all alike, heaped up 
on an ddes, there was nothing by which one oould 
guew the road ; not even the ordhiary trees growing 
along it, nor any solid hillock emerging from it ; nor 
had the guides accustomed thwnselves to make their 
marches by the stars at night nor by the sun during 
the day, as the Phoenician sailors have become 
accustomed to steer their way by the Little Bear and 
the rest of mankind by the Great Bear. So Alex- 
ander, understanding that they ought to lead the 
army inclining to the left, took a few horsemen with 
him and rode on ahead ; and when their horses began 
to weary beneath the heat, he left behind most of 

VOL. n. c '*5 


rwrmp rovK iroXXoik. avrov S4 (ifp v^rrc roU 
iraai¥ a/^wwdaaadai, col ^iptly rijp BdKacaav 
htatiffcditm^w t€ aino¥ twX rov alytaXov roy 
KaxXfima iturvxwf than yXvifl itaX itadapu. icai 
Q6rt0 McrcX^iy rifp arpanap waaatr gal h 
hrrii ^fUpa^ Uvtu wap^ r^y BoKaaaap, v^p^vo- 
lU»mn i€ Tfk ^ioyof. "EpBmw hi, (fifi ykp 
f V pm9K€Uf Tiyr Mw ro%n frf^fto^at, M r^ 
im^o fidai ^ woUtoBai tov aroXov. 

XXVn. 'm l4di»iMrro h T»r Talpmvlmv rk 
ffoiffCktta, A¥€iwav€t iwravBa rff¥ crparutv. Kal 
*AvoXXo^ai-i|v ftip wavti Ttj^ aarpawuas, Srt 
ovhtph^ tyim iwtf»4\tf6irra tmv wporrffyy^X' 
fiikmp* %ia9ra I4 aarpawwup ri^v ravrp Iroff * 
TpCrov hk p6c^ r§Xtvniatuno^ ^tfiuprto^ r^y 
aarpawtUuf ^gStxtrtu* o avro^ Bi teal KaofUitfla^ 
carpdwifK ^p »€m^rl 4( ^AXtfdpBpov raxBtU' 
TOT« hk roCr^ phf *ApaY^ri!t¥ r€ ical ritv 
VoBprn^lmp opx'ur iho&fi* Kapuaviop Ik hrx* 
3 TXiyv^Xf/MY i\\v$ofdpov%. "Whfj rf iwX Kap- 
pa»ia% wpovx^ptt o ffaaiXivs xtd dyyiWtrai 
mirf ^tkAtrwop rop aarpuwffP r^ 'Ii^mv 7^ 
hn$ov\Mv$hna wpo^ T«y fuaSo^pt^p hcK^ 
diroOapfiP, rov^ S# dwogrtivapra^ on oi attfUirO' 
^vXoMts rov ^iXiwirov oi Wa^tlove^ rov^ ijl^p 
ip atrr^ r^ ^P7^» ^^^ ^ "^^ vartpop \a- 
ffopTf^ dirixTttpap. TaOra hk m^ lfypt$, itciri^- 
Vf« ypdfAfiara ^9 *lphov^ irapk }^vhafiop rt icai 
Ta(i\ifP hnfA4\€ic$ai ri}^ vctfpar rrj^ irp6c0€P 
into ^iXiwirtb rtrajfUvfi^ tar d» axno^ aarpdirtiP 

S *Hhfi 5* i^ Kapfjuipjap fj/copro^ *A\t^dpSpov 


them, and he with no more Uum five rode off and 
found the tea; then, digging in the gravel on the 
shore, he found fresh and pure water, and so the 
whole armj came thither ; and for seven days they 
marched along the sea-coast, getting water from the 
shore, and tlieoce, for the goldet now began to 
recognize the road, he led his army into the interior. 

XXVII. Arriving at length at the Gadroaian 
capital, Alexander retted hit army there. ApoUo- 
phancs he removed from his satrapy, finding that he 
had neglected an his orders ; and be appointed Thoes 
to be satrap In his stead ; bat at hedttedof tidmeti, 
Sibyrtius received the office ; he had been recently 
appointed by Alexander tatrap of Carmania; bat 
now he wat given the charge of both the Arachotiani 
and the Gadroaians, and Tlepolemot too of Pytho- 
phanet took over Carmania. Alexander had already 
begun nit march towards Carmania) when H wat 
reported to him that Philip the satrap of the Indians 
had been treacheroosly killed as the result of a plot 
against him by the mercenaries ; but that the Mace- 
donian bodyguards of Philip had put to death the 
assassins, tome in the act, and tome they captured 
afierwardt. On learning thit he detpatched letters 
to IndU to Eodamos and Taxilet bklding them Uke 
charge of the district formerly under Philip, until he 
should send a satrap to govern it. 

When Alexander had reached Carmania, Craterus 



Kpdrtpo^ o^i^vftTcu, Tifi' Tc aXXfiP arpaniiv Sfta 
ol iy^p gal roi/^ tKi^atna^ xal ^Op^tniif roy 
airo<7T(irra koI Ptmrtpiaama aupuXft^m^, *Cy- 
raifda hk [koX] ^raodpmp t« o 'Aptimp xal o 
Zapajymw car paw fj^ 4«« Koi (i/p avroU ^apiO' 
fuimif o ^para/^ippov rov UapOvaitiap teal 
^ptcapimp oarpdwov waU. ^Hkop 5^ koX ol 
arpartfyol oi tnrcXtt^iprt^ Sfta Uap^p^t^pt 
W rffq arparta^ t% ip Wff^a, KXia^ipo^ r§ 
Mtu ^trdX/efi^ xal 'HpiUmp, rtjp woWijp r^ 

4 arparid^ gal ovr<H Ajorrt^, Tov^ fup Iff dpi^l 
Kxiaphpop TC luu ^rd\gifp woW^ iirtKaXovpr^p 
ainoU rmp t« hrXTP^^*^ *** '''^ ct partus avrrjs, 
<K Upd Tt wpo^ atnitp a^avXtjpiva gal Ot^ga^ 
waXai^^ MtrntPi/^a^ xaX dXXa dBuca 9pya 4k 
rotfs vwffgocvK rrroXfAfifUpa gal drda0a\a, ravra 
m^ ^fi^TyfX^ij.* rovK fiup dtritrgiptp, m xal roU 
dXkoiK Uo^ ciMii 6ao4 earpdwoi 4 (nrapxoi ^ 
popdpxtu dwoXdwmwTO, rk loa imtipoi^ tf^tf^ 

5 /aXoyrrav wti^§9$€U, {Kai toOto, tlw€p n 
iXXo, KaiioxtP ip Moap^ rd !$pfi rd i^ *AXt(di^ 
Bpou BopvdXmra ^ kmopra wpoaympiiaama, 
rocavra pip vXi^^fi Spra^ roaop C€ dWrjXMp 
d^crrpcora, 5t4 ovk i^ifp into TJ *A\M(dpBpov 
fiactXti^ iliKuaOtu rouK apxopipov^ vwo tAp 
dpxoprmp.) 'HpoMttp S4 r6r€ pip d^iOrj t^ 
tUrta^' oXlyop 5# (fcrtpop dftXtyx^tU wpos 
iuf^pmp lLovaU»p trtcvXrjxipai to iP ^ovtrot^ i§pop 

6 KoX ouTOK i6mK9 BUffP. Ol ^ (vi' ^raadvopi koX 
^para^4ppff wXrjdo^ t< Owol^vylwp trap 'AXif- 

' SioUnia HnKhxh ^ pUoaibla bat ooi nioBiTj. Alex 
MKkr attm aoud swif Uj. 



anived, bringing mith him the rest of the army and the 
elephants and Ordanes who had revolted and began 
to rebel, but whom he had captured. There abo 
Stasanor satrap of Areia and the satrap of the Zaran- 
giant came, and with them Pharismanes the ton of 
Phratapbemes the satrap of Parth jaea and Hyrcania. 
There arrived abo the satrapa who had been left 
behhid with Parmenio In charge of the forces in 
Media, demder and Sitalces and Heneoo, thej also 
bringing the greater part of these fiMeet. Both the 
natives and the forces themselves brought many 
charges against Cleander and Sitalces and their 
followers af having plundered temples, rifled 
ancient tombs, and done other overbearing and 
scandalous ii^itstioet to the inhabitants. On 
receiving this report, Alexander put these two to 
death, to put fear into any other satraps or govemoci 
who were left, that if they eommittad the like crimes 
thej too should suffer the like fate. And this above 
everjthii^ eke kept in order the tribes which 
Alexander had subdued or which had surrendered to 
him, being as they were so many in number, and so 
far separated one from another — namely, that 
Alexander permitted no subjects under his sway to 
be wronged by their rulers. Heraooo indeed was for 
the time acquitted of the charge ; but soon after the 
charge was brought home to hhn by some of the 
people of Sota of having sacked the temple of Sosa; 
and he also was punished. The companions of 
Stasanor and Phratapbemes brought to Alexander a 



•jpS^op Sy9w m ^XSmr ical tgafi^Xov^ iroXXof, m 
ifuiBop ort rrip hrl Vahprnaittw dyu, tUd^atnt^ 
ir% rk avrk iKtuHi wM^rai avrA tj cypartk h Brf 
fwaSg, Kal ovp Koi ip MmpA luv koX outoa a^- 
Morro, i» ttup^ ^ oi nd^tiXni t« «ai ra vwof^vyta' 
iU9€iiit fkp (v^wavra *\\t^aiBpo^ rois fi^v 
4fyffu>ci Mar di^pa, roU hi mar iKtK re itaX 
CCATPtf T1MI9. TOif hk Mark Xox^v^* ^«K t^ w\fi$o^ 
TUP vw^vyutp T€ nal xa^^Xmp avr^ hfpifiaumv, 
XXYIII. *II^ hi rufts Mai rotdS^ apSypayjrav, 
ov wicrk ^/Aoi Xryoarrtt* «^ av^tv^a^ Bvo apfia- 
/lofav MiTa«-fi/i«iKK ^vp roU itaipoi^ KaravXov- 
IMPOt T^ar tik KapfuufiaK ^cf, 4 arparik 6k 

wpmmuro M avrj alrd r€ koI 6aa &KKa ^ 
rpiir^^p wapk rk^ olov^ avytwofu^uhfa wpos 
rim KmppmUmp, xal ravra wpo^ fUp^tiaiP r^ 

t ^i/omvamt ^amytUi^ dir^imdaBji *A\t(dpSpm, 5ti 
gal Ifwkp i^ttpov Xoyo^ iXjyrro garaarptyfrafupop 
*1p6ov^ ^toi'Vaop oOrm r^p woWrfp rrj^ *Aala^ 
iw€X0tiP, Kol ^piafiffop T« ainop hrucXffOijpiU 
TOP ^6mw9P Mtd rk^ M raU pUtu^ raU ix 
woXifiov wofiwk^ hrl r^ avr^ rovr^ Bpidfifiov^. 
Tavra hk ovrt llroXtpalo^ 6 Adyov otrrc *A/m- 
rrofiovXo^ o * ApiaroffovXov dpfypayjfap ovhi rif 
^XXo^ OPTiPa Uapop dp T19 woniaairo rticfitfoin^at 
vwkp TUP TotmpBt. Kal ftoi m^ ov viark dva- 

S yrypd^oi i^ripKtctp} *AXX' ixtiva rjStj ^Apiaro- 
/SovX^ kw6ti€ifO^ (vyjpd^, Ovaai i» Kapfiapi^ 
*A\i^apBpop xa/M<rTi7p<a t^ tear *li^3«tfi/ pUfff 
icaX vwtp T^ arparia^t ori aTrtautBr) iK VaSptt- 

' Hif^^mir Dflboer with most Uzu ; Klkodt -^tp. 


Ivge ?*—***** of transport oninmb and a good many 
eondiy haYing gncwea, to toon •• thej l^umed that 
be was going towards Gadrosia, that ms armjr would 
rafler thoBC yrery disasters which it did suffer. Their 
coming, too, was indeed timely, as was that of the 
eameb and other animals ; for Alexander distributed 
them all to the officers, one by one, to the others by 
squadrons and eentm1et« and also by files» acoordiitf 
to the total number of eamek and tranqxMrt animaw 
which he received. 

XXVIII. Some writers have recounted a story, 
which I do not myself credit, that Alexander bound 
together two war-chariots, and redlni^g at eaae with 
his Compankms, and soothed by the tooiMls of the 
flute, thus drore through Carmania; his army 
following behind, garlaimd and sporting; that 
and cf e r yih ing ebe that ooold make for 

r, had beeo faiwiibt together along their path 
by the Carmanians ; and that all this had been con- 
ceived by Alexander in mimicry of the baechie revelry 
of Dionysna, sinee there was a story about Dionysus, 
too, that after subduing India he traversed in this 
ffuise the greater part of Asia, Dionysus himself 
being surnamed "Triumph," and his warlike pro- 
cessions after hb victories called, for the like reason, 
''triumphs." All this neither Ptolemaeus son of 
Lagus nor Aristobnlus too of Aristobuhis have re- 
eoraed; nor any other author whom one might 
regard as reliable in narrating tales like these. As 
for me, it has suffieed to write them down here, but 
merely as legends. This, however, I do record, 
kXkmkm Aristobuhis, that Alexander in Carmania 
saorlllcea thank-offerings for his conquest of India, 
and on behalf of his army, for its safe transit through 



wUnf, col l^yJ M N I Snt$tiP€U fiOV9Uidp T« Mil yvfi' 

mmov scarardfai Si xal Utvieiffraif h rovf 
o^mfiaro^OXaMa^, t^Siy fAiw iyvmttora carpawtfp 
KaraoTfjaai t^ Wtp^iho^, iBikorra hk wph r% 

4 Awnparop thtu, M r^ tfV MaXXok ^P7^* cZvoi ^ 
avT^ hrrk <4« roT« 9a»/AaT0^i;X4wraf, Atot^varop 
*Arr<ot;/H^i«TM»va rov *\fAVpropo^» Avalnaxop 
* Aya$0€\iov^, *Apicr6povp lUiauiou, Toirrot;^ 
i«iy llfXXo^i/v, litpSiKKop li ^Opoprov 4m t^ 
O/M0T45ov. nroXf/iaiov 5^ ror Adyov «ai 

fwivBa^ ainoU Ilct/WorTair tov 'AXffuydpov 

• *£r ToifrM ^ iral Siapxo^ irgptirXtvaa^ rtfp 
'tlpmp T« «a4 VaSpm^imp yijp xal rifp *lx^vo^yup 
garfjptp 4t rift Kapumpia^ r^ ir^ BdXaaaap 
^Kic/Upa* MfP Bi op^XOmp avp 6\ijoi^ *A\tf' 
dpBp^ dmiyytiXt rk dp^ rov ittpirXovp top 

6 ytp6fi4VOP avr^ xar^ rifp fPm Bakacaap, ToD- 
TOP iikp Brj MaTawipiTii al$i^^ i^wtptirXiu^opra 
Ifart iwl rijp ^v^tapmp Tf ytfp Mol rov TlyprjTo^ 
worapov t«v 4M$oXdf Swm^ M iwXtvcOfj avr^ 
t4l <hro rov *\pBov worapou iwl rtfp BaXaaaav 
rtfp rifp^iic^y KoX TO orofAa rov Tiyprjro^, raura 
iBia apaypdyjf^ ain^ Ncao;^^ ijr6ti€POs, a»9 koX 
Ti|Mt «Zra< vwkp * AXt^dvhpov "EX\fjviKf)v ftry- 

rv^rpf, Tairra ftkp Brj iv varipijt tarai rvxov 
ort Ovpo^ Ti /A€ /eai 6 Stiifxtap ravrrf &yrj, 

7 'AX<(av6po9 hk *\\^aiariwpa pAp avp rt rj 
wXti^rrf poipa rrj^ (rrpartds tal roU viro^vyiot^, 
Koi Tov^ iki^pra^ apa ol ^;^orra rrjvirap^ BdXaa- 


tbe GadriMUn de^rt ; and that he instituted athletic 
nmet and artistie oootcsts; abo that he enrolled 
reocestat amcNig his bodyguards, ha%ing already 
decided to make him satrap of Persia, but anxious 
that eren before he received this satrapy he should 
not be without this mark of honour and confidence 
after his heroic deed among the Mallians ; moreover, 
that vp to this time he had seven officers of the body- 
gvardi, L eo tmatoi ton of Anteas, Hephaestioo 1011 
of Amyntor, Lysimachus 9on of Agathocles, Arb- 
■00 of Plsaeas, all tiicM of PeUa; then, 
Jrerdiocas son of Orootea, von Orestis, 
m of Lagus and Pdtho ton of Crateas, 
fiwn Eordaea, and now an eighth was added to their 
nnmber, Peneestaa* who protected Alexander by his 

Meanwhile Nearchus, having completed his voyage 
round the rountrr of the Orians and the Gadrosians 
and the Ichthyopha^, pat in to the Inhabited part of 
the Carmanian seamore; and thence coing inland 
with oohr A f<Kw of hb men reported to Alexander the 
result of his voyage through tbe outer ocean. Alex- 
ander sent him back again, to eontinae hb voyage to 
the district of Sosia and the mouths of the river 
TIgrb. Tbe story, however, of his voyage from the 
river Indus to the Persian Sea and the mouth of the 
Tigris, I shall recount separately, using Nearchus 
himself as my authority, so that thb may also be a 
History of Alexander in Greek. Thb, then, shall be 
perhaps for some future date, when inclination and 
drcomstances put mc in the wav of it. 

Alexander now despatched Hephaestion with the 
greatest part of the army and the oaggage train, and 
with the elephants also, along the sea-coast from 


cap hwo [rifi] Kapfiopia^ m^ iwl rtfv UtpciBn 

avr^ rou ffroXov ra wpo^ r^ OaXactrn TJ 
Utpciio^ aXffiia t« ^v, ital rAif ^wiTf^MfV 

XXIX. Aino^ li (inf toav xov^crrdroi^ rmw 
wttmv col fyy T0i9 iralpot^ rm¥ Iwirimp ital fUp€$ 
run rit¥ to{otmv fu rnv M Uaffapydla^ t% 
UtpaiBos* iraadpopa M marairifAWti 4wl rrjv 

t ympap T^ iavroO. 'O? Bi iwl toI^ Bppif ^ t^ 
iltpaUo^t ^pa^aopmip fUP ov icari\a0€ ^arpa- 
wwowra hi {poa^ fkp TrrtX«vny«ilK 4rvyx«u^ff 
h '\pl6iK It* *AX«fdi4^>oy Ii^ck). 'Opfipp^ Bk 
hnpiKrro t% Fltpo^i^, ov wp^ ^AKt^Mpov 
maraerafitU, aXX* on ov« awrifUtatP aurhtf 
h mivikMp n^p^cif 5ia^t/Xitfcu *AX«{air5p^, o6« 

S lrro« iXXov dpxprro^. *H'K0€ ^ it Ua^apydBa^ 
«al 'ATpo^-aT^ Mv^ia^ carpamj^, &ywp 
hapvd(fip ipBpa MrjSop avptiXtjfAtiifOP, Sn 
ipAfpf rtip mlhapiP wtptOi^tPO^ ffaciXia vpoctt- 
Vfv aStrop IlfAa^My rt xal Wi^Brnp, teal (ifp rovr^ 
roif^ luraaxopra^ ain^ rou vcarrff>ic/AOu r€ neX 
rf^ dwoa^aatm^* Tovrouv ^a^ ^ difiicTUifW 

4 'E^vTiy^ff £^ a^oy 17 ntLpapofda ^ If top Kv/wu 
Toi/ KoM^^uaov rd^p, ota Biopmpvyfupou rt xal 
ff€ffvXfjfUPOp Kari\aff€ rov K vr>ot; top rd(f>ou, a>v 
XlTfi 'Apiaro/JouXof. E2v€U ykp ip UaeapydSat^ 
ip r^ weipa^ic^ r^ ffa<ri\ix^ Kvpov ixtivov 
rd^op, xal wtpH axnop &Kao^ trt^urevffOai hiu- 
hpmp irapTOimp, icai vhan tlpai tcardppvTov teal 

5 noap 0a$ttap irt^vicipai ip r^ XiipMPi* avrov 


Caniuuiia« bidding him lead his force to Persia, 
becanae, his expecUUon taking place in winter, the 
seaward parts of Perda were sonny and well supplied 
with all nec essar ies. 

XXIX« Then Alexander himself, with the lightest 
of tiie inlaiitiy and the eavalry OwnpanJoot and with 
part of the archers, advanced by the road leading to 
the Pasargadae, in Persia; Stasanor he d< 
to his own country. And when he was on the 
borders, he did not find Phrasaortet satrap any longer, 
for he had died of slekneM while Alexander was fai 
India, but Orxinea had ehaige of Persia, not by 
appointment of Alexander, but because he felt that 
be was the right pesaoo. In the abaenoe of any other 
gofemor, to keep Ferria in order fcr Alexander. To 
the district of the Pasargadae came also Atropates the 
satrap of Media, with Baryaxes a Mede as prisoner, 
sinee he had worn his eap in the upright fashion and 
given himself out to be King of Persians and Modes; 
together with him were bis aModatea In his r evol u tion 
and rebellion. All these Alexander ordered to be 
put to death. 

Alexander, however, was most distressed by the 
crime oommltted against the tomb of Cyrus son of 
Cambytea, sInee (as Arlstobolns relates) he found the 
tomb of Cyrus broken into and rifled. The tomb of 
thb Cjmis was in the territory of the Pasargadae, in 
the royal park ; round it had been planted a grove of 
all sorts of trees ; the grove was irrigated, and deep 
had grown in the meadow ; the tomb itself was 


Bk rhm ra^w rk ^^y «iiTcv \i$ov rrrfmfriiov 

9hnif»M iw§unu M$t¥0¥ 4rr€y€kafU¥^¥t SvpiSa 
fypp ^povca9 tlvm artn^p, mf /«oXif A9 M 
op^fA ov fAtyoK^ noXkk KOMomaBovtn^ vap«X- 
$9i9. *£i» ^ T« oUthult^ vvffX«r XP^^^ 
KtlaBoA^ Sm TO vmiui^ roif Kvpov 4ri6awTO, gal 
mkimiff wmpk Tf vWX^* iro&iv 5^ «2mu t$ 
cX^ XPV^otk ^^pi|XaTot;t» lioX ravifra ^v"!- 
fikfifiaTrnw^ WafiyKmrimp, koI gavptUas irop^i/- 

^UAoi/v yiTMrav T^ Ba/:^i;X4#riov^P7a9iOf. Kal 
iMi{v^^Stft Mf7^i«al ami ^roXoi Murii^u^/So^K 
Xiyti Iri Uttmo. ai Si woo^vpa%, ai Bi 4XXi|« ««u 
IXXiff XP^^* '<^^ wrprrroi «al OMtmutai €aX hmr$a 
Xftf^m Ti iKol X^i»v 4roXXifra. mai rp^Mtt^a 
Zmito. *Bir iiiv^ Ik r^ cXii^ ^ vvtXo^ I«<ito 

7 17 TO 9t#/ia Tov KwMv ixoyca. EImu ^ ^rrof 
Tou w€pt06Xov wpos rf apafiaau rj i'wi rhtf 
rm^ ^€poiin oiKf)i»a ^fuMpop roU Mayas 
W€W0i9ifUiaft ti 6fl i^t'Xaaaop rov Kvpov rd^p, 
hi dwo Kafi0vcov rov Kvpov, waU irapk war pes 
ighrvofitPOi riip ^vXaMWf, Kol rovrots wpo- 
Parop Tf 4s ^i^pav iBicoro ix 0€iat\ims Kal 
aXtvpmp Tf xal oIpov rrrtirffUpa /caH twwos Kara 
ftiS/pa is BvcCap r^ Kvp^. *Ewrf4ypairro Si 6 

8 rd^os IltpcixoiS ypdfipacr xal iBijXov Hep- 
CivrX rdh€' ** & ivBpt^rtt, iym Kvpos €ip,i 6 
Ka^iffvffov 6 rhv dp^tfp lUpaais Karaartjcd- 
fupos teal rrjs *Aoias 0aaiXiv<ras. M17 ovp 
^tmiiajfs poi rov ^mjparos.** 

* MBk^^ r«r Rdhl (and to Root). 

A>Au.\:5lS OF ALEXANDER, VI. 29. 5-^ 

boflt, at the base, with stones cut square and raised 
into rectangular form, .\bove, there was a chamber 
with a stone roof and with a door leading into it so 
narrow that with difficulty, and after great trouble, 
one man, and he a small one, could enter. And in 
the chamber was placed a goldeo taroophagot. In 
which Cyrnt' body had been bnied; a divan stood 
by the saroophagns, and this divan had feet of 
wrooghtgold; Hs coverlet was of Babylonian carpets, 
and for an onde r ceve rln g, pwple rugs. Upon It was 
pUved a tmrfe and vests also of Babylonian 
ship. Then there were, bealdes, Median 
and robes dyed blue lay there, as he^ says; and 
furtherrooie some of purple, some of this eoloar, tome 
of that ; neeklaees also and sdmitari and e ai r li n gs of 
set in gold ; and a table stood there also, ft 
on the midst of the divan that the sarcophagus, 
containing Cyrus' body, was placed. Within the 
enclosure, and lying on the approaeh to the tomb 
itself, was a small building put up for the Maglans, 
who were guardians of Cyrus' tomb, from as long ago 
as CambjTses, son of Cyrus, receiving this guardian- 
ship from father to son. To them was given from the 
King a sheep a day, an allowance of meal and wine» 
and a horse each month, to sacrifice to Cyrus. There 
was an inscription on the tomb in Persian letters ; it 
ran thus, in Persian : ** Mortal ! I am C3rrus son of 
Cambjrses, who founded the Persian empire, and 
was Lord of Asia. Grudge me not, then, my 

* AristoboliM. 



9 'AXi^ai^pof M (iwtfi4Xh ykp 9i¥ ain^, oiroTf 
tkoi nipanK, wapiivoi is rov Kvpov rw rd^op) 
T^ fikv a\Xa maraXafkfiai^i ixire^optifUva wKffP 
rtf^ irv4\ov Ktu rft^ mXipiis' oi Bi xal to actfia 
rov Kvpov iXM0iicMn; A^Xirrt^ to wMfia 
T^ wviKov, ffol rev wtKpi^ ififfaXov atntj^ hk 
rifv wv0Xo¥ imipmyro fvoygow a^at wot^aa0ai 
Mtu ravrjf ev^pow r^ ftip wapoMowTOirr^s, rk S^ 
(wf^Xmmts atrrrjs. 'fls Ik ov wpovxmp4i avrots 
r^Qro ri ifj^p, whm Iff idaeunt^ rtfp wikXop 

10 ilir^X^or. K«i Xryti ^ApiaroffovXo^ auroc Tax* 
Bffpeu wp^ *A\t(dp^v Kocfkfictu i( inrapxh^ 
T^ Kvpm TOP rd^p' gal rov pkp ^m^aros 
Soawtp rn cma ^p ttarnBupoi is rijp wvtXop «ai 
TO wmfAA iwtBtlptu* oca 34 ' Xikm0iiTo avrfjs 
KaropBiteai' «al rifp «Xinyv ipr€um* raipiais 
cai T^XXa Sea is xocfAOP ixuro tear dptdp/op 
T« icaX rois wdXai Ofioia dwo$up€u, ical rijp 
$vpiha hi d^apicai Tik /Uv aintfi \l0tp ipo$MO' 
hofkriaatna, rik hk iriyX^ if^wXaaapra* icaX 
iwifia\€iP T^ rni^ TO arnuiop ih 0aai\i/c6p. 

11 *A\i(aplpos Bi (vXXaffmp rovs Mdyovs rovs 
^vXamas rov rd^v iarpiffkmatp, ms icarMtwtiP 
rovs tpdaatrras* oi hi oMp ovrt a^mp ovrt 
SXKov garttwop arp^ffXovfUPOt, ovSk SWjf rrfi 
^vprfKiy^opro PuP€^loris r^ ^pyv *«i ^* Ty3« 
i^oiBricap if ^Alu^phpov. 

XXX. 'En^fv Bk is rA BaaCKua ^i t^ HtpcStp, 
h hfi wpic0tp icari^Xtftp avr6s» &^ fUn XiXtxrai 
&Te ovK itt-ppovp TO ipTfOP* aXX* ov5* ainos 
^AXifapipos iwaptXBw iinjvii, Kal fUp htf 
KoX mark *Op(ipov iroXXoi Xoyoi {XiyOrjaap npos 



Bat Alexmnder, who was anxioas, to toon at he 
should conquer Persia, to visit Cjrrus' tomb, finds 
ererjthiiig else removed except the taroophagus 
and the cUvan. The robbers had ereD viokted the 
bodj of Cjrms, for thej had removed the top of the 
saroophagnt and had thrown out the body; the 
saroophagvB Itself they had tried to render portable, 
so that thej miglifc bear it awaj, chipping tooie parti 
awaj, and brewing other parts off. Not succeeding 
in this attempt, however, thej left the sarcophagus as 
it was and went oC And Aristobttlns sajs that he 
received oiders from Alexander to pot the tomb in 
good order again, to deposit raeh parts of the body 
as were left in the sarcophagus again, and place its 
lid upon it ; where it was damaged, to repair it ; to 
spread the divan with ribands, and to restore, just 
like the originals, aO else that had been placed there, 
by way of ornament, piece by piece ; to obliterate 
the door both by walling it up in stone and partly by 
covering it with clay ; and then to set on the clay the 
royal seal Alexander then seised the Maglans who 
were the guardians of the tomb and tortured them 
that they might reveal the perpetrators; but they 
even under torture accused neither themselves nor 
anyone eke, nor showed In any way that they were 
privy to the deed ; and so Alexander let them go. 

XXX. Thence Alexander advanced to the Persian 
palace to which he himself had formerly set fire ; this 
act when I related, I could not approve; nor did 
Alexander, when he returned thither, approve it. 
Furthermore, many acctasatloos were brought by the 



S frfX#irnya€. Kol ^(l^^TXl^ 'OpfUif^ Upa re 

llMpamif voXXovv 5n oy fyy BUff aw4Krn¥€. 
ToyToy /Mv ^ olt irdyBfi into * KkM^avhpov 

«ioTav Tor at»/aiT0^iiXa4ra, wiarov ri o* i^ r^ 
MaXitfTa TA^tf/itfyov. ra T« ^XXa «al ^v^ t^ i¥ 
aAaWots ^py^» ami wpo€MiMt^vci rt coi 
avptfiattatif AXifar^por, «ai 4XX«k t^ /So^ 

t 46>tiXM9€ 5^ icuffjd Tf fC^vv i»« maTMardufi aa- 
rpawMUf ll§pcm9 /aovov tmv iXX«»ir Mo^c^oi^My 
ftrraXafimp rifp WtfSitgijp Kid ^k^v T^y lUpai- 
c^v €Kf»a$m¥ «al T^XXa (vfiwayra is rpovo¥ t^» 
Ilff/itfMrbir garti^Kgvaa a fU90S, *l*^* oU *AXi{ai^- 



Peniant against Ondnes, who took oommand of 
Persia when Phrasaortet died. Ondnes was con- 
victed of having rifled temples and rojal tombs, and 
also of having put to death many Persians without 
cause. Certain penona then under Alexander's 
orders hanged him. As satrap of the Persians he 
appointed Peucestas the bodyguard, regarding him 
at espedally loyal to him, and chiefly oo aeooant of 
hk heroin among the MalUaiit, where he risked his 
life and helped to save Alexander, and moreover, by 
rr Ason of his Oriental way of life he was not unsuited 
to the Pertiana. And of this he gave proof, as soon 
as he was appointed satrap of Persia, by adopting, 
alone of the Macedonians, the Median dress and 
learning the Penian language, and in all other 
respects SMJiiiilsliiig himMif to the Perrian ways. 
For aU this AleuiMkr wwimmdwi him, and the 
Persians were gratified that he preferred their ways 
to those of his own country. 




I. 'fU U is Uaaapydlas Tf xal is Uip^riwoXtp 
<S^i4rrro *A\i(a9fyot, itoSos MaraXafiSdifti 
avTop KarairXtv^at xark rov Ev^^n;^ r9 ical 
Kark rop Tiypira iwl r^v 0uXaffaap rffv 
Htpffucrfv mat ru¥ re worratimp iBtli^ rtks imffoXiis 
r^s is TOP worrop^ KoBu'wtp rov *lyJoi), koX rtfp 

t ravrjf BaktMaap. Oi hk koX rdB^ apiypa'^^op, 
6r$ iwtPO€i *Ax4(€u^pos wtptwXtvau r^p rt 
*Apmfiiap T^v ToXX^y gal rtfp \l$ wit mp yrfp «al 
riip Ai/9i/«|r Tf tal roifs Sofui^s rovs vwkp t6p 
'ArXorra to 6pos m iwl VaUipa €i^m is rifp 
iftrripop OdXacaop' Mtd rtip Ai0vn9 rt Mara- 
9Tptyf^dMtP9S mi Kapx't^opa oCrm 5^ rijs *Aaias 

t wa^fis iitml m f ibr ffaaiXtvs xaXtlcBtw roifs yap 
TOi Htpaw Kol Wi^B^p ffaatXims, oM rov 
iroXXoarov fUpovs yrj/s *Aaias iwdpyopras, ov 
cvp Bun »aXiip a^as fuydXovs ffaaiXias, 
*Ep6tp 04 Oi flip Xiyouaip in is rov woptop top 
Euf^iPOP iawXtiP iwtpo^i is ^nvSas t« koX r^y 
}Aamrip XifApffp, oi 5«, 5ri is ^nctXiap rt xal 
djcpap ^la-wvyiop* ffSif yitp xai xntoiciptlp airrop 
TO 'Pm/taimp Spofia wpovrnpow iirl fUya. 

4 *Erya» Bi owoia fUp ^p AXtfdpBpov rk ipBvfiri- 
para ovrt ix"* drp€/€its (vpfJaXttP ovrt fii\€t 
ipoiy€ Mal^tip* €Ktlpo hi kou avros &p pot hoicta 


I. On reachii^ Pasargadae and PenepoUs Alex- 
w«a seiMd with a dedre to sail down by 
the Eophnitea and Tigris into the Persian Sea; and 
to see the outlets of these rivers into the sea, as he 
had seen the ooUet of the Indos, and the ocean 
near H. Some historians hare recorded that Alex- 
ander intended to sail round Arabia, the greater 
part of it, and Aethiopia and Libja and the Nomads 
who are beyond Mount Atlas, right up to Gadeira 
ti our sea; then if he had subdued Libya and 
cJarchedon, he would in just right be called King 
of all Asia ; for, of course, the Persian and Median 
Kii^ had not held sway over even a firaetion of 
Asia* and so had no right to call themselves Great 
Kings. Thenoe some authorities say he proposed 
to sail into the Eoxine Sea to Scythia and Lake 
Maeotis; others, that he intended to make for 
flfefly and the lapygian promontory; for he was 
thready rather dbtressed that the Roman name was 
growing rtrf wklely extended. 

As for what was in Alexander's mind, I for my 
part have no means of coi^ecturing with any ac- 
curacy, nor do I care to guess; this, however, I 
think I can for my own part asseverate, that Alex- 



/riMfSr *A\4^p^po¥ aUr^ fmptu Av ih'pe- 
fiovtna iw* oui€pl rim ^7 KtmrtifUwup, ouM «/ 
Ti|r EvpmnfP r^ *Aal^ vpoat^ifccy, ov^ u r^c 
BpffTT«Mir vij^ow ri Evpmrff, AXXii hi Up hr 
ixtuHi (rjrtiP Ti rM9 ^vontUpmw^ #4 «ai /a^ ^XX^ 

6 r^, aXXi auroy 7c aln^ ipifotna, Koi M 
T^Sf hrtutm Tovc ao^i^ri^ Ti#ir *Ii^«>ir, &p 
Xkymwuf ioTiP otK KaraXfi^ima^ vir* *AXt- 
AMpMT %nrat$pio%f^ ip X^t/um, ipawtp avriHK 
iiarpt0al ^ap, iXXo fUp oMp wiHfjcai wpo^ 
rijp Syjttp airrov tc «al rrfq ^rparMf, Mpovtip ^ 
roi^ woal T7i» 771^ ^^' ^ 0€0iiMirgs ^op. 'H? 
5^ »}prro *A\4(aplpo^ ^* kpiitipimp S r$ pool 
avroi^ rh fpyop, roif^ i^ aw^KpipaaBa* iv^f* 

• " *Cl fiticiXtv AXd^op^pt, Spdpmvo^ flip f^aaro^ 
ToaoP^ rij^ ytf^ Marivti Saopwtp rovro ianp 
i^* OTf» Stffrj>tap4P' cv Bi dp$ptpwo^ 4r wapa' 
irXi^ioc * rots ifXXoK, vXi;V 7f ^ Sn iroXt/- 
wpdffi^p KoX arda$a\o^, diro rrj^ oUctias to- 
eavnjp yrjp Iwtfipxp wpdjfiara lyo»y rt teal 
wapr^mv iXXoif. Kai o^ irol 6\^op Cartpop 
inroSaimp rocovrop «a^«(ffi9 t% 7% iaop 
ifapKtt ipTtSd^ai Tip ampartC* 

n. }karra\jBa ivjjpiat pkp *AXi(€UfBpo^ rov^ 
rt XoTOVt atrrov^ gal rov^ tliropra^, iwpaca€ 
I4 Sfimt HXXa Kol rapaprla oU iir^ptaw. *Kir«l 
ical ^"yfyfjp top ix ^Li Pmwii\ OavpAacu Xiytrai^ 
€v *\c6fA^ irrvx^P t^ Ai07CWi haToxufitptp ip 
fjKlfp, drriOT^^ (vp toU VTraaincTali icai toU 
wtfrraipoi^ moI ipopMPO^ €» rov hioiro* 6 Bi 

^ Ponoo wm^mvjm^imt, bot Um mIJ. MeoM aoot&mrj to 
bftlaooo those which follow. 



aader had no small or mean conceptions, nor would 
ever have remained contented with any of hit poa* 
atMJoni io far, not even if he had added Europe 
to Asia, and the Britannic islands to Europe; but 
would alwajs have searched far bejond for some- 
thing unknown^ being ahraji the rival, if of no 
other, yet of himself. In thte connection I applaud 
the Indian wise men, some of whom, the story goes* 
were ibond by Alexander in the open air in a meadow, 
wbere tbey oscd to have their dispuUtions, and 
who, when they saw Alexander and his mmiy, did 
nothing further than beat with their feet the ground 
on which they stood. Then when Alexander en- 
quired by Interpreten what this action of thein 
meant, they repHed : *' O King Alexander, eadi man 
poasfssts just so moch of the earth as this on which 
we stand ; and you being a man like other men, save 
that you are full of activity and relentleas, are 
roaming over all this earth far from your home, 
trouMed yourself, and troubling others. But not 
so long hence you will die, and will powess just so 
much of the earth as suffices for your burial." 

II. On that occasion Alexander applauded their 
remarks and the speaken, but he always acted 
diametrically oppodte to that which he then ap- 
plauded. For example, he is said to have expressed 
surprise at Dkigenes of Sinope, when he found 
Diogenes onoe on the Isthmus lying in the sun; 
he and his bodyguard and his infantry Companions 
halted, and he asked if Dfc>genes had need of any- 



roO ^Xiov M <lvffX^f«F tKiknwgp avrop rt leal 
t r9y^ 9V¥ avr^. Ourm to* ov w^imi Hfrn ^» tow 

7«lp ^iPm ^«parfiro. *Bvfl «al #v TafiXa 
18^^ a^ticofUp^ ffol iSorn TMr co^icrup *Ir^v 
Todf yvfAPOv^ w60o^ 4y4prro fvr^ipai Tipa oi 
TMir iufhpmp rovrmp, trt rtfp Kaprtpiop atn&p 
i0avfiaar cal o /«4ir wp§a0vrmr9t rmpco^armp, 
Srov o/uXip'oi M IXXoA i)^av, A^d^^t Spofut, 
9Cr§ avTOf 1^ vap* 'AX^'fai^poy ^(ttP oirr« 

S T0V9 iXXowv ffCfl. *AXX* airoKpipaaBiU ykp Vi- 
TTTOi «« Aiof Mof jmI avTOK titf, ttwtp ovif ttal 
*AXj(apipof, gal ori o(rn ItarQ rov rmp wop* 
'AXtfiMpau, fx'iP yap oi tZ rk wapcpra, /rol 
AfiM ipop rovs (vp a%rr^ wXapmfUpovs rocavrtfp 
ytjjp naX BaXa^aop hr ayoB^ ovl€pi, MfF^ ^4paK 
ri avTOif yip6fi€POP rmp woXkmp wXapAp, o^* 
oup wodtlp Tt avTOt Srov mvptos ^p *A\i(apipo^ 
M)mu, ovr aZ ^hUp€Ut Srov xparoiti isetlfOf, 

4 loTiy oZ €lpy^aBai' fmpri fnip yap ol rrjp *]pB^ 
yffp i^apg^ip, ^povaap rk ttpam* ifwodapopra 
hk aira\Xayii<r€o$ai ovk iiritticov^ fvpoUov rov 
amfULro^, Ovmovp ovSi 'AXtfat^pop iirtxttprjirai 
ffidaaaffeu, ypopra iXtiiBtpop Spra rop dpSpa* 
jiXXA KdXavop yap dpawttcOrjpai rCtp ravrjf 
<ro^urrS>Pt ovripa fidKurra Brj aurov dxparopa 
Mryo^^cViT^ hviypay^tp avrov^ rov^ oo^icreis 
\iy9iPt K^uci^opra^ rop KoKai^op on dwoXiwwp 



thing. But be merely antwered that be needed 
nothing dM, bat bade him and hb followers stand 
oat of his tonligbt. So it was erident that Alexander 
was not incapable of higher thought, but he was, 
in fact, grievoaslj ander the sway of ambitkm. 
For once when he came to Taxila and saw those of 
the Indian wise men who go naked, he desired Tcrj 
much that one of these men shoold join him, since 
he so moch admired their endmranee. On this tlie 
oldest among these wise men, whose pupils the 
others were, called Dandamis, said that he would 
not join Alexander, and would not permit any of 
his sebool to do so. For he Is said to have replied 
that he was just as much a son of Zeus himself as 
Alexander was, and that he had no need of anything 
from Alexander, since he was eontented with what 
he had; he porceived, moreorer, that those who 
were wandering about with Alexander over all 
those countries and seas were none the better for 
it, and that there was no end to their many wander- 
ings. He did not then desire anything that Alex- 
ander could give him, nor did be fear being kept 
out of anythtog of wlileh Alexander inlght 1^ pos- 

he lived, the knd of India was all 
be needed, giving to him its fruits In theb teasoo; 
and when ht died, he would merely be released 
from an ancomfortable companion, bis body. Alex- 
ander then bearing this reply bad no mind to compel 
him, reahsinff that the man was Indeed free. But 
a certain Caunus— so Megasthenes writes— <me of 
the wiie men of these parts, was persuaded to join 
Alexander; a man whom the wise men themselves 
regarded as most uncontrolled in his desires, re- 
proaching Calanus because be deserted the happiness 



rff¥ ^aok a^ctp tvUufiofiap, o Si ^foir^nyr 
HXXop fj ro9 Stop V^toovfvf. 

III. Tatrra /7W apiypa'^a, Sn koI tnrip 
KaXoi^v iXP^^ fiVfir iw rh wtpl 'AXcfaVSpoi; 
(yyypa^j^ fAa\aMtc6iit'tu yap ti t^ cmfiari roy 
KaXopop i» rj UtpciBt yj, ovwm wpocBtv vo^i}- 
9turra' ovttovp oM Bia4rap Buuraafiai i04X4i¥ 
^pmcrov atf6pa%, mKXA tlwtuf ykp wp&^ *AXtf(aiN 
ojpop, Mmkm Avrf ^X^^ ^^ "^^ ^^f^ Kara- 
ay p^yf^tu. wpU rtpox is wtlpav Muif wmBif fAaros 
S rtw*p i^a»arfmdou ainhif fi€Tm0dkXt$9 r^w 

t wo6o0€9 MOiTojr. Kal *A>JftUfBpop hn9twtl¥ 
fUp avr^ M voXi/* mf ^ 0^ ^7r*^o/A«vov ^«*pa> 
iXkk iXXmt Aw dwaXXajhna, W fuj rts ravr^ 
IwurndBm, •iktt S4 ^irf iwitjy^XXtp avros, 
MktOeoi w tfa BSt w c i mitr^ wvfm»» gal ravrifs 
hufUk^rfwai riToXf/iaZoy t^ \dyiiv roy amfia- 
ro^vXatta, Oi 5^ Mai woftwi^p ripa wpawofATrtv- 
9 at axnoxf Xeyovatp nrvoi/t t« «al iMpas, rovs 
fU¥ mwXia fiivovs, rovs Si 6vfudfuira wai^roia 7^ 
wvpd i'Wi^4popraK' oi Si Mai iMirm^ra XP^^^ 
gal apjvpa gal iaBifra 0aat\igr)f^ Xiyovcty 5ti 

S i^pop. Airrm Si irapacMMvacBripai fiiv 7wwop, 
Sri ffaSi^rai iSvpdrus €lxt» viro rrjs vocov ov 
fAffP Svp^fjvai yt ovSi rov i-mrov imfitfiKU, 
&XXa htl gXitn)s y^p MomaBrjvat ^tp6fi€90P, 
iart^pmfUpOP rt r^ *lpSi>p pofim gal fSopra rj 
*\pSAp yXmaajf, Oi Si 'l$'Sol Xtyovaip ort. Cfipot 

4 Oti^p ^ap gal avrifp trraipot. Kal rop pip 
hrwop rovrop Srov irri^ijatcOai ep^XXt, PatriXt- 
«ir Spra ratp Svcaiwp, wpip dpaffrjpai ^irl rtjp 
mtpkp \v<npAx^ x^P^^^^^*^'' '^^*' ^^'^^ Oipa- 



which they had, while he sen-ed a master other 
than God. 

III. All this I have narrated becattae it was im- 
poMible to write a history of Alexander without 
mention of Calanus ; for he grew enfeebled in body 
in Perda, though he had never been ill before ; and 
yet he would not submit to die ordinary way of life 
of an inralid, but said to Aksander that he was 
glad to make an end as he wat, befoie be ahioald 
experience anr suffering whieh would faee him 
to adopt a dilterent way of life than that to which 
he had been used. Alexander, however, argued 
with Um at sone length; but perceiving that 
Calanus would not give in, but woiald choose some 
other way of death, if one should not yield to him 
00 Ifali point, ordered, as Calanus dedred, that a 
pyie ihoiild be bnih for him* end that Ptolemaeus 
son of Lagtts the officer of the bodyguard should 
be in cfaaige of this. Some authorities reUte that 
he had a great procession formed, horses and men, 
of whom some were in foil armour, and others carried 
all sorts of incense for the pyre ; others again say 
that they carried gold ana tihrer cups and royal 
raiment. For CaUnus himaelf a hone was miule 
ready, since he could not walk, by reason of his 
illness; and yet he could not so much as mount 
the horse, but was borne upon a Utter, lying down, 
crowned with garlands in the Indian tashkm and 
singing songs in the Indian tongue. The Indians 
say that tMse songs were hymns to some gods, 
and their praises. The horM, on which he was 
to have mounted, was a royal horse, belonging to 
the Nysaeans, and before Calanus mounted the 
pyre it was given as a gift to Lysimachus, one ol 



wwwnm9 airrow iwl 0«^if * rmp B^ S^ iawm- 
fiormw 4 arpm^rmp oaa ififfX^jOrftnu is rijm 
wvphf Koafiop atrr^ rrrdxn *AXi{ay6po«, d\\a 

ft ^(XX«if louyai tmv a/i^* airrop, Ourm Bt) Vvi- 
fidwra Tf mfo^ KartutXiOijiHgi fUy ip tcocfi^, 
•pac0ai M wfos rrfs rrpanas (ufAwdanfS* *AX«- 
(tufBp^ l^ owt iwt€tMU ^oj^vNu TO Biafta iwl 
itk^ OitBpi ytypofitpot^' akXA roU y^p SXkoiS 
iavfia waptk^xicBtu ovBip Ti wapoMipifaapra iv 

6 T^ wvfii rpv amtiatos. *ils hk rh wvp is rrjp 
wvpkp ip4fidkop ois wpoffrrrayfUPOP ^¥, rds Tf 
adkwpfyaf ^iy^aeOmi Xiyti Uimpx^s, oCrms i^ 
*A\t(dp6pw wpo^rrrajfUpom, mai rifp erparthf 
4waXa\d(ai vacap imdlop ri koX h ri^ A^X^^ 
tovca iwrjIkdXal^tt koX rovs iXj^mas cuprwftxfh 
etu ri 6(v Mok voXtfUMOP, rtftmpras KdXoPW* 
Tm6ra mml roioiha irgip KaKdinnt rav *Ip6ov 
Umpoi iwarfrfpdi^aiPt oum d^piTa wdprti is 
dpBommovs, or^ ypuptu hrifuXJs, ^i ms leaprtpop 
r€ iari xal dvUfrrop yt^f^il dpBpmwiprf 8 riwip 
i$i\n if^pydaa^Stu. 

IV. 'Ear ToiAT^ M *AXiftLpBpos *ArpandrfiP fUp 
/vl rrfp airrou aarpawtuuf ixwi^wti irap€\Bmp 
is l^ha* *A/9oi;Xin/r Bi xal top rovrov walBa 
*O(d0ptip, OTi teoMtts iwtpMktlro rmp laveUtP, 

S ^vXXafiitp diriKTup^. UoXXa pkw hti vrwXtipr 
/UkffTO im rifp xarexopTttp riis X^^^ ^^^' 
BopvKTffToi wpos *AXi(dpSpov iytPopTo h t< rk 
Upd Koi rd^us Kol atrrovs rovs inrqKOOVS, on 
Xpopios 6 (Is *\pBoifS aroXos iyryimiro r^ fiaaiktl 
Koi ov via TOP i^OiPtro diropoori^tip avrop ix 
ToaitpBt iBpup mal rocmpBt iKt^wnrnw, ttwip r^p 


those who had been hb pupils in philosophy; and 
of the eups and eoverlets which Alexander had 
or d ered to be heaped upon the pyre, he gave some 
to one, and some to another, of his followers. Thas, 
then, he mounted the pjre and laj down with solem- 
nity, in the sight of all the host. As for Alexander, 
he felt this n>ectaele to be unseemly, with one for 
whom he haa an aflcctkm ; as for the rest, they felt 
nothing but as lo w i siimetit toiec that CaUnus flinAed 
not one whit In the llamea. And when the pyre 
was yt by those detailed to do so, the trumpets 
(sars Nearehus) sounded, 9M Alexander had ocdcared* 
and the whole army raised the cry which they raise 
when entering battle, and the elephants trumpeted 
their thrill war«ry, in honour 01 Calanus. Niany 
writers have told this story, and others like it, of 
Calanus the Indian, not altogether valueless to 
mankind, at least for anyone wlio caret to realiie 
how stalwart and unfHnwiInf is homan reaol u tion 
to carry out that which it desires. 

IV. At this time Alexander despatched Atropates 
to his satrapy, after he had himself proc e eded to 
Siisa. There he arrested Abolites and his son 
Oxatlires, since he had abased his office as goremor 
of the Swians, and pot them to death. 1^ there 
had been many irregvlafities on tlie part of tlwee 
rulers of countries which Alexander nad captured 
in war; whether towards temples, tombs, or the 
subjects tliemsehres, since the King had been a 
lone time on his Indian expedition, and there seemed 
little likelihood of his returning safe from so many 
tribes and so many fighting elephants, doomed 



*Ip^ Tt «€U 'TBacmjv ical ror 'Artadn^ mU 
S "T^aaiw ^$up6fi4P0¥, Kol ai ^ TaBpmeiotK Bk 

joifs ravTff earpairtvotna^ Mara^poin)aat avrov 

«VT^ *AXi{aj^po« 6(ur€po^ X#yrrai yMt4a0M 
hf T^ TOTff #f Td wiartvcai rt roU iwixaXou* 
fUvot^, m Wi$a9ol^ ^ ip watrrX ouat, Ktu M ro 
niMmpT^cacBai ftrfdXm^ rovs koI ^irl futcpoU 
if^XtyX^ipra^, Srt xal rk ittyaKa h» tBoxoup 

4 *0 &r Kol jdftav^ iwoifiaw ip ^v^a^ ainoO 
Tt gal tAp iralpmp* avro^ ^p rup ^apdov 
dvyartpmp T^r ^p€e0vrdrffp Bopotnyr ^7< ^ ytT0, 
^ Si \ff€t ^ApiaroficvXo^, xal iWtfv wpo^ 
ravTjf, rifp "Clvov 0vyarip^p rtjp Ptmrdrfjp 
Tlapvaanp, "liort Bi ^p avr^ rjyfUpfi moI ^ 

5 *0(udprrov rov BoMTpiov waU 'P^^ftipti, Api^ 
wrruf 6i 'll^oiarimpi UBtPCi, ^aptiov iraiBa teal 
ravrtfp, dBgX^ijp 7% atrrov yvpatKo^, iOiXnp yap 
01 dvtyffiov^ rifp wai^p yMpiaBai rov^ 'H^oi^- 
rLmp9% voSSor Kparipm hk ^AfUL^rplptjv rijp 
*0(vdproy rov ^fitUv iMK^v ira£5a* WMpliKKif 
hk rifp *ArpawdTov rov Mtflia^ aarpdirov iraiha 

6 ^f^icr' UroXtfuiC^ hk T^ at^fULTO^vXaxi koX 
E^/i^i TM ypap4iaTtZ r^ fiaaiXitc^ t^9 ^hpra- 
Pdljov walca^ r^ (Up ^Apreuca/AOP, rA tk'AprwPiP* 
litdpx^ ^ Tfjp fiapaipf)^ Tt Kol MipTopo^ waiBa' 
X«X«u«9» Bi rtfp ^wirofUpov^ rov BaitTpiov waiBa* 
maavTtt^ Bk teal roi^ SXXot^ iraipoi^ rk^ Botci- 
/tmrdra^ UtpaAp rt gal MiiBwp iralBa^ ^9 

7 oyBoi^icovra, Oi ydfioi Bt ivoiijOrjaap pop^ r^ 


to perish beyond the Indus, Hydaspes, Acesinet, 
ana Hjphaais. The disasters too which he suffered 
in GadroiU all the more encouraged the satraps 
on this side to scout anj idea of his return. Not 
but what Alexander hinttelf is said to have grown 
at this time more readj to listen to anj aociisatioiit» 
as if they were wholly reliable, and to ponish tererelj 
thoae who were convicted even of sUgfat errors, 
beeaiMe be felt thej night, in the same frame of 
niino, conimit heavier erimes. 

Then he held also weddings at Susa, both his 
own and for his Companions; he married Dareius' 
eldest daughter Barsine,^ and, at AriitobiiliM says, 
another irae beridca, the y oung et t daughter of 
Ochus, Parysatk. He had already taken to wife 
Roxane, thie daughter of Ozyartes the Bactrian. 
To Hephacttkm he gave Drypetis, abo a daughter 
of Dareittt, ritier to his own wife, for he dttired 
that HephaestSoo'i children should be his own 
nephews and nieces; to Craterus.Amastrine daughter 
of Oxyartcs, Dareius* brother; to Perdiocas a 
daughter of Atropates, the satrap of Media; to 
Ptolemaeos the officer of the bodyguard and Eumenea 
the royal secretary, the daughters of Artabanit, 
Artacama to Ptoleniaeys, Artools to Eumenes; to 
Nearchus the daogbter of Baniiie* and Mentor; 
to Seleoctts the daughter of Spttamenai the Bactrian, 
and similarlr to the other (Vmpanfcwia the noblest 
daughters of Persians and Medea, to the number of 
eighty. These weddings were solemnised in the 

* Otharwiis Statdra. TUi may U aa error of Arriao't. 

• Alnand«*s Mriier wife, swChv of UwadM. (W. W. 
Tarn, JM^., xli. pi. i. dispoitas thto.) 


Koi fMitrk ro9 wirrov ^irov ai yafxovfuviu teal 
waptKoBifoirro ixdarf) r^ iouTr}^* ol B^ ih^ftw' 
cawro r« aink^ koX i^iKf^aav itpttro^ Bk o 
fitkffiXtv^ ^p(€P' iv T^ airr^ yikp wdvrmv ^ij- 
wwrro oi ydftot, Kal rovro, cfircp ri aWo, llBo^€ 
Sff/MTfirov Tff nal ^iXiratpop wpaftu *AXf{av5poy. 

8 Ol li wa p a X afiatrrts dv^yor rff^ iavrov i/caaro^' 
wpoUa^ Ik pfftfwd^ati^ M&Mtcy *AXi(a9lpa^. 
Kmi Sam U iXXm i}7/iiM« ^m^ MomSm^ r6v 
*AcuLPU¥ rufti^ yv¥aiMm¥, awoypa^fit^tu MX€VC€ 
col jovrmw t^ oro/iaro, xal iyi^opro Itffkp roif^ 
fivplov^, xal Toirroiv 6mp€ai *AX«{ai^/>ov ihoBif- 
aap 4wl roU ydftoi^. 

V. Kal ri xp4a iwikiwaaOat r^ crparul^ 
6coi^ XP^^ ^ K KOifm oi lSo(f, xal «fXfWi dwo- 
ypa^cBai orwoaov o^tkti itcaaro^, ^ Xif^ro- 
fibfovs* Kal rk fUw wpmra 6\iyoi diriypayjraw 
9^¥ tk wofuira, Miori^ i( * AXtfdtfBpov fitf 
WMipa avTJi tlfj ica$€tfUinf, 6rf ovtc diroxp^a 17 
fuaBo^ooa tmv erpanwrmp lori ital Stf woXv- 

S TcX^ r; ciaira, 'iU 64 ifnyytkro 5ti ov/c d-wo- 
ypd^vai e^^ ol woXXoi, aXX* iviicpinrrovciv 
ir^ T« tlri cvfiffoXataw, rtfv fiiv dtrutriav rSiv 
arpanmrmp iMOMtagir ov yap ^pfjvat ovr ovv 
Tov fiaaiXia aWo ti ^ dXtfitvtiP wpo^ tov9 
inniKoov^, ovr€ ri^v dp^ofiipttw ri»a JUXXo t« 4j dXtf- 

S $€V€iP SoMW TOP ffaaiXia. KaTa6€U 6k rpawifa^ 
tp Ty orparawiB^ xal iwl rovrw xpvciovt rov^ 
hrtfUkfiaofUpov^ rtf^ Bo^tot^ itcdarot^ otrri^ avfi- 
ffoXaiop hnitUanno iiriXv€adai ra XP^^ (tciXevev 
ovK diroypa^OfUpov^ in ra ovofULra, Kal ovrw 


Penian £ulikm; thMkn were pUced for the bride* 
groom s in order; then aAer the health-drinkinffs 
the brides came in, and each sat down by the side 
of her bridegroom; they took them by the hand 
and kissed wem, the King setting the example; 
for all the weddings took place together. In this, 
if ever, Alexander was tboogfat to have shown a 
spirit of co n dc t ccnsion and comradeship. Then 
tne brid^rooms having received their brides led 
them ba^ to their b<Mnes, and to all Alexander 
gave dowries. Alexander also ordered the names of 
any other Macedonians who had married Asian 
women to be registered. They proved to be more 
than ten thousand, and to all Alexander gave wed- 


a eonvenient moment to dear 
up all debts d the army, and Alexmder ofdkvad 
a list to be made of all debts, with a promise of 
settlement At first only a few entered tneir names 
on the list, being nervous lest Alexander had merely 
tried an experiment to see who had not lived on 
their pay and who had been living extravagantly; 
but when Alexander learnt that most of the sokiicn 
were not sending in their names, but concealing 
their bonds, he removed the suspicions of the troops ; 
the King, be said, must always speak truth to his 
subjects, and the subjects must never suppose that 
their King speaks anything but truth. So be had 
banking tables set up in the camp, with money 
thereon, and told the accountants charged witn 
the distribution to cancel the debts to all who pro- 
duced any bond, without so much as registering 
the names. So they came to believe that Akexander 

VOL. II. H '1 7 


XaptTi fitifopt tyiyt'tro airroi^ to /Aff ypmcBtjtmi 
ftaWov ri 4 TO wavaa^Ba* o^ciXorrav. Aiyrrtu 
h^ ywviaStu 17 hoct^ aCrni rj orpan^ h raktuna 

gar JifimctP irtparo ^ xar aprrifp tt tk /wi- 
^tu^ ^ytTOVfi ip T019 irii^vi'049. Kal Jcr^ 
iopm^f XPv^oU 9^9^0901% Toif^ atfhpayadlf 

6 oiavp^Torra^, wpinop fUw Uwrnierap rhp 
vwtpaawicrarra, firura Xtwpaiopt koX toOtop 
{nnp€iawlctuna, nal &A rov^ ip *\vhoU iciphvpov^ 
»mi TffP 4p *Clpoi^ pucttP y€POfUpfiP» ot« wapara* 
(afi4PO^ cifP rp vwoXti^^tia vi Bvpdfm wpo% Tovt 
mtTfpiforrav ^up t< ^ilpaimp koX rtm wXif^lop 
rovrmp ^lafiipmp r% tc lidxff itcpdrfj^t «ai 

6 T^XXa KoXif^ fSoff T^ ip "(Ipd^ Kocfkf^ai. *Rvl 
TovTOK ^ Uiapxop <Vl T^ w€piw\^ T^ 4ic r% 
*l9Siir Y^ «ar^ rifp /iryaXsp $£Km99ap ivr^* 
garner kqX ykp koX o^rof A^iyfUpo^ ^17 ^ 
2ot^a f)v* /v) TovTOK ^ ^Opff^UpiTOP rhp 
Kvfi€ppiiTffp rij^ Ptm TTf^ BaaiXiKtj^- hi W 

VI. *Uxop B^ avr^ Kol oi aarpatrai 04 ix tAp 
woXtmp rt ritp ptoKTurrmp icai rift aWij^ 7^ 
T^ topvoXmrov, woiIUl^ tf^dcKOpra^ t)^ i^ 
rpia^fAvpiOv^ &yowr€^t rtfp airnjp rjXi/ciop ytyopo^ 
Ta9, 0&9 *Ewiy6pov^ tMaXet *A\i^a»hpo^, icmkoc- 
puiphntv^ MaKthopiKol^ oirXoi^ lecu ra froXtfua 
#? TOi» rpowop rop Mojce^opiicop tfaicrffitpov^, 
t Kal ovroi a^ixofUPOi \iyovrai apiaaai Ma/rc- 
hopa^, m^ wdpra Btf firfxapmfUpov *AXt(dp6pov 


spoke truth, and they were more gratified by th« 
concealment of their names than by the cancellation 
of the debts. Thb gift of his to the anny it Mid 
to have amounted to twenty thousand talents. 

He gave also various other gifts, according to the 
repute in which anyone was heki, or to valour shown 
oooapieiMNisly in dangers. He also decorated with 
golden crowns thoae distinguished for bravery — 
Peucestas, first, who saved his Ufe ; then Leonnatus, 
who did likewise, and also for his risks nm in India 
.ind his victory among the Orians, and because he 
faced, with the forces remaining to him, the rebel 
Oreitans and their neighbours, and beat them in 
the battle; and also for aU his other dispodtioiit 
which he had satisfactorily oiade among the Oriaai. 
Ilien, besides, he decorated Nearchus for his coast- 
ing voyage from India by way of the ocean; for 
Searchus alM had now arrived at Susa; and next, 
QB Cikri t ui , the hehmman of the royal ship; also 
Hepbaestioii and the real of the bodyguards. 

VI. Then there came to him also the governors 
of the new dties whkh he had founded, and of the 
provinoea be had captured bctJdci, bringing about 
thirty thousand youths, all of the same age, whom 
Alexander called his *' Sucoesaors," all dressed in 
Macedonian dress and trained to warlike exerdset 
on the Maecdonian sjrttem. Their arrival is said 
to have annoyed the Macedonians, as if Alexander 
was contriving every means of dispensing with 



vwkp Tov fiffxiri maavrtt^ Bela^tu MairtJoyatir 
clyoi yap o^v koX rtfp MtfitMfjp r^v *AX«(kM/>ov 
OToX^v ikyo^ ov cfumpop Ma4rc5o0'iy opmfUtnfp, 
xal rov^ ydfiovK ip r^ ^^f^ ^^ lUptruc^ iroii^ 
Btpra^ ov irpoc Bv^iov ytPioBai roic iroXXoic 
ainitPt ovSi tmv yfifidyj^p iativ 0I9. KaLroi rj 
i^rorriTi r^ ^9 Toy ffaaiXia firyaXm^ TCTi/i«;/A«i^i9. 
nft;«<aTa9 rt o Utpowp aarpdwtf^ rp rt aKtvfj 
kqX t^ ^^i wtpaLt^mp iXvvtt avrov^, &Ti r^ 
Smpfiafta^ atrrou hffupw *AXJfap^po^, xal oi 
BoMrptmtf M Mtd oi icyiuump irol ^Apavmrmp 
IwwtU, Kal T^pdyymp hk maX 'Apti^p Kal Hap- 
Svtump Kal ii€ IlffptfMy 04 Kv<i«ai koXov fUPOi 
IwwtU Kara\oxKr0ipr€^ is rtfp Tmrop rijp haipi- 
Kffp laoi axnup Kar a^lm^ip koX koKKu tov 

ouparos 4 rh XXXff dp^r^ vwtp^ipoprts i^ai* 
porro, Kal wifgrnp iwl rovrot^ IwirapYia 
yitPOfUpTf, ov fiap0aptKff 17 va<ra, AXXm hravfri- 

Mrrot 7^p ra& wmrros lirirtKov icartXjyffcap is 
miri TUP 6ap$dpttm, r^ rt ayr/fuiri wpovKara- 
XtyiPTts Kw^fjv T« o *Apra0d(ov ndl 'Tlappi/s 
«ai *Aprt06Xfis oi Maf^aiov, leaX l,teipfjs icid 
^pahaoiihnis oi ^para^ppov rov l\ap$vaLt»p 
KoX "TpKapias carpdirov iroZ^, xal 'Icravris 
*0(vdpTov ^Aip iraU, 'P«»(dyffs ^ rr)S yvpoixos 
6 *AX€(dphpov dltX^os. Kal Avro0nprjs ical 6 
rovTOV aStX^os MiOpoffalos, nal vfytfioav iirl 
rovTOiS iiTicraBtU 'TardcirrfS 6 BaKrptos, xal 
TovTois hopara S\aKthopn(k dprl rSrp ffap0api>c(av 
fuaayicvXMP Bodivra, raxrra wdpra iXvwti rovs 
MoKtBopas, ms wdprri Srj ffapffapi^omos r^ 
ypwfifj *\\t(dpBpov, rk hi MafCihovt/ciL pofUfui 
rt Kal avTovs MaKtBo^as (p drifnp X^P? &yopros> 
3 30 


in future ; in fact they had been greatly 
pained to tee Alexander wearing the Median robes, 
and his Persian marriage ceremonies had not given 
•atisfaction to most of them ; indeed, not even to 
some of the bridegrooms, though they had been 
highly honoured by their being thus raised to a 
level with the King. Then they were indignant 
that Peucestas the satrap of Persia was aping Persian 
ways both In dress and speech, and more, that 
Alexander seemed to like his OrienUl habiu ; then 
again, Baetrian, Sogdian, and Arachotian cavalry, 
and Zarangians, Areians, Parthyaeans* and of the 
Persians thoae called the Evacae, were brigaded 
with the Companions* Cavalry, that Is, those who 
sermcd oonspietioiit for handsomeness or some 
other excellence. Then* too, apart from these, a 
fifth cavalry regiment was aoded, not entirely 
Oriental, but tl^ whole cavalry force being in- 
creased, some of the Orientab were specially picked 
for it; into the special squadron were enrolled 
Cophen the son of Artabasns ^ and Hydames and 
Artibolcs sons of Maxaeus, Sislnes and Phradasmenes, 
•ons fd Phrataphcmes the satrap of Parthvaea and 
llprrcania, and llistancs son of Oxyartes and brother 
of Roxane, Alexander's wife. Autobares also, and 
his brother Mithrobaeos; and as commander over 
all these was appointed Hystaspes the Bactrian, 
and they were ghren Macedonian spears Instead 
of the Oriental javeUns. AU this caused indignatton 
to the Macedonians, as giving an idea that Alex- 
ander's heart was mm\om entirely Orientalised, 
and that he paid Utile connderatlon to Macedonian 
customs and Macedonians themselves. 

IV. 7. •hove. 


VII. *AXi^ySpo9 ^ T% fihf irf{^ arpana^ 

Tffp BaXaaaap rifp Utpcuciip, Avr&9 ^ omi- 
wXtvo'tunos avT^ roO rairrurov /f r^v Sovaiav 
7^ iwiff^^ riuf mmv f t^v roiv ifira9itiaTah re 
mU r^ ilyiy/AaT* itai rmp Iwirimp tup Iraipmp 
^9aA0€iad^itP9% ov woXKov^ icarhrXM icarik top 

t EvXaImt wvrmpuiP m M SaXaaaap. "HBtf l^ 
wXffaiop itp T^f ixfioXri^ r^ h top woptop t^9 
/i^p wXiiopaf Tff Mol TrnropfiKvla^ Tmp Ptmp tcaTa- 
Xdwtt mifTOtr airro^ ^ Tals /uiXi^Ta raxy^v- 
f tf^ m f wmphrXtt avo rot) EvXalov worafiov 
mmtk TTfif Bakaaaap «Spv <V1 ti^v iitfioXk^ tov 
TiypffTo^' at ^4 dXXai ain^ p9^ Apm^Ofue$€latu 
ttaTk TOP EvXatop l^rf iwl rifP Itrnfivxti 4 
TfT/iirrai 4g TOV TiypffTO^ ^t rir EyXA«ov, rairri; 
BttaofiiaStfcap H TOf TiypriTa, 

1 T«»v ykp Of worafMp tov Tt Kv^paTOV «al tov 
Tiypt/TO^, ot TtfP fU^VP c^ttp T,vpiap airtipyov^ip, 
6$9P «al T^ ipofUk }Ji§coiiroTapia vpo^ Twy ^iri- 
^•^pUtp /rXiy^CcTai, o flip Tlypff^ woXv ri Tawttpo- 
rtpo^jUmp TOV Ev^paTov hitipvx^^ Tt iroXX^^ itc 
TO& U^paTov i^ avTOP B^yrrai xai iroXXov^ 
&XXov^ woraftov^ vapaXaffmv icai i^ aineap 
aif^qOtU iffffdXXn ^v TOP wotnop top Tltpaiicop, 

4 fii^ya^ Tc Kol ovBa/iov B4affaT6^ Krrt ivl Ttfp 
imfioXrip, KoBoTt ov KaTapaXiagrreu atrrov ovhkp 
i^ TTfp xmoop. 'E<TTC yap ftMTWmpoTtpa ^ Tavrp 
y^ TOV CoaTO^, ovS^ ixSiSuetp ovto^ icaTk r^v 
huiitpv\a^ ovhi i^ SXKop irora/ioy, aXXA B^ytrat 
ykp ^Mtlpov^ paXXop* aph€<T$ai Tf avo ov ttjp 

6 X'^P'^ ovBoft^ wap€X*i* 'O 6k Ev^paTtj^ p4' 


VII. Alezaoder now gave orders to Hephaestion 
to Uke the greater portion of the infantry force to 
the Perdan Sea. Then, hit fleet haTiog put in to 
Sadan t errito r y , he himtdf eonbarked with his 
bodyguards and the special squadron of cavalry, 
and also taking on board a few of the Gxnpanioos' 
eavahy, he tatted down the river Eulaeos to the 
sea. And being now not far from the ettoary he 
left there most of his ships, and those whieh were 
hi a bad way ; and hinself with the faster sailers 
eoasted by sea from the river Eulaetts towards the 
mouths of the Tigris; and the rest of his flotiUa, 
safling op the Eoketis at far as the canal cot between 
the Tigris and Enlaeai, in this way safled hito the 

Now, of these two rivers, the Euphrates and the 
Tigris, whieh are the boundaries of so much of 
Syria as lies between them — and hence the name 
Mesopotamia Is given to it by the inhabitants — 
the Tigris, which runs through much lower ground, 
receives many canals from the Euphrates* and also 
takes in many tributaries besides, and bdng much 
increased in volume thereby runs into the Persian 
ocean, a large river, and not to be forded at any 
point up to its mouth, since no portion of it whatever 
is spent upon the land. For here the country is 
all higlier than the river, and the Tigris therefore 
loses none of its stream to any other river, by means 
of eanals, but rather receives them into itself; and 
hence It does not permit irrigation of its country 
from its own waters. The Euphrates, however. 


rSmpk T« ^1 gal Ico^tXfis wairra\ov r^ y^, leeu 
himpvxiv Tf froXXai av* avrov wrwoiffirrai, oi 
ftkp aiwaot, «i^* &p vhfMvovrai ot trap* ixdrepa 
mMiafUpoi* Tdc Bi xai wp&^ tcaipov voiot/vrai, 
oiroTt c^ioiP vhato^ ipitm fyot, ^« to iwapB^ip 
rifp ympav ov ykp Crra$ to woXv ^ yif avrti 
i^ ovpapov* gai ourm^ ^ ov woXv i;&»p o 
Eif^pdr^i^ rt\€vrmp col r t pm ym h t ^ rovro, oOrm^ 

6 *A\i(ap6po^ li wfptwXtv^a^ xarii Tffp ddXac- 
aaw ocop /icTafv rou re \\v\aiov vorafiov xal 
rov TiypffTo^ ^fi;^cv o aiyiaXa^ rov MoXirov rov 
TlMpcucov, OMtrXfi irari Tor Tiypfrra Hart M to 
9T^Tov«^ tpm 'i\^at<rrU0¥ avr^ rrjp hvvaiuv 
wacap ix^p iarparorwth4VKu, *Vjc*W€p 6k at6is 
IrXti is *[lwtpt woXtP dwl rov 'Tiyptfros ^le- 

7 fUp^P. 'By 2« T^ opdwX^ rovs Karappamas 
Tovf Kark top warafAOP k^pi^mp OfAaXoi^ wdprif 
hroUi Toy /SoCv. oi h^ im IXtpco^p vrfrotfjfUpoi 
^op, rov fifi TiPa dwo BaXdac^ dpawXtvceu 
«K Tfip YMpay ainiiP pfitrff aroX^ scpani^apra, 
Tavra M ptfiffxdpffro &rt 5^ ou pavriicoU roU 
Tlipaair otrtf 5^ avptytU oi xarappdxrai 
W€wotfifiipoi dwopop TOP apdwXovp iiroun/p rhp 
Mark TOP Tiypffxa, *\Xe(aphpos 6k ovic ^tf Ttap 
KparovPTttp Toi? oirXois tipai rk roiavra ao^itr- 
para' ovtcovp irpos avrov rtroitito ravrtfp rtjp 
da^dXnop, ^pTiPa ^py^ ov^i Xoyov dfiop diri- 
^lyMV, ov xaX€irM9 5iairo^af tmv HepaAp rk 

VIII. *n^ Bk €9 TTfv^ClirtP a^ucrro^ (vvayaytop 
T0V9 M<urc3oya9 vpo€lw€P Sri rovs tnrh yrfpms ^ 



runs 00 a higlier Talley-bed, its strcAin runs flush 
with its Und, all along its course, and many canals 
have been cut from it, some always running — and 
from these those who live on either side get their 
water— others, however, they make only as need 
dictates, whenever the ground grows thirsty, to 
irrigate the land ; fisr the greater part of this territory 
receives no rain; and thus the Euphrates finishes 
with a diminished streanit and that too spread over 
marshy land. 

Alexander now sailed round by sea the distane€ 
of the shore of the Persian gulf between the Eulaeus 
and the Tigris, and then sailed up the Tigris to the 
camp where Ucphaettion had encamped with all 
his force. Thence again he sailed to Opb, a city 
built on the Tigris. Daring this voyage upstream 
he removed the weirs In the river and made the 
stream level throughout ; these weirs had been made 
by the Persians to prevent anyone sailing up to their 
t-ountry overmastering it by a naval force. All this 
iod been contrived by the Persians, inexpert as 
t hey were in maritime matters ; and so these weirs, 
built up at frequent intervals, made the voyage up 
the Tigris very difficult Alexander, however, said 
that contrivances of this kind bekmged to those who 
had no military supremacy; he therefore regarded 
these safeguards as of no value to himself, and indeed 
proved them not worth mention by de str oy in g with 
case these labours of the Persians. 

VIII. On reaching Opis, Alexander summoned 
his Macedonians and announced that those who 



wtifmatm^ rov cmuaro^ Axptiaxf^ i^ rk troXi/ua 

avTov^ Tff (f)\Mrori pov^ iroiv}^<i roU olteot «ai 
rov^ SiXXov^ Ma^etho^a^ tfop^i^u ^^ rh iOikgtp 
TMv avrmp xtphvvuv re ma\ wotmp /irr^)^v. 

t *AXi(di^/>ot fihf m^ xapiovtitwo^ hfj/Btv roU 
yimxthoai ravra tKrfti/^ oi hk m vw^popmiupoi 
Tff 4^ *P^ *K\M^a9hpov kqX «1;(P«2m tr am| i% 
^k woXifua PC fui6fA4voi ov€ kXi^pt^ a^ r^ ^^71^ 
^Xfiio$ff^a» r^ vpo« *AXf(cMpov Xff^lrri. irarik 
TffP arp4i7tkp ravTfiP waaop voXXoiv «ai iXXoif 
k)($99$hn€^, &ri iroXXxuriv v^^ij /Xinrti auroi^ ^ 
Tff ^90^ 4 Ilffptfitf^ Vv TOUTO ^ipovaa leal tmv 
^Rviyoi^i' TMy ffmffidpmp if V« ti^ Ma4r«£pM«i^ 
^$fl goafiTj^iK ffoi iiR^fit T^y kXXo^vKmp 

t Iwwimp h rks rinf haipwp rofffif. Ovicovw 
9tyi fx^"^^ itapripfiaav, aXXk warra^ fkp 
c^iraXXarrtfy t^c tfr^riav ixiXtvov^ airrov hk 
I^Mrk rov warpos crpa'r€vtff$at» Toy "Afifittya ^ 
T^ XoTji i-WiK^pro^iovvrt^, Taura a/roi/tf'af 
*AX4(apopo^ (^v ykp lif o^intpc^ Tt «V ry tot« 
«ai ttvo T^ ffapffapuc^t^ Otpawtw ovtciri m 
wdXa$ hrteiMff^ i^ roi^ MtuctBova^), KarairrfStjaa^ 
ovv roU ap<p* ainop ffftfiofftv awo rov /ifjparo^ 
(vXkaff4lp TOW iwi^v^crdrov^ rAv rapa^avr^v 
TO irX»/^o9 ic(\4V€i, atrro^ rj X^ipl iirihtucviwv 
ToU inraawiaraU ovariva^ XPV <rv\\afi0aP€iw 
KoX ^cvovTO ovroi €9 rptU teal B4xa, Tovtov^ 
fuv hff a-rarfuv ic€\avu rtfv iirl Oapdr^, *Cl^ Si 

' 4vi«v#ir KHImt, for M8S. n4p0tr€ar, p«rh*pf an error of 
AnlAo'a. Boos doloUt pihmmm, 



from old «ge or firom mutiUtions were unfit for 
service he there discharged from the army; and 
he sent them to their own homes. He promised 
to give them on departure enough to make them 
objects of greater envy to those at home, and also 
stir up the rest of the Macedonians to a teal for 
sharing his own dangers and toib. Alexander for his 
part said this, no doubt, to flatter the Macedonians ; 
thej, however, feeling that Alexander rather des- 
pised them, bj thb time, and regarded them as 
altogether osefess lor warfare, quite naturally, for 
their part« were annoyed at his remarks, having 
been annoyed during this whole campaign with a 
mat deal else, since he caused them indignation 
rrcf)ucntly by his Perrian dress which seemed to 
point the same way, and the Macedonian equipment 
of the Oriental '* Successors/' and the imporUtioo 
of cavalry of foreign tribes into the ranks of the 
Comnanioos. They did not, then, restrain themselves 
and keep silence, but called upon him to release 
them all from tlie army, and bade him carry on war 
with the help of his site (by whkh Utle thev hinted 
slightingly at Ammon). When, then, Alexander 
heard tms — for he had grown worse-tempered at 
that tfane, and Oriental subservience had rendered 
him less disposed than before to the Maoedoolans— 
he leapt down from the platform with the officers 
that were about him, and bade them arrest the 
foremost of those who had disturbed the multitude, 
himself with his fioger pointing out to the guards 
whom they were to arrest; they were in number 
thirteen. These he ordered to be marched off to die; 



auOl^ ivl TO fffifia i\M(€¥ 9»B€. 

IX. " Oux ^^P '^ou Karairawnu vfjMP ti^v 

o Xo70f , cfftfTi 7ap v/Jy avifVoA 5iroi fiov\ta0€ 
ifiov 7« Ikc/ra. a XX* «»« TyMWU Ufiat iri>^ owoiov^ 
Tiyaf 17/Aaf ^rrac ovoibi tiii«9 a^Oft ytvofttwoi 

t (I'raXXa^afa^f. Kol wpmrd y€ awo ^tXiwirov 
rov warper, V^^P '^Ai fiicot , tou X0701; dp^fuu, 
4>iXivircK 70^ voAaXa^MV yfiav wXatf^a^ xal 
ifwipav^, ip h%^$ip€u^ rov^ woXkou^ ptfiopra^ 
Jufk r^ Sfni wp60ara oXiya xal inrkp rovrmw 
MUEiK /MiXOA^iroi;^ *lXXi^/M0«9 Tf «ai TpiBaWoU 
Ktd roU OfAopot^ Hp^(i, )^Xa/Ai^9 f^ip vp^P arrl 
rmp ht^B€pi$9 ^ptiP ii^tc€, Kanjyayt li iic 
TMif opitp i^ rk ir^lia, aftopaxov^ Maratrrijva^ 
roU wpocx^P^*^ '^^^ fiap^dptap, m^ M^ xttputp 
Iti oxvpoTtfTt wtartvopras fidWop ^ rp Oivtla 
dptrj aiatt^€a$iu' woXtmp Tf oUtjropa^ dwt^fjpg 
xal POfAOts col i$€a$ ^^^aToif iK6a^i)c«p. 

S Avrmp I4 ixupttp Jttp ffapffdpttp, v^* &p 
wpoaSgp fgytoOt Koi i^4pta0€ avTol t« teal rk 
VfUr^pa, f/ytpopa^ tcariarfiatp in lovXtap icai 
irmiKomp^ xai rifi Spatar^ rd 'woXXd rp Ma«e- 
Boma wpoaidfiKt, koX rw iifl OaXdrrjf xtapimp 
rd iiUKOipcrrara KaraXafidfifPo^ rtfp ip.iropLap 
T^ X^pa dp^w4raat, ical rStp fi€rd\\MP rrfp 

4 ipyaaiap dh^f) iraoi^rxr ^€aaa\Stp hi dpxopra^t 
othi troXoi ir^prj/ceirt r^ h^et, d'ire4>r)V€, teal ro 
^ttK^mp i0pos ravnywaa^ rijp ^9 rrjp *E\\dBa 
wdpohop irXartiap Koi tvwopop lurrl CTtptj^ r« 
/cat diropov vpXp iwoiffatp* * K$i)vaiov^ tc koX 


bat as the others, amased, remained in dead silence, 
he remounted the platform and spoke thus. 

IX. "I now propose to tpeak« Macedonians, not 
with a view to checking jronr homeward impulse; 
so far as I am concer n ed, you maj go where you will ; 
but that you may know, if you do so go away, bow 
you have behaved to us, and how we have behaved to 
you. First then I shall begin my speech with my 
father Philip, as b right and proper. For Philip 
found yoa vagabonds and helpless, most of you 
ck>thed with sheepskins, pasturing a few sheep on the 
mountain skiea, and fighting for these, with ill success, 
against lllyrians and TribalHans. and the Thracians 
on your borders ; Philip gave you cloaks to wear, 
in place of sheepskins, brought you down from the 
hUb to the pklns, made yoa doughty opponents of 
your neighbouring enemies, so that you trusted now 
not so much to the natural strength of your vilUiget 
as to your own courage. Nay, he made you dwellcft 
of cities, and civilised you with good laws and customs. 
Then of those very tribes to whom you submitted, 
and by whom you and your goods were harried, he 
made you masters, no longer slaves and subjects; 
and he added most of Thrace to Macedonia, and 
seising the most convenient coast towns, opened up 
fommerce to your country, and enabled you to work 
your mines In peace. Then he made you overlords 
of the Thessalians, before whom you had long died of 
terror, and humblii^ the Phodans, made the high- 
road into Greece broad and easy for you, whereas it 
had been narrow and difficult. Athens and Thebes, 



ToaovSf irawtitmatv, ifBr) rath a y4 koX tifitiv 
avT^ (v^wotH>vtnm¥, m^ atrrl rou ^opov^ rcXciy 
*A6ff9aioi^ xal irwaMovtiP HT)$aUty, irap ^fi&¥iv 
T^ jUp€^ ixtii^v^ T^ aa^akiiay a^ifft jropi- 

jkfi A^ ix6afAfia€* ttal ffyffAwv avroMpdr^p 

hrl rov Uip^ ffp arparwia^ oux iatrr^ fuiXXov r^ 

• **TavTa fthf Tik ^« rot) varpo^ rou VuoD ^9 
yft&9 vwfipjfihm, m i^ip avrk ^<6* iaurAp 
amhlra^ai fttydXa, f^^P^ ^^ ^^ 7« ^h '"'P^ '''^ 
^fUr§pa (vp0a\*l¥* h^ wapaXaffmp irapk rov 
warper Xpvaa flip jrol apyvpa tKWmfiara oXiya, 
rdXarra Bk ov^ tfij^rorra iv roif BfiaavpoUt 
j(p€w hk a^€i\6fitpa tnro ^tKiwwov i^ wttna- 
Mo^ia rdXaKTo^ Btu^iadfiMvo^ M rovroi^ auro? 
SkXa orraMoiTia opfAndtl^ ix rT)^ x^P^^ "^V^ 7' 
9M vpa^ ainov^ pocKOvatj^ icaXSt^ €v0vs fuv 
rov ' EXXffcwotnov vpbf row vopoy OaXaaaotcpa- 

7 rovvT^w i» T^ TOTc rif/xrwv dt^nrtraaa* icparrf 
ca^ hk TJ iwirip rov^ earpdwa^ rov ^ap€iov rr/p 
TC 'Iwfuiy vaaap r^ vpMripa dpxi wpoatdtjica 
kqX rrfp AloXiBa iraaap icaX <PptVya^ dfi^ripov^ 
mal Avhov^t fti^ WiXffrop cIXov iroXiopKia' rk 
^ &X\a wdpra itcoirra irpoaytopijaapra Xa/Swv 

8 vfup mapnrovaBcu tht^ica' icaX rk if Alyuwrov 
teal KvpijpTf^ dyaOd, 6<ra dpaxel itcrTj<rdpffP, 
vpZp tpx€Tai' ^ T« Moikfj ^vpla xal rj Ha- 
Xata-ripfi KoX ti p€ar) t&p worapSfP vp4r€pop 


alwmjs watching their chance to destroj Macedon, 
he lo completely humbled — ourselves bj this time 
sharing these his labours — that instead of our paying 
tribute to Athens and obeying Thebes, they had to 
win horn us in torn their right to exist. Then he 
passed into the Pelopmuiese, and put all in due order 
there ; and now being declared overlord of all the 
rest of Greece for the expedition against Persia, he 
won this new prestige not so much for himself as for 
all the Maeedooian people. 

** All these noble deeds of my father towards you 
are great indeed, if looked at by themsehret* and jet 
small, if compared with oars. I inherited horn my 
father a few gold and silver cups, and not so much 
as sixty talents in his treasure ; and of debts owed by 
Philip as moeh as five hundred talents, and yet having 
myself borrowed over and above these another 
eight himdredt 1 set fiirth from that ooontry which 
hardly maintained yoo in co m fiwr t and at onee opened 
to you the strait of the Hellespont, though the 
Persians were then masters of tlie sea; then, crushing 
with my cavalry Dareius' satraps, I added to your 
empire all Ionia, all Aeolia, Upper and Lower 
Phrygia, and Lydia; Miletus I took by siege; all 
else I took by surrender and gave to you to reap the 
fruits thereof. All good things from Egjrpt and 
Cvrene, which I took without striking a blow, come 
to you; Coele-Syria, and Palestine and Meso- 



KTrjfAa c^i* nal BaffvXmv sgal Bamrpa ical lovca 
Vfurtpa* KoX o Av&tfv yrXoxno^ icaX oi U^pamv 
ifivavpoi Koi rk *1i^mv ayadk ical ^ ^ftt 
BaXaaan vfur^pa' vfitU aarpdwai, vfuU arpa- 

wtpUarit' drro Tointitv tmv iro9W9 on firi avrtf 
1} wop^vpa Mai TO lidhrjfia rotrro ; tctscrtjfAat Sk 
iSi'a o&thff ovtk ix^^ ''''^ iLiroh€l^tu dfjaavpous 
ifutu^ Sti /*^ raSha vfUr§pa icrrfnara 4 oaa 
ip€ta vfiMP ^vXaTTfrai. *Eirfl oM ivrtv Ihia 
fMOi /« 5 Ti ^v\ti(m atrroik, cirovfUp^ t« ra 
atnk vfup ciria xai ^vo¥ rov a\no¥ aipoufUim* 
jroiToi oM atria ifMoi toKm rk a\nk roU rpv^m- 
9Uf v/mp otfuaBoA' wpoaypvwpw Bi Ofutv olBa, 

X. " *AXXA raura yap vfiiiv irovowrm¥ «al 
rmkmnrmpoviMhmv iKrrjcdfiriv avro^ awovm^ ical 
AraXMtwmpms i(fJyov^l4¥o^, Kal rU vpMW wovfj- 
aa^ olBttf ifiotf iaoXXop ^ 4 ^7** irwkp iKtivov ; 
&yt hif KoX 5r^ rpavfULTa vfiAw darl yvfiPi^a^ 
airrk ^U§i(drt» mal 4ym rk iftk dwiBufm ip 
t fiip^t' «9 lfAO*7« ovit IhriP n rou atoiiaros rvtv 
7« ^ KfiirpocOwp fAtpAp dip^Toy {nroKiXtnrrai, 
ovBi oirXov Ti €ffrip 4 ^« X**P^ 4 "^^^ dt^ttfitvtDv 
ov y€ ovx ixp^ ip ifULin^ 4^P^' dXXk teal (i^ti 
iic X'^P^ Tirpwfuu gal rrroPtvfjLfu ifBr) xal diro 
M'/X'"^ /9c>^f;/ia4 leal Xiuoi^ woWaxt) xai 
(v\oi^ wtuo^tpo^ vrrtp vfiMP KoX rti^ Vfi4ripa^ 
B6(q^ Ktd Tov Vfieripou wXovrou, puc^pra^ vfiaq 

1 ^mJiXm—hnn Kriiflw and other* mark * beam ; bat we 
have alrsMl J tm Arrten vivm iUofled tkroQgli braobjrlogy, 
tboogh ho is mmuWy TorboMi 



potamU are your own possessions ; Babylon is yoiiri« 
Baetria, and Susa ; the wealth of Lydia, the treasures 
of Persia, the good things of India, the outer oeean, 
an are yours; you are satraps, you guards, you 
captains. So what is \c{i for myself from all these 
toils save the purple and this diadem ? I have taken 
nothing to myself, nor can anyone show treasures of 
mine, save these possesions of yours, or what is being 
safeguarded for you. For there b nothing as con- 
cerns myself for which I should reserve them, since I 
eat the same food that you eat, and have such sleep 
as you have— and yet I hardly tiitnk that I do eat the 
same food 9M some of you, who live delicately ; I 
know, moreov er , that I wake before you, that you 
may sleep quietly in your beds. 

X. ** Yet you may feel that while you were enduring 
the toik and distresses, I have acquired all this 
without toil and without distress. But who of you is 
ooosdotts of having endured more toil for me than I 
for him ? Or see here, let any who carries wounds 
strip himself and show them ; I too will show mine. 
For I have no part of my body, in front at least, that 
is left without scars; there is no weapon, used at 
close quarters, or hurled from afar, of which I do not 
carry the mark. Nay, I have been wounded by the 
sword, hand to hand ; I have been shot with arrows, 
I have been struck from a catapult, smitten many a 
time with stones and clubs, for you, for your glory, 
for your wealth; I lead you conquerors through 



iffu hk wd^ff^ 7^ Mtu Ba\dcofi% icaX wdtrrmw 
S wora^9 Mol opmp Kok wtU«»»p irdtnwp, TdfUtv^ 
T€ viiiw Tovf avTovf ytydfir)Ka teal wcXXmif 
Vfirnw ot waiBt^ avyffPiU icovrtu roU ittual roU 
itioU, 'Bti hk f XP^A 4^* ^^ woKvwpaytioif^^a^ 
i^* ^^ Mvrro, rocaina uiv fUcBo^povvrmv, 
r9cmSrm ok dpntat^ommp, oirorf iic iroXtoptcia^ 
iffwanfii ylypoiTo, lta\^\vfAa^ ravra, Iri^apoi 

Tf aprrff^ r^ vfi€T«paK Kal rijq i^ ifiov rififjf 

4 dBopara. 'Oan^ 5i ^ gal dwiOoptp, tv«Xf^ 
ftip airrf i} rtXcirr^ iyhrro^ vf/M^ar^ hk o 
To^o^' x^^^A^ ^ ^' MO¥€^ rifp wXtiart^p oJteoi 
icrdaiw, oi yoPtU £* fmifiol tiatt Xtirovpyia^ t« 
(vfiwda^ Kol M^pa^ dirfiWayfiiifO^' ov yap Wv 
y€ ^€%rfm¥ vfiitw irtXtvra ifutv ayotno^. 

A " Ka4 vvv Toy^ airoX«/«ovt i^iifp (tiX^rov^ roU 
OiiCOi dwawifAyfrtiP I/mXXoit aXX* ivtihrf iruPTt^ 
dftrthnu fioifXicB^t 4y«Tc viirrfv, «al avfX- 
06m% olxoi dwayydXart fr» ror fiacikka 
vfutp *A\M(ai^pO¥, ¥vcSnrra ftkv Uipcaf koI 

• Mijiov^ xal WaxTpiov^ ical Sd/ca^, Karaarpr^d- 
§mmtf Bi Ov(iov^ t« «<u *Apax<atrov^ gal ^pdy- 
ya^t KtKTfffUtov hi Koi IXapBvaiov^ xaX Xttpa^' 
fiiov^ xai 'TpKaviov^ tart Iwi rtjv BdXaaaav 
r^ Kaciriav, vwtpffdtn-a ^4 top Kavtca<rnp 
vwtp ra^ Kaawia^ wvKa^, xal Wipdaopra ^il^op 
Tt warafAOP teal Tdpoip, in hk top *lphop vorap^p, 
ou^nrl <!XX^ OTi fifj ^ovvatp irtpaBivrat kcu top 
'TBdffWfjp xal TOP *\K€aiprjp leal top 'Thpawrrjp, 

7 icai TOP "T^aaip Biawtpdoapra dp^ Ci fiff vfuU 
awtucpTfaart, Koi tU rtjp fuydXrfp BdXacaeLP icar 


erery land, erery tea, ererj rirer, mountain, plain. 
I married as you married ; the children of many of 
you will be blood-relations of my children. Moreover, 
if any had debts, I, beini; no bosybody to enquire 
how they were made, when you were winning so 
much pay, and acquiring to much plunder, whenever 
there was plunder aAer a siege — I have cancelled 
them all. A nd further, golden eoraoab are reminders 
to the moat part of yoo, both oCyomr bravery and of 
my high regard — reminders that will never perish. 
Whoaoever has died, his death has been glorious; 
and splendid has been his burial. To most of them 
there stand at home braaen statues; their parents 
are held in esteem, and have been freed from aO 
servicea and taxes. For while I have led you, not 
one of yon has fallen in flight. 

*' And now I had in mind to send away those of you 
who are no longer equal lo campaigning, to be the 
envy of all at home ; but tinee yon all wish to go 
home, depart, all of you ; and when you reach home, 
tell them there that this your King, Alexander, 
victor over Persians, Medes, Baetriana, Sacaeana, 
conqueror of Uxians, Arachotians, Drangae, master 
of Parthjraea, Chorasmia, Hjrrcania to the Caspian 
Sea ; who crossed the Caucasus beyond the Caspian 
gates, who croased the rivers Oxus and Tanais, yes, 
and the Indus too, that none but Dionysus had 
crossed, the Hydaspes, Acesines, Ilydraotes; and 
who would further have crossed the Hyphasis, had 
not you shrunk back; who broke into the Indian 



afi^oTtpa Tov *Ir3ov rd crofiara ififiaXowra^ miX 
htk rif^ Vahpmaian 7% ipiifiov ikBotrra, f ovB§h 
irt» wpia69v (v¥ arpari^ 4^** ''^ Kapfiaviaw 
Ir wmpih^ wpoaimfcafi€vo¥ koI r^y ilptirAtf 
*fffw, irf iMirnrX«v«oT(K li >)^ aurA toi) t^avrtKOv 
Tfip ^w *lM»p ytj^ fi« Tlipaa^ 6aKaaaa¥, t^ ciV 
Hovaa iw€unfydy€T€, awoXtwoprt^ ofj^fo^c, wapa- 
Bomt^ ^vXdaa^iP roU PtPtKtjfUppi% fiapfidpoi^, 
Tatrra vpip koX wp^ apSpmrwrnv Icw^ f uirXca maX 
wpo^ $€m» Sata l^^ov iaroi awarfftXBhna. 

XI. laina titratw Ka-rtirtjftfjai rt iiirh rov 

oir9 i$tpdir€vc9 to cutia ovrg r^ a>6^ tAp 
kraiprntr oVX* oM h rf)v vartpaiaw &^0fi, T§ 
rpirjf B^ KaXtaa^ tJati* riav lltpamp rov^ iwiXdic 

KoX oeov% cvyytpfU awi^tjvt, rovroi^ Bi yofupov 
t iwolffa€ ^tXtiP avrw putpoi^, Oi tk Ma«c^i^ 
hf Tff T^ vapatnUa uMOvcamt^ tAp \oytap 
ixirtitXffypJpOi ctyj iptpov avrov wp^ r^ 
ffjfpart, ovSi r$K fj/co\ov$ff^€ rA ffaffiXtt awaX' 
XarrofUP^ ori ptj oi a^i^* axnov iralpoi rt icaX 
oi ff»paro^vXatctS' oi Si woXXol our€ fUpovrt^ 6 
Ti wpdrroviTip ^ Xiyovatp tlx^p* ovrt <iiraXX^<r- 
S 9€<r6at tjOtXop, 'n^ Bi rk TltpaAp t« xal SirjSwv 
avroU t(tfyy^X\tro, airt rfytpoviai Vleptrai^ SiBo- 
fupai xai rf crpaTik ^ pap0apiicij i^ Xo^ov^ rt 
icaraXtyop€pfj /cal ra MatcfSoviK^ ovopara dyyjpd 
Tf Utpaucop xaXovptPOP, koX irt^t-raipoi liipaeu 
KaX ir€^iraipot aXXoi ^ koX apyvpaairiB<DV ra^if 

* wtiir. IaAm mm before, A imUrtpi, 


Oeeftn bj both mouths of the Indus ; who tra Tewed 
the GadrosUn desert — where none other had passed 
with an armed force; who in the line of march 
captured Carmania and the country of the Oreitans ; 
whom, when his fleet had sailed from India to the 
Persian Sea, you led bade again to Sosa — tell them, 
I saT, that you deserted him, that you took yourselYCS 
off, leaving him to the care of the wild tribes too had 
conquereiL This, wheo joo declare it* will be, no 
doubt, gloriout amoiig men, and pknts in the tight of 
heaven. Begone ! " 

XI. When Alexander had finished, he leapt down 
swifUy from hb platform and passed into the palace, 
and paid no attention to his bodily needs, nor was 
seen by any of the Companions; and, indeed, not 
even on the day following. But on the third day be 
sommoned within the pieked moa smong the Persians, 
and divkled among them the comnmnd of the different 
brigades ; and permitted only those who were now 
his rdsthres to ghre him the cnstomaiy Idss. The 
Macedonians, however, were at the time mneh moved 
on hearing his speech; and remained in silence 
there, around the platform ; yet no one followed the 
King when he departed Mve his personal Companions 
and the bodyguards; but the mass neither while 
rrmatning there had anything to do or sav, nor were 
willing to depart. But when they hearcf about the 
Persians and the Medes, and the handing of com- 
mands to the Persians, and the Oriental force being 
drafted into the varioos ranks, and a Persian squadron 
called br a Mnoedonlan name, and of Persian *' in- 
fantry CompankmSy" and others too, and a Persian 



lltpatxff xal ^ rmw haiprnp^ finrov. icaX raimis 
iXKo &yr}fia 0a«ri\uc6p, oifxhi teapr€pol a^&v 

4 ^oy* aWa (vpBpafAotng^ «»« irpov r^ ffaaiKua 
T^ /i^y Sw\a avrov wpo ruv Bvp^p ^ppirrrovp, 
licmipias ravra^ r^ ffaciXtr atrroi B* i^omv 
wp^ rmv BvpStp iarfjKOTt^ htoptvoi wap$\jS€Uf 
fiVw rov^ T# alriov^ t^ Jp t^ tot* toimi;^ 
xal roi/^ dpfatrra^ t^ fiofj^ ixliBoptu iiiXnp* 
oCkovp dwa'SXayiiataffai rup Svpmp ovt€ ^fiipa^ 
etrrt pvkto^, C4 /ai; rtpa otrntop 9^P i(u 

5 Taitra <k avi^YT^XXrro avr^, o Bk vwovh^ 
i(4px€reu, tcaX (3«ir rt rawvii^ BtaMUfUpov^ 
MU a4rov«rac tf iv oifit^j riap woWitP ffomprmp, 
ami avT^ wpoYilrai BoMpva, Ktu 6 fUp opifyrro 

• ^ Ti ^pmp' m hk 9ft4Pap Xtwapoihntf. Kal r$^ 
tkinup Koff rfXiMiap re teal twwap^iop rij^ Twwov 
Tfj^ iraiptxij^ ovK a^at^^, KuWipri^ Spofia, 
rotavra titrtp* ^H ffaotX^v, rik Xv-rrovprd iari 
MaxtBopa^ Sri aif TltpaAp tUp npas HBrj inwoiif- 
901 aavT^ avyy€PiU» moX xoXovptiu Tltpaoi 
avyytPti^ 'AXtfdpBpov gaX ^iXoial cf Mair«- 
5oM»y W ovwu TK yiytvrat ravrtf^ t^ Ti/ii}^. 

7 "Ep^a Bi) tnroXaffwp *AXJfapBpo^, *AXX* v^s y€, 
^'7t fvfiwapra^ ifiavr^ riB^fiai avyy€P€iH xal to 
y€ dwi rovrov o^m maXiam, TaOra tiiropra 
wpOfftiXBmp 6 KaXXii^ re i^CKtjcrp ica\ Scri^ 
iiXXo9 ^iXffaai tjBtXt. Kal ovtm Brj dvaXoBopn^ 
ri SwXa ffiwpris rt teal wantpil^opres i^ to arpa- 

8 rawMBop dw^aap. *A\((apBpo9 B4 iirl rovrot^ 
Bvaiap T€ 0VU roU 0€oU oU avr^ pofio^ Mi 



companj of *' silTer-shields," and *' cavalry of the 
Companions," and a new royal squadron even of this, 
they ooold no longer contain themselves, but running 
an together to the palace they threw their arms before 
the doors as signs of supplication to the King; they 
themselves standing shooting before the doors beg- 
ging to be let In. The Instigators of the late distur- 
bance, and those who began the cry, they said they 
would give op; In fact they would depart from the 
doors neither day nor night onlcH Alexander would 
have tome pity on them. 

When thii was reported to Alexander, he at once 
came out ; and seeing them so humble, and hearing 
roost of the nnmber er3ring and lamenting, he also 
shed tears. Then he came forward as if to speak, 
and they continued beseeching. And one of them, 
a notable officer of the Companloiia' eavaby both by 
age and rank, called CalUnes, sakl thus : " This, O 
King, b what grieves the Macedonians, that yon 
have made Persians your kinsmen and Persians are 
called * Alexander's Irinwifn/ and they are per- 
mitted to kiss yoo ; but do Macedonian has tasted 
this privilege." On this Alexander broke in : " But 
all of yon I regard as my kinsmen, and so from 
henceforth I call you." lllien thus he had spoken, 
r^lUnj** approached and Idssed him, and any other 
who desired to kiss him. And thus they took up 
their anna again and retomed shouting and singing 
their victory song to the eamp. But Alexander in 
gratitude for this sacrificed to the gods to whom he 



Bclmfp Sr;/A«TtX^ iwoifi9€, KaBrifkt¥6^ tc avrhi^ koX 
wdpru¥ ica$fiiAivmv d/A^* a\no¥ flip MaxMimp, 
49 6k T^ ^^^ rovrvw Utpirtap, iwl Bi rovroi^ 

i^prr^p irp«a/9<t^/ri«H>i, koX airo rov a\rro\f xpa- 
rtfpo^ avTov T« xal oi a^* avrop itpvofUPO^ 
f^wfphop T^« avrk^ cwop^d^, Marapvofidprnp 
ri$p Tt 'EKXijpmp fiuprtmp mal rmp Mayt^p, 
9 Eux*ro Bi rd rg dWa dya0k Kal ofiopoidp re «al 
aoiprnpiop rm ^ifY'h "^^^^ ^* MaxtSovi xal 
TlipcmiK. EiPOt M Mari^f^ Xoyo^ rou^ fAtra- 
tf'j^orrav t^ doiptft 4^ ipt^aictaxt^^^t «ai tow- 

avrp watopiaat, 

XII. *EpOa Bif iBnXoy^ai ffOrj airrfjt airr^t^av 
rmp Uant^oprnp B^ot htd yr)na^ t) timi iXXip^ 
(vfi^opop diroKift04 ^^ap* /tal ovroi avr^ 4y4' 
popro 4^ roif^ fAvpiOv^, Tot/roif Bi rtjp t« 
utaBo^ookp ov ToO 4(^itopro^ {fBtj xpopov ilmmip 
AXifaptpo^ /ioi'ov, a XX A gal rov 4s rijp airo- 

t Po^rtfiTtp rr)P oIkoBm (vfifiaitfopros, *lvr<3«»«rf 5^ 
«ai rdXapTOP ixdar^ virip r^p fuaOo^pdp* 
walBfS Bi ff T^ ^ap 4k rtlfp *\<rtaputp yupaucAp, 
wapk ol KaraXiwtiP 4Ki\Mva( firjBi vrdaip Kara- 
yttP 4s MojctBopiap dXKo^ukovs t« /cal 4k io»p 
ffapfidptap yvptUMmp waiBas roU oUot iiroXt' 
XtififUpfHS irtuai Tf koX fiifTpdatp avrAp' avros 
Bi 4wtfif\fja€a$ai <K iKrpi^oipTo MaicnBoviiem, 
rd T« d\Xa KoX 4s r^ rroXi^ua tcofffiovfupor 
ywofihovs Bi dpBpas dftip avro^ 4s SlojctBopiap 

S Kal rrapaBii»atUf rols rrarpdai, Tatnd rt diraX- 
\arrofi€vois darddfirira kcu drixfiapra dirrjy- 


wat wont to 8acri6c«, and gave a ffcneral feast, 
tittinff himself there, and all the Macedoniaiis sitting 
nmnd him ; and then next to them Persians, and next 
any of the other tribes who had precedence in 
reputation or any other quality, and he himself and 
his comrades drank from the same bowl and poured 

he same libations, while the Greek seers and 

iie Magians began the ceremony. And Alexander 
prayed for all sorts of blessings, and especially for 
harmony and fclk>wship in the empire between 
Maeedonians and Persians. They say tiiat those who 
shared the feast were nine thoosana, and that they 
nil poured the same libation and thereat sang the one 
song of victory. 

XII. Then at their own wish such of the Macedon- 
ians as were unfit fur scr>icc from old age or any 
accident departed from him ; they numbered about 
ten thousand. To these Alexander gave the pay 
doe not only for their expired time but also for the 
time spent in reaching nome. Above the pay he 
''Ave also a gratuity to each of a talent. Then if 

here were children of Asian wives he bade them leave 
ihese behind, and not make trouble in Macedonia 
between foreigners and children of foreign wives and 
the children and mothers they had left behind them ; 
hm promised to care for them that they might be 
P in Macedonian ways, being especially 
<i in military training; then, when thejr 

\cre pown to manhood, he would take them back 
MimseUr to Macedonia and hand them over to their 
fathers. All this he promised as they went away, 
rather vague and uncertain as it was; but as the 



y4\Xrro tcaX foiK 1;^ ^iXia^ r« ictu w60ou h 
avrov^ ri arptKiararop rexfAiipiowiictipo irottlaSai 
^(icv, 5t« top wtarorarop rt avr^ teal Stmpa 
taop TJ iavTov Kt^Xj ^7fi, Kpurcpov (vfurifA- 
Vfi avroi^ ^OXaxd t« xal tp/ovfupfnp rov ctoXov, 
Ovru 6fj aairaaafiffo^ (vfAWMtraK atno^ r« 
BoMpfMtp xal hoMpvopra^ ^«fi»ovf ilvo ov airifX- 
4 Xafff. Kpariptt ii rovrov^ Tf SffWP M\€V4 col 
air ay ay ain't SloM^hopia^ re «al Sp^scif^ ical 
HrrraXmp i^tfytlaBai «al tm^ 'CXX»;irMy r^ 
iKt%/$€pla^' ^ * Xtnitrar pop 5^ Sia^^^W roif 
iw9W€ftmfUpoi^ &yu9 ikmmUpa^ -rmp A«/ia{oy- 
Tt»r imiiktV9€P. ^VJarmXa U «•! noXi;avtfp;^orra 
•^i) T^ Kparipm, htvrtpop M cLv^ Kparipov 
^rf€/Upa, m^ tl rt searit rtfp iropdaw Kpatip^ 
htiiwiwroi^ irt gal uaXatc^ to cmfta ixopra 
dUr^vt/ftVcy avroy, ia*i woOrf^ai arpartfyop rov^ 

• Aoyof hi TK iroi o^<k i^oira a^pif^ wapk 
TOK tA /Sa^iXic^ irpdy^iara, Sa^ iwiicpinrrrrai, 
roc^B4 ^XoTtfioTtpop i^ffyoviuvois, Koi to 
wicrop is TO x^tpop fiaXXop, f to tUos Tt /col 
19 ainitp fioxOffpia dy€t, ^ irpas to aXf)6h 
itcrptwovatp, i^ffrrmfAtPOP *AXi(aphpap tf^ rrj^ 
fUfrpas rmp BtafioXifP rw h KprLirarpov, 
itwaXXdftu dOiXtiP ix Ma^f^omav * AvrLirarpov, 

• Kal rvxop ovtc is artfuap rrjp * Apjiwdrpov 17 
furavt^k'^iS avTOv (^(p€P, dXX* ms firi n iic 
rtj^ tia^pas avrols yipoiro i^X^P* ^^ dXXijXovs 
col oM atn^ Idaifiop. 'Eircl ov^i^ ivavovro 

* Krig«r adds hn^XiU^mA, but th« leiigiiui, if b«rth, b 
■ol faspoHibltt. A oorratpoodeni soffHU to Root ^x«v#^mu. 


incwt toUd proof of his good-will and affection towards 
them he thoiight good to add this, that he sent with 
them as guardian and guide of their journey Craterus, 
his most loyal follower, whom he loved as dearly as 
his own life. So then haring bidden tlicm all fare- 
well, with tear* in his eyes, and they with tears in 
theirs, he dismissed them. But he bade Craterus 
conduct them, and when be had brought them safe 
home, to take charge of Maeedonla, Thrace, and 
Thessaly, and the freedom of Greece. Then he 
ordered Antipater to bring drafts of Macedonians of 
full age to replace those that were being sent home. 
He despatched alw Polysperebon with Cratems, 
who was the ofieer next In seniority to Craterus, so 
that in case of harm coming to Craterus on the way, 
since he sent him as an invalid, the travellers should 
not lack a leader. 

But some dim rumour of this kind was going about 
among those who publish abroad the affairs of kings, 
all the more eagerly the more they are kept secret, 
and also wrest aside reliable statements to the 
worse interpretation, where mere probability and 
their own malice lead them, rather than to the truth ; 
namely, that Alexander already coming under the 
spell of his mother's calumnies, which she heaped 
upon Antipater, was anxious to remove Antipater 
finom Macedonia. But I suggest tliat this recall of 
Antipater was not meant to disgrace him, but that 
no mutual unpleasantness might arise out of their 
disagreement, which perhaps Alexander himself 
could not beat Since they never ceased writing 



*AXffai4p^ yod^mntK o /a^v r^¥ tkv$ahnd9 rw 
rrj^ *0\vfiirid6"^ teal ofi/nyra «al woXvwpayfAO' 
awifp, i}««0Ta 6r) r^ *AX«fai^pov MTT/m ffi/a;^i;- 
/iova, «iaT« «<u XoTOf n^ roiotffic i^iprro *AXc- 
(iMpBpov i^' oU inrip rrj^ fur^po^ avrA d^Vfy^^' 
XflTO, /^apu 5^ TO ipoUiop rmp Bitea fAfiPtt^ 

7 9lcwparrr9a0a^ ainhv rrjp firiripa* f) B4, vwip' 
oyigQif €hf€u rj Tf a^tmau xai rn aWjf Stpawu^ 
'Arriirarpoy oihk ui^ticOeu rov «araoTi;<rayrcK 
^1, <lXX* auToi^ yap ufioui' t^ ir/H^ra ^ip€c$at 
hf TOK ^UAoiv Ma4r<5otf^i Tf «ai ''HXAi^ai. Kal 
Taura /i^XXor t< ia^vtiw irap *A\t(aifip^ 
^^oii^To, o^a ^f Tou *ArriiraTpoi; r^y BtaffoXffp 
^ipotna ^, ola hff xaX ^ff€pmr§pa iw ffaaiXti^ 
Spra. Ov pAmoi jcaro^^i^v 7^ ti ^ ^^701^ 
^ Xiyo^ i^flYftKKrro KkM^aylpov iip* orov 
i» T19 cvpiufittp ovY ^AiAT«K tlpai avr^ if pot 
0VMOU * AtrriiraTpop} • • • • 'W^aiorimv* 

jQII. Toirr^ T^ ^^^ inr€i(aitTa'^\^ai<rjUiva 
aupaXXayiipai Evp4p€i, ovx i^copra ixopri. *£y 
ravrn r^ o^ teal to wmUop Xiyrrai lB€iP 
*AXi^avBpop TO iiPtifiipop raU Tmroic raU 
ffaatXttcaU, avro rt wtBiop Svaatop teaXov^vov 
KoX ai nnrot 5ti Ni/o-auii /rXiyffoarrai Xr/ei 
'\lp6BoTot* fflrai 5^ vdXai fuy is irtPrtitaiS4tea 
pvpidhas TMV ririTMir* TOTf Bk * KXi^apBpov ov 
iroXif wXtiopas riap witrrt tearaXa}i€iP' irpos 
Xjiar^p yap Btapwayfjp€u ras iroXX^9 atnAv, 

i *Eprau$a Xiyovaep 6r^ *ATp<mdn)s 6 rrjs 
lli|Sia9 aarpdmjs yvpaheas hear op airr^ e&»/r«, 

» TIm '*grMt koana**: ••• VoL I, Prafktory NoU, p. riL 


letters to Alexander; Antipater about the head- 
strong nature of Olymfiam, and her sharp temper, 
and her interfering ways, very unfitting to the 
mother of Alexander, to that a chance remark of 
Alexander's was bandied about, in reference to the 
news of his mother's doings, that his mother was 
exacting a heavy price from him for her ten months* 
homiiig of him ; while Olympias aocoscd Antipater 
of behig arrogant from his position and the respect to 
which it entitled him, and of forgetting him who had 
placed him there, but rather expecting to assume 
every kind of precedence among the other Macedon- 
ians and Greeks. And this aspect evidently gathered 
strength with Alexander, that is, whatever tended to 
.\ntipater's discredit, as being more dreaded to 
royalty. And yet no open deed or word was recorded 
of Alexander which might ha%'e led one to conclude 
that Antipater was not at high as ever in his regard. 
XIII. Hcphaestion, they say, influenced by these 
sayings became reconciled to Eumenes; Eumenes 
being willing, but himself not. It is on this journey 
that Alexander is said to have seen the plain in which 
the royal mares were pactored ; the plain itself was 
called the Plain of Nyta and the horses were called 
Nysaean, as Herodotus tells us; and there were 
originally upwards of a hundred and fifty thousand 
mares, but Alexander found then not above fifty 
thousand ; for most of them had been driven off by 

There they say that Atropates the satrap of Media 
handed over to him a hundred women, saying that 


ravras ^ammv ffZra* rwv *Afta(6»u¥t xal ravra^ 
9M«vj ophpmp iwwimp ^araXfUpaK, irXi;v yt Bii 
Iki vfX44C«if ami Sopdrmp i^opov¥ icai AvrX 
J^wUmp fTf Xrac* oi B4 igal r^ ua^rO¥ XtyovaiP 
5ti fiMova clx®^ '^^'^ ^(top, hp Off Mtd «(« tixop 

3 ip rai^ /laycuv. Tavra^ fUp hfi awaXki^tu rifi 
^TfMTta^ *AXi(m9lpotf, fni r$ 9§m TMp t 9 0uft mar 
«vra« h C0p$p w/»^ rmp MmmMpmif 4 fi^P' 
fidpmp* MXtvctu U i&traTTfiXoi ir^ rffp 
fio/aCkiaeop a^p irn a%no^ ^f« vpof aMfw 
wmhowoifiaofupo^. Taina H ovtm ^Apt^ro/Scih 
Xof oirrf llroX^/iaiOf oirrf tiv ^XXoy dviypayft^p 
^Tif Uopo^ inrip ritp roMvrmp rtufA^ioiActu, 

4 OM &««! uo« ^y T« TOTff am^taOai to t^ko^ 
TMF *A/ia{^ort»r, 01^* fri vpo *AX«{ttr8/MV 
Htpo^mp ap€iunic$fi avritp, ^a^iapt^p t« funf^" 
$§U m KoX;^My «ai 6ca iXXa liiro T/Nnre {burrow 
ipfuipiMPOi 4 irp^v ^^ TpairfCbt>yra /rarcXi'ciy oi 
'EXkrjpts JhnjXBop i$pr) ffapffapmti Xpawtp KaX 
TOK Wfia^ocip hp iprrrvxV'^^^^'^* ttit§p ovp Iri 

6 ^aop *A/ia{for€v. M17 ytPtcBai flip ykp trap- 
T«X«K TO 7€itK roirrmp rmp yvpaixStp ov WKTrop 
BoMtt llftoiy€, vpo^ rocovT^p teal roiouToyp 
vfunfBip, *flv 'HpojcXia t* i'w* ain^^ X0709 
€ar()^ti OTi iardXfi leal l^mcrtipd ripa 'Imro- 
Xvrtf^ rrfi ffa^iXiaatf^ airrAp 5t« ^ rijp *E\\dSa 
ixofuat, KoX oi ftn» Hfiati * .\6qpaiOi on iiriovira^ 
Ta9 ywaixa^ ravras rijp Evpanrtju nponoi t^d\rj 
ptKfjiraprf^ dpiarttXaf Koi yeypairrat, tj 'A^iy- 
paitap ical ^Apa^opwp fAa^V irpo^ Kipwvo^ ^ ov 

6 fuiop vtrtp ^ *A$f)pai«tp ical lUpa&p, Koi 
* MLra»r*ff Kuhn, bat th« error mAj be ArrUn'e. 


tbej were of the Amasons ; they were equipped like 
cAvafarj troopers, except thmt they carried axes 
instead of spears, and small targets instead of shields. 
Soflie say that they had the right breast smaller, 
and that this was uncovered in battle. Alexander 
sent them away firom the army, lett thej should 
meet any roughness from the Macedonians or 
foreign troops ; but he bade them announce to their 
queen that he was coming to tee her in hope of 
oftpring. This, how e v er , neitlier AristolNilnB nor 
Ptolemaeos nor any other reliable author 00 such 
natters has recorded. I do not myself think that 
; he race of Amaaons ionrived so long ; indeed, before 
Alexander's time Xenophon made no reference to 
them, though he referred to Phasians and Colchians 
and other foreign races which the Greeks met either 
when starting firom Trebiaond or before they reached 
Trebiaond, where they eertainly would have met 
Amaaons if there had still been any. And yet I do 
not think it credible that this race of women, so often 
mentioned by good authorities, never existed at all ; 
since Heraeles is reputed to have been sent to them, 
and to have brought back to Greece the girdle of 
MippoljTte their queen; it is said also that the 
Athenians with Theseus first defeated in battle and 
repelled these women when invading Europe; 
and Cimon painted the battle of the Athenians and 
Amaaons just as he did the battle of the Greeks and 



'HpofioT^ iroXXair«9 irtpl tmv yinnuMAp rovrotf 
wtwolnrtu, gal 6coi 'AOfivaUtw rov^ iv iroXifi^> 
TfXfirriJaarrat X^^ ixo^fifjaav, teal rov irpos 
*A/Aa{oMiv (fpyov *A$fipaim¥ iv tok noKia-ra 
fufrifkfip €irotfjaatrro, Ei Bi tirvt»ks Bij ripa^ 
yvmuxa^ ^hTpcmartf^ Ifitiffy *AX<fai^/>^, fiap- 
0dpov^ TivAv iiXXa^ yvpaUa^ twwtvttp tfaictituva^ 
tomm Sri i64t(tp i^ rov Xrf6ft€9C¥ Bff rmi 
*A;ui(oyMir KoaiM/pm karaXfUva^. 

XIV. *Er *EJffiaramHK S< ^i/aioi^ tm J^vatv 
*AXd(€Uflpo^, mawMp a\n^ M (vp^paU ayaOaU 
90fW^, «al ar/mra hrrrikti yvfumcw Tf teat 
fiovaiKor, gal woroi atrr^ iyifvovro wapk roU 
iraipot^, Kai iw rovr^ 'H^i<rr(wv UKap^ to 
ompa* i^BofAfj Tf fffUpa iffifj *f¥ avrA rrjs wo^ov 
mal Xiyovcr$ r6 fthr cratiov ir\T}p9^ uya^^ waCB^v 
ykp irfm9 ^p igtlwji r^ fffUpa yvfAvtKo^* ^ircl Bt 
^frrW^^^^^^ *A\t(airBp^ OTi KaMot^ ixii 'H^ta- 
rimv, o Bi wap avrw iXBrnw awovBf oincin 
{(wrra gariXa0€v. 
t 'Eir^A Bif xal HWoi &XXa Ju4ypayfta» Irwkp rot 
whrOovf rov *AXt(ai^Bpov fArya phf ytvtadai 
a^^ rh wMo^, wdprts rovro at^ypa^jrav, ra 
Bk wpajfiiwra irr* avrm a\\oi &Wa, ia^ fKaaros 

3 xal wpos avTOP *A\e(avBpov. *fl¥ oi rii arda 
$a\a d»arfpdyf^airr€^ oi pip i^ Koapop ^p€tp poi 
BoKovctP Oifj$f)yat *A\€(dpBpu Bca trrtpaXyriaa^ 
iBpaatP 4 clirtfy i-wl r^ watrrmv Brj dpOpwirtav 
^Xrdr^* oi Bi 4^ aio-y^uprip paXXop ri ok ov 
wpivopra our ovp fiaaiXtl ourt *AXe(uvBp<pt oi 
fUp, ro iroXif pipo^ T79 f^pipa^ iKtitn^ ippippipov 


Peniant. Then Herodotus has often mentioned 
these women, and all the Athenians who pronounce 
euloglea on those who fell in war, and made especial 
mention of the Athenian action against the Amaaont. 
And if Atropates showed to Alexander any feminine 
cavabry, I think thej were some other foreign women 
taught to ride wfaon he exhibited got up in the 
traditional Amaion fashion. 

XIV. At Ecbatana Alexander offered a sacrifice, as 
he usually did aAer some toooctsful event, and held 
also an athletic and literary contest and held drinking 
bouU with the Compankms. Dming this time 
HephaestkNi fell ill, and his iUnen had now nm seven 
days; and they say that the race<course was filled 
with people ; for there were athletic sports that day 
for boys ; but when Alexander heard that Hephaestion 
was ferioQsly ill, he left the oonne and hurried to him, 
bot found him no longer living. 

At this point historians have given varied accounts 
of Alexander s grief. That his mourning was greats 
all have reUted ; as to his actkNM, historians differ, 
moooK^ng to the good-will or the ill-will felt towards 
Hepbaeatkm or indeed towards Alexander himself. 
Of these, those who have recounted scandals appear 
to me partly to have thought that all redouiidt to 
Alexander's credit that he dUd or said in his exeeta of 
grief for one who was of all men most dear to him ; 
or else, that all was to his discredit, as not really 
fitting either for any king or for Alexander himself. 
Some say that for the greater part of tliat day he lay 




^l rou cm^ro^ rov kroLpov ohvp99$ai ovi* 
i$iXiiP awaXXayt)¥ai, wpiv y€ Bff wpo^ fiiap 

4 JLwiipix!^n vpof TMy hraipttir oi hi, rrjtf t« 
fiuipav oXfjp Ktd rif¥ pvtcra oXiyv ippi^ai hrl 
T^ atitfuirr ol Bi «ai, tov iarpo¥ VXavicUuf 
5t4 igpifia^t^ teal rovrov m^ hrl 4>^pfiaK^ tcaxA^ 
hoBimit oi li, on oikoi/ wtpi4lB€¥ ^fAwXficOirra 
$9mpiNf atrro^' xal mtipaadtu *A\4Pai^po» iwl 
rm P€Kp^ rifp noyaiw, rd re dXXa ov€ dm^utora 
rt0tfuu gal Kard f^Xoy ror *A;^iXXiaKi irp&^ 

6 Stnufa 4* wathos ^iXarifUa ^ avr^, oi B^ Moit 
TO ip^ i^* hrr^ TO ai»pA i^prro avro^ iaruf 
Srt i^vtoYCi, rovro ovha^fj -wiaTov tfiotyt Xiyomg^ 
£)Lkm &» Sr$ mU rov *AcK\fiirtov ri i6o^ iw 
*EM$0rd»oit Maraagdyjrai dxiXMuat, ffapffapuchv 
rovro 7«, «ai ou&i/i'} *AXt(dvSp^ wpoa^pop, 
dXKd T$ 3ip(ov ftdXXdtf ri draa$a\ia rj ^9 to 
#fS»r «ai Tai9 Wfiai9 &f Xdyovaw h top 'EXXi^o*- 
▼OKTOF KaB^ufOi HipffiP, n/ufipovfitpop hfjBtP 

6 Toy ' EXXi^worrov. *AXXA KaX iictlvo ov wdprrj 
ifm rou «iVoT09 dpayeypd^BoA fio^ hoKtl, m9 M 
BafivXmPO^ ^€1 *AXi(apBpo^, ipr%n(€U avr^ icard 
rtjp o^p iroXX^9 wptafftia^ dwo rij^ 'EXXa&>9, 
ih'ai ^ Bff iv Toirroi9 nai *Efirtiavpit»p wpicffMi^' 
teal Tovrovs S>¥ Tt ihiotno iP * A\((dpBpov rvyuv 
icaX dpodfifia hovvat avroU AXi^avhpov Kopx^tiP 
r^ *A<TK\ffVt^, i'W€iw6pra on Kaiyrtp ovu 
iwttticm iT^pifrai fu>i 6 ^AoKXtprid^, ov aaura^ 
/UM Toy iratpop Svrtpa laop r^ ip,avrov tc€<^a\j 

7 ^iyop. *Epayi(€ip t€ ot» d€l eu9 v/xtf* txi\«v€P 
'U^oitfTttfW, TOirro ^p ifpo^ ro>p irXeiartav 
dpwy^ypatTTaf ol ht Xiyovaip on kcu e*9 "A/a- 


opoD his friend 8 bodj and wept and would not be 
parted, till be was fomd away by his Companions ; 
others, that all the day and all the night he lay on 
the body ; others again that he hanged Glaucias the 
doetor, and that for a dose wrongly administered; 
others again, because GUucias had seen Hephaestion 
drinking most imnxxlcrately and had not stopped 
him; bat that Alexander cut his hair from regard for 
the dead man, I think likely both for other reasons and 
evpedaUj because of his desire to emulate Achilles, 
with whom he had a riyalij from boyhood. Some add 
also that Alexander himself Ibr a time drore the ear 
in which the body was borne, and this sUtemcnt I 
regard as quite incredible ; yet others tell us that he 
bade the temple of Asdepios at Ecbatana be rased to 
the ground—a barbaric ovder, and not in Alexander's 
way at all ; but rather suitable to Xerxes' insolence 
towards things divine and hannonising with those 
fetters which ther tay Xerxea let down into the 
Hellespont, with the notkm of punishing the Helles- 
pont. But this also I think has been recorded not 
whoOy oatskle the bounds of likelihood, that when 
Alexander was going to Babykm there met him in 
the way several envovs from Greece, and that among 
these were several Epidanrian envoys; these 
received from Alexander what they sued for, and 
Alexander gave them an offering to take bade to 
Asdephis, with the wovds: " Yet Asdephis has not 
been kind to me, for he did not save for me the com- 
rade whom I valued more than my life." Then 
most authorities have recorded that he ordered 
sacrifice always to be offered to Hephaestion as a 
hero ; others add that he sent to Ammon to enquire 



ftmpo^ hrtfiyfrtv ifn^aoiiivov^ ro¥ Btov tl teal m 
$t^ $v€i9 avyx^p^i * \\^at<TTi<uyr top B4 ov 

• ^Extipa hi irpo^ itarrww (vfi^m¥ovfi€Pa, ^ rplrrfp 
awo rov Saydrov rou 'H^atarimvo^ fifiipatf ittjfr^ 
cirov ytv^off 6tu *AXi(apSpop /iifrt nvik Otpa- 
WMiav iWfiv Btpatrtvatu rh aAfia, <iXX^ KtlaBai 
yap ff 6hvp6fi€POP 4 ^nf$tf^ aty&trra* teal irvoitv 
K€\iifcai ainA irot/Ad^€C$tu i» \\afiv\Stvi airo 
raXaarTMy /*vpu»v, m 5^ koX wXttopm^ aviy pa^av* 

9 mai Sri wMo^woMlcStu wtpifiyyiKfi^tara wdaap 
rfiP X^^pup r^ 0dp0aooir mal ir% iroXXoi rctfv 
irtupmp TMV *AXf{ayopoi/ /? Btpairtiap rtjp 
imm/ov 9^9 Tt avjoif^ koX rk tw\a *H^aiffrUtpt 
kwUfcoP aircBayoim* irpinop hk ¥Jifihnii &p(ai 
rov ao^ianaro%, Sprtpa iXiy^ wpocOtP f^aftMP 
irt Bifiiix^l ^P^ 'H^tcrimpa* xal roiho Bk 
tpaatu, Tf» *AXt(dpSp^ m fih i^^^cBat Boieoirf 
10 r€\4vrtfiTapri 'H^oiffrimpt. Ovmovp oM aWop 
rtpd «Toffi» &ptI 'H^49TiWyo9 x^^^PX°^ ^""^ ''V 
tww^ T^ iraiotM^ *A\i(apBpo^, «c fif) dwoXoiro 
TO Spofia rov l\ipatcru$pos it r^c T<if««»f* dwk 
'H^ai^TUtfvo^ T« ii x^kiapyia iicaXgiro xaX ro 
OfiiMMlop avrij^ ffyiiro ■ iP 'U^aiaTiti}po^ weiroiTf^ 
fUpOP. *Ayi!fpd Tc iir€PO€i iroi*iatu yv^ipucov rt 
mal fioviTtKOP irXrfiti rt tmv dywvil^o^iivoav koX 
T^ Cif ainop xoptr/it^ voXv ti twv dXXtav r<ov 
wpocBtp dptBrjXortpop' rpiax^^Xiov^ ytkp dywptcra^ 
T0W9 f v/Airarra^ traptaxivaat. Kai ovroi oXiyop 
Cartpop iv *AX€(dpSpov r^ rd^^ Xiyovaip ori 

* Boot w^p^rfYY^XB^. •v^Addtdby 



of the god if he permitted sacrifice to be made to 
Hephaestlon as a god ; but he refused. 

The following, however, harmonises in all accounts* 
that for three dajs after Hephaestion's death Alex- 
ander neither tasted food nor took any care of his 
health, but lay cither moaning or in a sorrowful 
silence ; and that he ordered a pyre to be made ready 
for him in Babylon at a cost of ten thousand talents ; 
some say even more; and that he ecNnmanded 
iQonrning to be made OTcr all the East; and that 
many of Alexander's Companions in respect for him 
dedicated themselves and their arms to the departed 
ff'-phaestion; and that Eumenes was the first to 
ite this idea, of whom a little above ^ we said he 
iiad quarrelled with llephaesUon; and that he did 
this so that Alexander might not think him pleased 
at Hephaestion's death. At any rate Alexander 
never appointed anyone in place of Hephaestkm as 
grncral of the Gmipanions* cavalry, so tJiat the name 
Ilrphaestion might never perish from his brigade; 
but it was still called llephaestkm's brigade, and the 
image went before it which had been modelled on 
llepbaestk>n. Then Alexander proposed an athletic 
and literary contest with a great number of com- 
)>etitor8, and far more splendid than any before in 
regard to the money lavished upon it; for he 
provided three thousand competitors in all; and 
these not long aAerwards competed at Alexander s 
<iwn funeral. 

« In ilM lo«i pari of Chapter XII. 



XV. Xpovo^ Tff ^p air)(p^ t^ wMmi na\ avrif^ 
rt alrrhv ffifi fi4r«*d\u <&▼* avrov teal oi iraipoi 
ftaWop Ti ip T^ roi^^ fjt'inop, *Ep$a hi) 
i^tXaciP woiurtu M Kocaaiou^, 9Bpa^ woXt- 
t fUMOP, Ofiopop r^ Ov(i«»p, Eial Bk 6p€iOi oi 
Koffaaioi xal X^P^ ^X^P^ itark xtitfia^ pifioprai, 
Kal oiroTf wpocayoi Bvpa^u^ K ta &Kpa ritp 
hpmp, awox^P^^yt^^ aBpooi 4 ^^K &p wpox^pi 
imdarot^ oCrm Ua/^vyovctp, ^9 awopiap fJaX- 
Xorrtc rov^ fifP hvpaftMi a^iauf ^ivfipoiVra^* 
awOJBoprmp M avdi^ ciV to X'portviP tptwo^ 

5 MOW av^ rovTov rop ffiop wotovprat. *AXtf{av* 
o^ Bk ^(uXtP avritp to iBpo^t maiirtp X^'M^**^ 
arpartvca^. *AXX* ovrt vci/miv iyiprro ifi-nohtov 
auT^ ovr§ ai hv9\mpuut oCrt avr^ ovrt 
UroXtftai^ t^ A^av, h^ t'^po^ ^^ rroaria^ 
hi* avTOv^ Tf^' OCtik oviip Awopop AX«f- 
oF^p^ rmp iroXtfumiiP ^p h S ti opfAi^gti. 

4 KaTiom 5^ avT^ ««V Ba^i/X^va Aifivtup rt 
wp€<r0tuu iprrxrfXf^f^^ hraiHivrrttp rt teal 
atM^povprmp ^l t$ fiaaiXfia rt)^ *Aala^, xal 
^f *lra\i'as Bphrtol Tf irai Afv/rai^l xal Tvpprf- 
i«4 €irl To«9 avToU hrpifffftvop. Kai Kapx*)- 
Boviov^ TOTf irp4a'0€vaai Xiytrai «al airo 
AlOi6irt»p wp4C0€t^ i\0€ip Kal "SjcvB&p twi/ ix 
T^ Kvp«^«^, «ral KcXtoi'9 xal ''lffr)pa^, virkp 
^iXia^ BetfO-ofAiPov^* S>p rd rt opofiara Med rk^ 
fficeva^ TOTf frpwTOP o^ffpai w/w 'liXKrpmp t« 

6 KoX ^Xaxtloptop. 'Vov^ h^ Koi inr^p r&p fiV 
aXXijXot;^ hia^pS»p Xeyovaip on *A\«(dtfBp<p 
BuLKpipoi €'n€Tp€7rop' teal Tore fiaXiara avrov re 
auT^ ^AXi^avhpov xal roU "/*^* avrov <pat'tfiai 


XV. Now the mouminff had gone on some time, 
and Alexander was already reoovering from it, and 
the Companioot were able to assist him more. He 
now, therefore, made an expedition to the Cossaeans, 
a warlil&e race bordering on the Uxians. These 
CoMaeans are mountaineers, and dwell in Tillage 
strongholds ; and whenever a force drew near their 
mountain (aatnc«ses, they would move off* in mass or 
as conrenient to each section, and so slip awaj; 
making it Terj hard for those who tried to attack 
them with Ibroea to get to dote quarters. Then 
when the enemj was gone thcj turned again to 
their brigandage and found in it their livelihood. 
Alexander, however, dettrojed their tribe, even 
though he made his raid on than br winter. But 
winter and rough placet never hindered him, nor 
yet Ptoleniaeus ton of Lagus, who led a portion 
of the army against them. In fact Alexander 
foond nothing impotrible of the warlike enterprltct 
he undertook. 

But ap he wat returning to Babvlon embattles 
from the LIbyant met him, oongratuJatlng him and 
offering him a crown on hit becoming King of Asia; 
from Italy aUo Bruttiam and I^^icanians and Tyrrhen- 
ians sent envojTS for a like purpose. It is said that 
the Carthaginians alto sent envoys, and that others 
came from Ethiopia and the European Scjrtht; 
Celts also and Iberians, to ask for friendly tcrmt; 
then Indeed for the first time did Greeks and Mace- 
doniaot beeome acquainted with their names and 
appearances. Some, they say, even appealed to 
Alexander to arbitrate in their diff*erences with each 
other; and then espedallv both in his own esti- 
mation and in that of his followers Alexander 



rTf awofftf^ gal OaXaaffff^ xvfHOP. ^Apiaro^ 
KoX *AaK\iprui^ff^ TMf T^ *A\€(d^pou a¥a' 
ypa^dtrrttp xal ' P6>/iaiot^ Xtyovaiy on iirpiaff^V' 
cap' xaX itnvxovra ral^ irfMcfinoi^ *KXi^avhpov 
vwip 'Ptafiaitȴ T4 Tfj^ icofUtni^ #9 to ^wtira 
^rdfi40^ fAOPTtvcaaBai, row tc Moa/tov rS»p 
apSpup IBopra «ai to ^iXoiropop ta ical tKiv- 
OipiOP teal tr^pH rov voXitciz/aato^ ^fui hiairvp- 

6 Oopcfupop, Kai toDto otrrc tm^ drptici^ ovr§ ^ 
SwiCTOP wdpTfi dptypayf^a' irXi^y 7c htf oirr« tk 
'P«»;Aai«»r vv^p t^ wp€a0€ia^ ravrtf^ m wap^ 
*AX4fai^/Mr arakti^n^ fimi/AtiP hrot^caro -npa, 
9M rmf rii *AX«farS/>ov ypayltoprtpp olartc^ 
ftaXXop 4ym (vfn^ipofuu, UroXtfuuc^ 6 Aayov 
mU *ApterofiivXof oM tm 'Ptt»/Aa4«v iroXiTct^ 
/urn htmnMo^ ^p, iktvBip^ iti rm i« Tik ftdXiara 
^rri, va/Nk fiactXJa dXXo^vXop, iXXm^ t« «al 
^ Toooptt ^w^ rtjs oUnaK wp€e0€vam, oOt€ 
^60ov ^(ayaytdl^apTO^ oCr« gar AviSa m^Xda^t 
idan Tf, ttirtp Tii4f JtXXot^, toD rvpappueov 
yhnv^ T€ gal opoparo^ ganxotitpov^. 

XVI. 'Rr TOVTow Brf *\\pag\tiBqp top ^Apyaiov 
igwiiMMU h 'Tpttoptap vavmrfoi^ afia ol dyotna, 
gtXtvca^ CXfjp rtfiopra ig ra>p opStp rStp 
'Tpgawimp wa%nnrf€la0ai pav^ pax pas d^pagrovs 
rt gal irt^paypipas is top goapop top 'EWrjvtgop. 

t Hodos yap ttx^f^ ainop gal ravrrjp igpaBtlp rrjp 
6d\a<ra€LP rrjp Kaaviap Tt gal 'Tpgaplap xaXov 
pii'Tjv iroia rwl (vp^dXXfi OaXdtrarj, trortpa TJ 
Tou iropTov Tou Kuf e«Vov rj diro rfjs ijias tijs gar 
*li^i^ (gmpitpxofiepr) rj ptydXtf BaXacaa dpa- 
Xtirai tls koXttop top 'Tpgdviop, goBdirtp ovp gal 


appeiured to be lord of all the earth and sea. Arittot 
indeed and Asclepiades from among the historiam 
of Alexander assert that even Romans sent envoji ; 
and that Alexander when he met their envojs 
prognosticated something of their future power 
when he notk^ their orderliness and diUgenoe And 
freedom, and when be abo bad learnt somelfafaig of 
their constitution. This I have recorded neither as 
true nor as untrue ; except that no Roman ever nuule 
mention of this embassy sent to Alexander, nor even 
the historians of Alexander whom I roost follow, 
Ptolemaeus ion of I^agus and Aristobulus ; nor was 
it suitable for the Roman republic, whkh was then 
entirely free, to send to a foreign king, etpedallj 
so far from their own home, when no scare compelled 
them, nor with anj expectation of help, and beiqg 
as thej were a people partJcnlarly given to dIsBke 
of kings and of the very name of kings. 

XVI. After this AlexandersentHeracleides the son 
of Argaeus to Ilyrcania with shipwrights, bidding him 
cut wood from the Hyrcanlan forests and build war- 
ships, some dedced, sooie open, in the Greek fashion. 
For he had conceived a desire to expk>re this Caspian 
Sea (also called Hyrcanlan) as well, to see with what 
other sea It unites ; whether with the Euxine Sea, or 
whether on the east side, towards India, the great 
sea circling round pours into the Hyrcanlan Gulf, 


rip UfpciMOP i(€vpt, rifv *Epv6pa¥ Btf teaXov- 
fUmfp OdXaaaop, moXvop oiaop rtf^ futydXifi 

3 $a\daaris. Ov yap w^ iffvpfitno at apxol r^f 
Kaairia^ BaXdacrj^t icaLroi i$wS>¥ rt avTtfv 
wtpiotKovmtap ovic 6\iyt0p gai worafultp wXot^uitp 
ipiSaXXoyrttp 4^ aurifi'* ite Udxrp^p fUp ^Hfof 
wvraiio^, fUyicra^ rAp *KaiapS>p irorafiiav, TrXi^y 
7f Bff rifp 'IkSmv, i(irf<np ts ravrtfp rtjv OaXaa* 
909, hik HsnfOitp Bi *\a(dpTf)V icai top ^KpdfyiP 
a TOP i( *Apfi€pia^ p€opra is ravTrjp ic^dXXttP 6 

I wXtittp Xo7<K ttarix^' Miy^9r9^ ^up oinoi' iroXXol 
hk hif KoX &XXo^ is T« Tovrovs i^/3dXXoprts xai 
airroi hrl a^p is rrjp BdXaaaap ravrffp ifiaoip, 
oi flip Kok yipm^KOfUPOt wpos rtap dfA^* *AX4(aP' 
hpop iw€\0aprmp r^ l^any raOra, oi ik itarii rk 
ht hmpa roO giXwov, m tUos, «otA roifs 
iMV$as rovs Uofioias, h S^ dypmarop wdvrfj iarip, 

a 'AX^foj'jpo^ hk m TOP 'Tiypfjra woTafLOP (ip t§ 
rrpmrtf BU/hi iKavpmp M BaffvX^pos, iptavSa 
im^fXa9€»9t9 «VT^ XaXBaimp oi Xoytoi, koX 
awayayoPTit <ivo tmi^ haipttp ihioPTo diri^yttp 
Tffp tfVl BafivXApos iXaaw Xoyiop ykp ytyoptpai 
a^aip ix Tov Btov tov BvfXov /i^ irpos dyaOov 
Oi €lp€U Ttfp wdpoBop Ti^y is BoiliyXMPa ip t^ 

TOTC. Toy M awoKpivacBeu avrois Xiyop^ tov 
Kvptwi^v TOV woirp'ov iwos, ^X** ^^ ^^ ^Of 
EvpiwlBff M^ 

MdpTiS 3* JipiOTos Sans fiVaCci xaXAs* 

l,if B4^ A fiaaCktv, Ikbaaap oi XaXBaloi, fi^ irpos 
Bvc^^s d^pAp airros M*?^ ^h" aTpaTiitp Tavrjf 



just as he dkoovered the PenUn Gulf, called by some 
the Red Sea, to be onlj a gulf of the ocean. For no 
one had yet disoovered the springs of the Caspian 
Sea, though many tribes dwell round it and naTi^U>le 
rivers flow into it; from Bactria, for instance, the 
river Oxus, the greatest of the Asijui rivers, save the 
Indian, finds its way into this sea; and also the 
Jaxartes flowing through Scythia. Then the osoal 
account is that the Araxes flowing from Armenia 
runs into this sea. These are the greatest; but a 
good many others pouring into these themselves 
pass into this sea; some kiK>wn by Alexander's 
expedition into those parts, and others oa the 
far side of the golf, as woald be, and aasoog the 
Vomad Scythians, a part entirely unknown. 

Crossing the Tigris with his army, Alexander 
marched towards Babylon, and there met him 
Chaldaean seeis, who draw him aside from the Com- 
panions and begged him to stop the advance towards 
itabylon; for, they said, they had an orsde from 
their god Belos that his approach to Babylon at that 
time would mean disaster. He, however, answered 
them with a verse of Euripides the dramatist — it runs 

" PropheU, who prophesy the best, are best.*' ^ 

' But, O King," said the Chaldaeans, " look not 
towards the west, nor lead your army westward, but 

»INDdorf,Fr. 96S. 8m Qomo, 4* Dimm. U, 5, VlnU Mor. 



7 wpo^ fm fiaWop. T^ hi ovBk rovro tvfiapi^ htk 
tv^Xmpiaif (vy4fffj* a\XA ^y€ yekp avrotf ravTft 
TO iiu/AOi^UMf i wapfXBoma ixP'i'^ 'i^f rcXftrr^ai. 
Kai wou rvYO^ ^ ifuiiw atntp ^ ip Jucfij rtf^ 
T« ^lUXifV ^(v foX Tov wodov Tov wop iufSpmirmv 
ik'WfiWdyBa^t wpiv timi (vpffijpat aur^ (vfi^opav 
hfOprnwi^p, 4^ liM«a KoX '^Xmva Kpoiam 
wapatptctu tUo^ riKo$ opap fuucpov 0iov fitfok 
wpo90€P TfMk apOpmwmp dvo^iMU^ 9\ihaipova* 

TfXcvri^ ov epAKpk (vfidip^ yrfhniro, {v teal avro^ 
*AX^fa»SpoY wpoawtXffttp Ap iomtl poi iBtXriaai 
fioKKop 4 K^ w€tpa$fjpatt ov pMiov fj Koi * A;^iXX^a 
5oc«# iU iXicOai wpoa-wfiBaptlv VXarpokKov 
pa\\o9 i) Tou Sopmrov atrrov rtfit^pow y€p4aOai, 

XVII. *IIy 5« rt ical (nroiTToy ain^ 4^ rov^ 
XtkkBaiov^, «K ov xara paprMP n paKXop ^ ^9 
m^Xtiap r^v avrmp ^tpoi avroU n amXva^s rtj^ 
*A\0^d¥hpov 4^ BaffvXmifa iw r^ rort /Xa^«<»v. 
'O yap rov B17X0V p§m^ ip pi^jf rj iroX«i ^i^ TMy 
BaffvXmittmp, p/rfiBu t« p^taro^ xal iic wXIpOov 

t owrriR hf Ae^akr^ ^ppo^ptpr/^* Tovrop rov 
ptmp, Aoirtp gal tA £XXa Up^ rd BaffvXmpimp, 
Hip(ff^ MariaKayftfp, Srt iie r^ 'CXXo^ owi^m 
Jnnp6ffrff<r€P' *A>J(apBpo^ B4 h p^ ^^X*^ avoitco- 
hoptlPf oi pip XeyovffiP on iirl roU Btp^XLoi^ 
toU npoaOir, /rol rovrov etf€xa top x^vp iic4>€p€ip 
hciktvt Tov^ BaffvXtaPtovs' oi hi, on xal p€i^ova 

S fri rov vdXai 6vro^, 'EttcI hi airoardpTOS avrov 
paXffatcot^ ap$ijy^apro rov ipyov oU ravra 
hrtrirpaTrro, 6 hi tJ arpand irdo'fj iirepoti ro 


rather wheel your force and lead it eastward." But 
this, bj reason of the difficulty of the road, he could 
not do ; but fate led him the way on which he was 
doomed to die. And possibly it was better for him 
to die in the height of his fame and of the general 
regard of mankind before any ordinary disaster 
haeU him ; it was for a reason like this probably that 
Solon advised Croesus to regard the end of a long 
life, and not decUre any man happy before that. 
For the death of Hephaestioa bad proTed no small 
disaster to Alexander himself, wnich Alexander 
himself I believe would have preferred to anticipate 
rather than to experience it during hU lifrtime ; just 
as I think Achilles would have preferred to die before 
Patroclus rather than to have been the avenger of 
his death. 

X\'ll. Some suspidoo was entertained by Alex- 
ander towards these Chaldaeans that it was not so 
much in the way of prophecy as for their private 
advantage that the prevention of his advance to 
Babylon at that time would tend, for the temple of 
Belnt wat in the midst of the city of Babylon, in sixe 
immense, and made of baked brick with bitumen for 
mortar. This temple, like the other shrines of 
Babylon, Xerxes rased to the ground, when he 
returned back from Greece; but Alexander was 
minded to build It up again, some say on the original 
foundations, and that for this reason he bade the 
Babykmians remove the heaps of earth ; others say 
that be wished to buikl it hurser than the old one. 
But since after his departure those charged with the 
work had taken it up languidly, he proposed to 



IpTOr ipydaaaSai. Eimia Bi r^ 6t^ r^ Bi^X^ 
woXXijp ftip TfiP X'^P*^ a¥€tfUtnfp iic r&p 
4 *A9avpimp fiaaiXiup^ voXvy hk xfiuaop, Kal 
^vo roO ^ vaXa4 /uy roy vtwi^ iwiOKtvat^fadtu icaX 
rk^ Ovcia^ r^ Otm OvtcOai* r6r§ B^ rov^ 
XaXlaiov^ rk rov utov pifitaOoi, ovx Strro^ /v 
S T4 apokmO^rrai t^ wtpiyiypofttpa* Tovtup 
Hf «&t«a {hrawroi *AXt(d^Bp^ ^op ovk i$ik»ip 
wap€\$tiP tXam Ba/9vXc0ro« Wi^aphpop, w« /i^ 
hi oXiyov Tor p^p iwirtXtaBitrra a^XioBat 

S^ Ta 7f r^ i'Wiorpoitfj^ rf/^ xark rtjp gtaoBop 
rifp ^ rrfp woXiP iOgXifaoi auroU fruaOfivai 
Xiytt * Kpi9^oBovXo^, Koi rf '^P^'^fl t^*^ irapa 
rhip worafiop rop Ev^pdrriP iearaarparoirtlwcat, 
it M T^ v^rtpaiop dp Bt^ta /^oirra r6p wara^p 
wap* avrop wop€V€9$ai, iSiXopra vwtpffdXXtiP 
1% voXciK ri lUpot TO U tvcfkk^ Ttrpati^Jvov, 
6 m ravTff iwierpd^pra wpat im Syup* aXXk ov 
ykp Bvpfi6iip€u vwo Bi/aympiat othms iXdctu (w 
rp irrpaTif, Sri rk airo BvatiitP t^ iroXco»v 
ciaiorri, ft ravrjj irpos Im iviaypt^p, iXtaBtf rt 
Mil TiPayti^Bff i^p. Kal ovrtt gai ixoura /cal 
djcoina iiwuBifaai r^ B§A, 

XVIII. ^Em'd lud toiopB§ ripk Xcyop *kpici6- 
fiovXo^ a¥ayiypa^€P' 'AwoXXoBtapop top *A/a^i- 
woXirriP rmp iratpttp rw ^AXtfdpBpov, arparfjyov 
TTfi arparw f^p wapk Ma{ai^ r^ Ba/9i/Xa>i«9 
aarpdwjn JnnXiirtp *AXi(apBpo^, iwttBif avpifuftp 
htopioPTi airr^ cf *IpB&p, opApra wixpA^ rifim- 
povfupop rout aarpd-wa^ ocoi iw* dXXjf xal aXXjf 
1 kwh rUrm Siateniii 



complete the work with all his force. The god Bel 
had much glebe eomecrated by the Assyrian kings, 
and much treasure too. From this the temple was 
originally repaired, and the sacrifices offered to the 
god. But at that time the ChaMaeans enjoyed the 
revenues of the god, there being no cause for ex- 
peoditare of the surplus income. For all these 
reasons' Aleiandersnspeeted that they did not desire 
hfan to enter Babykxi, lest if the temple was completed 
in a short time they might hise the enjoyment of 
these moneys. Yet Aristobohv sUtes that Alex- 
ander was quite ready to yield to them so far as to 
withdraw from entering the dty, and that he camped 
the first day on the river Euphrates, but the next day 
marched slong the river, keeping it on his right, 
anxloos to pass by that part of the city which had a 
western aspect, so as to turn thence and march 
eastward; but he could not advance this way with 
his force because of the difficulty of the ground, since 
if he entered firom the west, and at this point turned 
eastward, the ground was all marshy and full of 
pools. And thus he disobeyed the god partly of 
intention, and partly without. 

XVIII. Moreover, Aristobulus recor ds a story as 
follows. ApoQodoffus of AmphipoUs, one of Alex- 
ander's Compenfcms, cninmander of the Ibroe which 
Alexander left behind with Masaeus the satrap of 
Babylon, meeting Alexander on his return firom 
India, and perceiving that he was punishing severely 
the satraps appointed over different provinces, wrote 



yt»/>f rrray fupoi i^aav, iwt^TtiXxii UtiBayop^ r^ 
ahtX^, fidimtf ykp «Zwu rw ll§i$ay6pap rij^ 

t vwkp avrov rrjq fft^rtipia^. *Arrfiri9Te«Xa< M 
AVTf* Ufi^ayQpay wvpOo^oiupow rufa fuiXtara 
^o09Vft€pa9 vpijaa^^ai i$iko$ rf fuuntC^ Tow 
ik ypd^froA ou^iv ori row rt 0aaiXJa atrr^ jroi 
'H^oitf TMtMi. StMoBoA hif rhp UftOayopiip irpAra 
fthfiwl T^ 'H^aia^imwi* m^ Bi i'wl rov flwarov rou 
itptUv o Xo/3o9 0/^atnf^ ^p, oCrtt Bi) 4yypdyltawTa 
mm icaraaftfAffiM^i€P9P to ypa^ftariow wifiylrai 
wapk row 'AiroWohmpow in Ba/9i/X«»MK tK 
*£«/3aTaMi, tfiKowrra fiffBiv ri Sf&ira* 'H^cua- 
rimpa* iatff0a$ yap airroU oXiyov ypovov 

% imwohmw. Ktu ravrrjw rrjp ^wtaroXifp \4y€$ 
'AptaroffovXa^ KOfUcaadai * KiroXKohmpop fu^ 
wpocStP fjfUp^ 4 rtXtvrffaat * 1 1 <^tarU$pa* A t^if 
B4 BimaBai rop \\ti0ay6pav iwi r^ ' \Xi(ttwSp^ xal 
^ffW^Oi Kol iw* *AXt(upip^ d\o0oy TO fjnap rov 
ifpMOV. Kal UttSayopap tA avr^ teal (rrrtp 
*A\t^avBpov ypayfroi * AwoXkoBiifp^. *AiroXXo- 
hmoop Si ov Karaaimwfiaai, aXXA ^pdatu y^p 
irpov *AXi(apBoop rit iw^araXfUpo^ m eC^otap 
fiaXKop Ti iwiiiifofUPOP r^ ffaatXti, ti t^vXdr' 
recBoi wapatpictit pri T19 airr^ Kivhvpo^ ip r^ 

4 TOTC (vpwiffoi, Kal * AwoXXolttpop rt Xiyti Sit 
*AXt(apBpo^ iirrjvtaM Ka\ rop llfidayopav, 
iwtiBtf waprjXBtp €i9 haffvXeapa, ^ptro Brov 
ytPOfUpov avr^ atfptiov rath a iirearttXt wpo^ 
rip ABtX^P' rop hi tlirtlp on aXofiop oi ro 
^ap iyiptjo rov itpttov ipopAvov Bi 6 rt pool 
ro orjfiMlop fuya €i7rtip €lpai x"^^^^^^*^' *AXt(ap* 


to Peithjigorms his brother, one of those seers who 
prophesy from the flesh of victims, to prophesy 
aho coDceming his own welfare. Peithagoras then 
wrote in answer to him asking who it was that be 
chiefly feared, that he wanted the help of prophecy ; 
and he replied that it was the King himself and 
Hepbaestion. Peithagorat then sacrificed first in 
the matter of Hepbaestion ; and at the lobe could not 
be seen on the liver of the victim, he reported this, 
and sealing bis letter sent it to Apollodonis from 
Babylon to Ecbatana, assuring him that he had 
nothing to fear from Hepbaestion, for in a short 
time he would be removed from his path. This 
letter Aristobulus says that Apollodonis received 
on the day before Hepbaestion died. Then Peitha- 
gorat sacrificed again in the matter of Alexander, 
and for Alexander also the liver of the victim showed 
no lobe. Peithagoras then sent a similar letter to 
Apollodonis about Alexander also. Then Apollodorus 
did not keep bis counsel, but told Alexander the newt 
he bad received, with the klea of showing a kindnett 
to tlie King, by advi%ing him to beware lest any 
danger should at this time come upon him« He 
states further that Alexander thanked ApoUodonit 
and, when he reached Babylon, asked Prithngoras 
what partScnlar warning caused him to write thus to 
his brother. He replied that he found the liver of 
the victim without a lobe. Then when Alexander 
enquired what this sign portended, Peithagoras 
replied : " Sometbing very serious." However, Alex- 


^por M rocovrov Btfj^ai voX^ir^KU r^ UtiBa- 

6 OTi o^Xmv TY;ir aXi^uur 04 i^paat, Tatna 
aino^ ^AptcrnffovXo^ X^Tti tra^ n«i^a7opov 
wv$ic$ai' Kal HtpUttMa hi fuun€vcaa$€u ainop 
Xiyfi Kal *Am70iY TCpoi^ Cartpop' teal rou 
airrov fff}ti4iov a^olv ytHffUpov nrpSi««ay 
Tc ^l nToX«/ui40v arparr^v^ama awodavtif 
Koi ^Amiyopotf ip rj f^XB ^ ^P^ XiXtv/co» 

6 MoX Aucifiaxo9 rj hf i^^ ywoiih^ Kal 
uhf tfi €aX vwkp KaXavov rov eo^arov rov 
l»hou rotoaht rn^ dpayiypawTai X0709, oirorf 
iwl rif9 wvphf jju &wo$aiHiVfityo^, rort rov^ uip 
£XXov^ hrtupov^ aawd^€c6ai avrot^, *AX«fayO/M» 
M ova 40€\^a^ wpoc^XBtiw Aawaao^itpop, aXKd 
ddptu yikp Sr$ iw Ba0v\Atf$ aur^ iwrv^mif 
affwdatrat, Kol rovrop r^r Xoyow hf fthf r^ 
rort dfitXfiOrjpoi- Cartpoi^ Bt, iirtto^ irt\turt)a€P 
h BafiuXmPt *A\i(a¥Bi>a^, 4^ tip/ffAifp iXBtuf rmv 
^otwdmr^p, 5t4 ^wl rj rtXtvr^ apa tJ *AX«{aiN 
hpov ifittaff$rf. 

XIX. riapcX^om ^ avr^ i^ BaffvKApm 
wp€afffuu wapk rmp 'EXXijywv iprruxop, irwip 
Brmp phf hsaaroi wp9ff04v6fA4voi oine dpayi- 
ypawrar iogtip 5' i^ioiyt ai iroWai art^poyprwp 
Tff ainop ^aop xal iireupovprmp iirl ral^ pUai^ 
raU TC aXXoif xal fuLXiora roif *|p5#«aK. «ai on 
aipos i( *lvS«v iwapijx€i ^^oipeiv ^a<ric6vT<ap. Kal 
Toirroi/^ B€(imcdfi€Po^ tc icol t^ tlicora rifujca^ 

t dwowtfAylrai owiam yjyrreu. "Ocov^ Bi dvhpidv 
ra^ ri oaa dydX^iara ^ Ci hrj ri dWo dvdOtjfia 
iic T^ EXXa^o^ "E.ip^yf^ dvtico^iafv t^ XSafivXaiva 




ander was far from being incensed against Peitha* 
goras, but rather had a higher opinion of him for 
speaking the truth outright. This Aristobulus says 
be learned at first hand from Peithagoras ; and adds 
that Pettiiagoras prophesied Uter in the matter of 
Perdiccas and Antigonus ; the same portent appeared 
for both, and Perdiccas, having taken the fieki against 
Ptolemaens, perished, and Antigonus in the battle 
against Seleucus and Ljsimachos, which took 
place at Ipsus. And besides this, a story on these 
lines has been recorded of Calanus, the Indian wise 
man, that when he was going to the funeral pjrre, to 
his death, he greeted all the Companions, but refined 
to approach Alexander to wish him farewell, but 
said that he would meet him at Babylon, and greet 
him there. This story was ignored at the time ; but 
later, when Alexander died at Babylon, it came to the 
recollection of the hearers that he had, in r'*»i:»y, 
some divine inspiration about Alexander. 

XIX. Then when Alexander had entered Babylon 
cmbtMies came to meet him firooi the Greeks ; but 
history does not record for what purposes each em- 
bassy came. I am inclined to think that most of 
them were to offer him wreftths and to congratulate 
him on an his Tictories, and especially those in India ; 
and also to express their joy that he came back safe 
firom India. These he received graciously, and is 
stated to have dismissed them after showing his 
regard lor them in the customary way. But such 
statues or other works of art or any other votive 
offering which Xerxes removed firom Greece to 



*Kaia^, raura lovvtu liytiv roh wp49ff§9$, icai 
Tav 'ApfioSiov icol *Apta'royti7oyo^ tMtmf rit^ 
vaXira^ oOrm Xiytroi airfi^;^^MU owiam i^ 
A^f^vav KoX T^ *Apr4fuBo^ r^ KcXicoia^ to 

t KaT€Xii/9« h^ iw V^afivkmvi, m^ Xiyfi ^Apicro- 
0ov\o^, aal TO Mtururop, to fiiw ica-ra tow 
Eu^parffi^ worafAow opawnrXtvito^ awi BaXaaeff^ 
r^ XUpatmif^t o nwtp cv» Stdpxf ^ rh hk 
im ^outUff^ apoMtKOfuefUpoif, w€inffp€t^ fihf Bvo 
rmp i* ^oiPtMmp, Tcrpiipfic 5^ t^<9. rpti^ptt^ 3^ 
imBiga, rptatorropovs M h rpiaxoyra' ravra^ 
ftnrrfifjOtica^ KOfua0fpftu htl rot^ Ev^partfv 
worafkov ix ^oivixjfn it BJ^roirov iroXiv, tVfi li 

4 Aryci Otf on cal aXXo9 atrr^ ivavmfynlro aroXo^ 
rifipomt rat Kvirapi^aovt rat iv r^ BaffvX^via- 
rovrt»p ykp fio^mw rmp tiphpuv tinroUaw tlt^cu 
iv r^ X^P*^ ''*^^ 'Aaavplmp, ritp ik SXXmp taa 
it pavwtrfiap airopwt ^X"*' ''^^ f^^ ravrrfir 
wXfip^fUira It it riit ravt xal riit dWat 
vwfip€aiat wop^vpimv rt wXf/Oot teal rim dX>M¥ 
offot ipydrai rijt BaXda a fjt a^ix^oi ovr^ ite 
^otvUfjt rt Kal rtjt &Wfjt irapaXiav Xtftipa t« 
on rrpot HaffvXApt iiroUi opvicrov o<ro¥ y^iXiait 
vavcl fuucpalt Zpfiov ^Imoi koX v€toaoLcnvt ivl roO 

6 Xifiipot. Kal yiiKKaXot 6 KXa^ofUvtot fiMrk 
wtvroKoaUtp raXatrrttp iwl ^oivUtft t« icaX 
l,vpiat iarriWrro, rovt p4v fuaS^ rrti^ttPt tou9 
Bi Kal iufn<r6fi€vot oaoi BaXdrrioi avBpttrroi* 
Tijv T€ *fap rrapaXiav rtjv rrpot rat tcoXvta Ty 


BabjloQ or to Pasargadae or to Susa or anywhere 
ebe in Asia, these he gave to the embassies to take 
badt; and thus it is said that the bronse statues of 
Harnodias and AristogeitOD were taken back to 
AthciiB, as abo the seated figure of Celcaean ^ 

Aristobulus says that Alexander found in Babylon 
the flotilla also; part had sailed up the Euphrates 
from the Perrian Sea, that part which was with 
Ncarchus; but the rest had been brought up from 
Pboenida, two Phoenician quinqueremes, three 
and twelve triremes; and about 

thirty tU 

tliirty-«ared galleys. These had been taken 
to nfeees and carriMi across firom Phoenicia to the 

Euphrates, to the dty of Thapsacus; and there they 
were put together a^Un and sailed down to Babylon. 
Arlstobolos ako sajrs that another detachment was 
being built for him, by cutting down the c v p res s e s in 
Babrlonia; for this Is the only tree wnlch grows 
freely in the Assyrian eoontry, which Is bare of 
everythfaig else necessary for shipbuilding. As 
crews for the ships and for the nthrr naval services 
there came a number of puqilc-fthcU divers and other 
persons whose business lies in the sea, from Phoenicia 
and the rest of the coast. He also says that Alex- 
iinder duff a harbour at Babylon, large enough to be a 
roadstead for a thousand ships of war, and dockyards 
on the harbour. Miccalus of Clasomenae was 
despatched to Phoenicia and Syria with five hundred 
tatentSt to Induce by pay, or to purchase, men 
a ec ust omed to seafaring. For Alexander had an 
kka of cokmlilng the coast akmg the Persian Gulf, 

* TIm oasM li aoknown. 



ravT-p. *K&;«€i yap ain^ ov fitiov Atf <t>o«yi4ri^ 

tvSaiftMif ^ X^P^ avTtj yfpiaOai, *Hy fi^ aur^ 
ToD yavriKOv i^ wapaa»€Vff m^ iwl ''Apaffa^ rov^ 
woXXov^} wpo^aaip fiiv, Sri ftot'Oi tmv ravrff 
fiapfidomv oCrr€ wptaJStiop awiargtXa^ oijrg n 
SKKo iwtnmh 4 hrl ri/ft^ 4w4wpaKro *Kpay^tv h 
avroir rh li A\ii$h, &^ y4 fun &>«€&, awXtjcro^ 
^p rov mSiaBai r^ <Ul * Wi^aphpcf^. 

XX. A0709 ^ iCAT^ci on fJMov€» "Apoffa^ Ivo 
lUtm^ rifiop $9ov^, TOP Oitpapov re koI rhw 
^imwop, TOP pkp Ovpopop t9 avrop optifupcif 
KoX tA acrpa ip ol ix'^^^^ ^^ ^' dWa moI top 
f^Xtop, a^* irov urfi^Ttf «al ^porrami m^iXgta 
#9 wdpra ffirti ra ipOpmwtpa* ^opvaop hk icark 
S6(ap rrJK is 'Ii^w^ arparta^,* Ougovp uTrof- 
tovp xal avTOP rpirop Ap POfuaBfjpoi wpkn *kpdfimp 
$96p, ov ^vXortpa fpya Aioruvov ivoSfcfiC- 
fttpop, ttwtp od» Mai *Apd$^p ttpani^as, ^i- 
rpirfr^igp avroU, Ka$dw€p *IpSoU, woXtrtvtiP 

1 Kartk rk a^Ap popipa. Ttjs tm X**P^^ 4 tvBoi' 
fumla vwiKiptt ain6v» on ^Kovtp im fikp i&y 
XifOf&p rrjp icaaiap yiyt-taOai airroU, dwo Bi r&v 
6Mpt0P T^i' apvppop T< Mai TOP XiffavvTov, 4m 
Zk rAp BatiPiCMiap to Mipapw^iop rifAPtaffat, oi 
XtifA&P€s 5i Sri pdpBop avTofutroi iM^povar ro 
re luy^Sos Ti/« Xtifpa^, ori ovm (Xdrrti»p ^ wapaXtos 
T% *Apaffias VT'^P ^ "^1^ *ly^Mff^ avr^ 'f^TTy^^- 
Xtro, Mol pffaoi avT^ wpocMticOai woXXai, moI 

* A» •totwbtra, wbeo in thin mom, EUaodt tdiu pr^ 



mod the isUmds that be near: for he thoof^ht that it 
would be just as p r osperous a country as Phoenicia. 
His naval preparations were chieflj directed at the 
greater part of the Arabs, on the ground that they 
alone of the tribes on this side had sent no envoys, 
nor had done anything eompliroentarj, or by way of 
honouring Alexander. The actual fact, in my 
estimation, is that Alexander was always insatiate in 

XX. There is a story current that Alexander 
heard that the tribes of Arabs reverenced only two 
gods, Uranus and Dionysus; Uranus because they 
behold him and he cootains within him all the stars 
and especially the taot from which the greatest and 
most obvioot benefit, in all directioiiSy oomes to man- 
kind ; DiooyMtt in view of his Joomey to India. 
Alexander therelbra thought himself worthy to be 
regarded as a third god by the Arabs, since he had 
a<£ieved even more famow deeds than Dionysus, 
at any rate if he should cooqaer Armbla and permit 
them, as he had the Indians, to be governed aooording 
to their own customs. Then the prosperity of the 
coontry indted him, since he heard that in their 
oases eassia grew, and from the trees came myrrh 
and frankincense ; and from the bashes, Hnnamon 
was cut; and that from their meadows spikenard 
grew self-sown. Then there was also the sise of 
their territory* rince tlie seft-coast of Arabia was 
reported to Um to be not less long than that of 
India, and that there were several islands adjacent, 



S Auo 5tf 9njcoi xar^ ro aTofia roO Htf^pdrov 
wtXayia* 4(fiYy4kX4nno avrA, ^ fjuv wpmrti ov 
wpoam T«y ^«/3oXmv rov Ev4>purov, i^ ixarw 
KoX tiMoci ctahiov^ airi^ovaa atto tou edyiaXov 
Tf Koi rov arofiaro^ rov worrafWVt fUMporipa Bi 
avrtj ical la^tla v\fi wa^roif- thai hk ip avr^ 
«a2 lipov * AprifuBo^, tsaX rov^ oU^ropa^ ainov^ 

4 ^^i TO Upop T^ T^ hialrvf^ wottioOat' pifuaBaL 
Tf aintip ai^i rt aypuuK teal iXd^i^, teal 
ravras apttcBoi a^irovs rn ^Ap^ifuBi^ ovhi tlpoi 
$ifu^ Bripap itOitlaBiU arr avrAp &ri fAff Bitcai 
TIKI rfi Btf iBiKot^a* M r^Bt Bfipap fiopop* 
i'wl r^ht yap ov€ cZhii tiBifurop, Kal ravrtfp 
rifp pffaop X«7f« *Apiar60ov\o^ Sri "Ixapop 
Mk(vc§ xaXtloBai *A\i(apBpo^ iwi r^ p^a-ov 

5 T^ *\Kdpov rif^ ip r^ AiyaL(p iropr^^ h ^prtpa 
"Ixapop rop ^aiBaXov raxhro^ rov iCfjpov ir^ 
wpocriprnfro ra wr§pk ma tip o Xirfo^ xarixti, 
5ti ov Karii rik^ imoXiks rov warpo^ wpo^ tJ yn 
i^iptro, iXkik fiitrittpos ykp vrro apoia^ rrtro' 
JMPOf wapiavt rA ^XUf BdXylrai rt icai dvtivai 
rmf iCf)poPt xal arro tavrov rop Itcapop rtf Ttf 
yifO'^ ical r^ wtXayti rijp irrtaPvpLap iytaraXi- 
wtiP TffP fitp "l^apop xaXtlaBat, ri Bt 'licdpiop. 

6 'H 5^ Mpa p!)<ro^ dnix^iP fUP drro rov aroparo^ 
rov EM^pdrov iXeytro 6<rop wXovp rjptpa^ teal 
yvrrof xar ovpop Btova-jj prjt' TvXo^ Si avrj) 
cImu Spopa' fifydXrj Bi elvai xal oure rpaxeia 17 


and harbours all over the coast. Urge enough to give 
anchorage for his fleet, and to permit cities to be 
bidlt on them, and those cities likely to be ridi. 

He was also informed of two blands in the sea near 
the mouth of the Eu|>hrates. The first was not far 
horn its outlet, being about a hundred and twenty 
stadet firom the shore, and from the river mouth ; 
this one is smaller, and covered all over with thick 
wood ; there was in it also a shrine of Artemis, and 
the dwellers about the shrine themselves perlbrmed 
the daily services; it pastured wild goats and 
chamois, and these were reserved as sacred to 
Artemis, and no one was allowed to hunt them save 
any who desired to sacrifice to the goddess : on this 
excuse only might anyone hunt, and for this purpose 
hunting was not forbidden. This island, according 
to Aristobultts, Alexander commaiklcd to be called 
Icams, after the island Icarus in the Aegean Sea, 
upon which Icarus, son of Daedalus, according to the 
legend, fell when the wax, with which his wings had 
been fastened, melted, because he did not, according 
to his father's behest, fly low near the ground, but 
from his own folly flew high and so allowed the sun 
to melt and loose the wax ; and so he left his name 
to both island and sea, the one being called Icarus, 
the other, Icarian. The other island was reported 
to be distant from the mouth of the Euphrates about 
a day and night's sail for a ship running before the 
wind; it was called Tylns; and it was large, and 



voXX^ oih'€ vXMff^, aXX' ota itapvov^ r« ^ifiipovK 
iK^p€iv Koi wtbrra mptua, 

7 Ta%n\ AwfTfyikBfi *A\f(dpip^ rk fiiw wpo^ 
*Apx^v, h^ (v¥ rpiUKOirrop^ imrtti^th iwl 
KaraaKOWff rov wapdwXov roO m^ iirl rov^ 
"Apafias f^Xpi f^i^ rtf^ infaov r^v Ti/Xov fiXB^p^ 
TO wpoam M ovfirt vc/KMit^MU irokfirfatw 
* Atfhpoodhnj^ hi (up dkXjf rpituforrop^ vraXtU 
KoX T»}^ x^PP^V^^^ ^* '^^^ *Apa0mw wapi- 
wXtvar paMpardr^ Bi r&w itnrtft^Bhnttp 
w povy mfnicfw 'Up^iw o SoXtu^ o iri;y3tpnfn|^, 
Xafimp gml o^rof wap* *AXi(dkhpov rpnucotfropop, 

8 *Hy flip yiip a^r^ wpo^rrrajfUpop wtpiirXivcai 
rrjp x9pp6tni<ro¥ rtip* Apdfimp wa9a» S^rt M rhp 
KoXitop TOP vpa^ Aiyvwrm 7 op *Apd0top rhp naff 
*Wpmmp woXur ov fiifp rroKfAffci */# to irpoatt 
ihiuPt Koiroi iwl TO wokv wap^nrXtvaa^ rtfp 
*Apdfimp jfiP' dXX dpaerfhftti^ ykp wap* 'AX«f- 
^unpop i(riyy€iXt to fdytOo^ re t% x^ppopiiaov 
0mvfiaar6p t» tlnii col B^op ov iroXv dwMop 
rtf^ *\pB«$p yfj^t dMpap Tt iLpiy*^ ^^ woXv ri^ 

9 fAtyakfj^ BdXaaatf^* f^p Bff KaVrov^ fifv l^tdpx^ 
dvo rrj^ *lpBtX7j^ wXiopra^, wplp iwucdfi^eu 4s 
rop xikirop rop lltpffiMOP, ov woppm dpartivov- 
aop IBtlp t« «al wap* 6\iyop iXBtip BuiffaXiip is 
avnjp, mai *Opfi«fiKpir^ r^ Kv0€pp^rn ravTff 
ioMovp' dXXA Siapxos Xeyti ori airros MxtiXv' 
a€P, «»9 iicirtpiirXtvaas topkoXitop top HtpciKOP 
lyoi dirayytTKai *\\t^dvhp«p i^* oIotkti trpos 

10 avrov iardXrf ov yap iirl r^ irXtvaat rrjp 
fAeydXtfp BdXaaaav iaraXOai, aXX* ivi r^ tcara- 
paBilv Tffp x^P^" "^h^ ^P^^^V "^ BaXdcari tccu 


neither roufh nor wooded for the most part ; but the 
■ort which bore gmrden fruits and all things in due 

An this was told to Alexander, partly by Archias, 
who was sent with a thirty-oared snip to reconnoitre 
the eoastal Toyage towards Arabia and arrived at 
the island Tylus/ but did not venture further; but 
Androsthenes was despatched mith another thirty- 
oar, and sailed round part of the Arabian peninsula ; 
but farthest of all those who were sent out, Hieron of 
Soli the steersman advanced, who also received a 
thirty-oar from Alexander. For hit taiUiig oiden 
were to coast round the whole Arabian penfnanla, 
till he reached the Arabian Golf on the Egirptlan 
side, near HefoteoUs ; yet he did not dare to advance 
further, thooch ne had sailed round the greater part 
of Arabia; but he turned about, and reportca to 
Alexander the sixe of the peninsula as vast, and not 
far short of that of India ; and that a projection ran 
far into the ocean. And this Nearchus* crews, 
when sailinic from India, sifted, before they altered 
course for the Persian Gulf, stretching out not far 
away ; and indeed were on the point of putting in 
there ; that at least was the advice of CWaicrittts 
the helmsman. But Nearchus states that he forbade 
this, ao that, after completing his voyage round the 
Persian Gulf, he eoold report lo Atewander on the 
purposes for which he had been despaleiied. For he 
nad not been sent to navigate the Ocean, but to 
ree o nn oitre the coast lying on the Ocean, and the 

Is Sirabo (xvi. 3) ii k sailed lyras, 1 


rov^ tcaroi/eovifra^ avrffp apOpttwov^t Spfiov^ tc ^v 
mir§ icaX (tSara mal rk vofiata r^v apBpAv xai tX 
Tif i&TO^^ KOfntoif^ ix^ptiw ^ f I T19 Ktucr)' icaX ouv 
«al ToDro atrtop ytpiaSai awoctitOffpai *AXtfdpBpov 
TOP crrparop' ov yiip &p amOrjPtu wXtvaopra^ (nrkp 
rrj^*Apaffia^ ri epfifia,^^* Srft *Upmpiwierph^<u 

XXI. *Ev ^ S# a^^ ipmrmryovpro pAp ai 
rptiipti^, 6 \i^f)P Bi wpo^ BaffvXiltPi mpvcarro, 
ittitXit in Ra/9i/X4MKK Kark top MM^pdrffP tl^ 4wl 
TOP llaXXaKowop KoXoviatPop worafMiOP, *Airt;^ci 
Bi o6rof T^ Ba0uXmpi>^ araBiov^ Bc9P ottroMO' 
vim/it Mi icn Bimpvf aOrfj 6 UaXKoMOwa^ iic 
TOW \Lv^pdTov, ov^ hi im wtfymp ti» ipiexmp 

t worafic^. *0 ykp Ev^pdrt/^ worafii^ ^mp in 
rup ^Kpiupimp 6pwp ^ttfAmpo^ flip &pa wpo\mpu 
Kark T^c 6)($a^, ola hi) ov moWov opto^ airrA 
rov Charon* ^po^ hi tnro^aipopro^ xal woXv hf) 
ftdki^ra VW0 rpowk^ iartpa^ rov Bipov^ 6 ii>uo^ 
iin^rp4^i fuyti^ tc Iwipxtrtu moI virtpffdWti 
vwip ri^ ^y^av h rrjp yf)P rifp *Aaaupiap. 

S TifPiMavra yap ai x*oPts at ivl roU Sp€<Ti roU 
^KpiMMPUH^ MararijM6fi4P€u av^ovtrip ain^ ro 
thmp htl fUya» m hi iwiwoXff^ iirrip ain^ koX 
v^Xo9 o pov^t vw€p0aXXii ^9 rijp ywpav, §1 /ii; 
Tif dpaoTOfimaas avrop xark rkp UaXKaicoirap 
i^ rk fXff rt itrph^it xaX rk^ Xifiva^, at hfj 
apxo^uvai airh rairv^ r^ huapv^p^^ tart iirl 
ri)v fvvtxV '*'d ^^^ *Apdff<ap yrj tcai Mtp fiiv i^ 
T€vayo^ iv\ iroXv, in hi rov <9 OdXaaixap teark 

' After Mtdf mx** R'x* <^<1* 9*i99p0i9t bat w« have 
•Ireedj mm Arrka in AiiMolBt^ mmI brachjl^glM. 



ihabitADts of the coast, and its anchorages, and its 
water supplies, and the manners and customs of the 
faihabitants, and what part of the coast was good for 
growing produce, and what part was bad ; and that 
this was the reason that Alexander's navy came 
through safely, for they would nerer have come 
through safe by sailing beyond the desert parts of 
Arabia. This too is the reason given for Hieron's 

XXI. Meanwhile, as the triremes were being 
built, and the harbour at Babylon being dug, Alex- 
ander sailed finom Babylon down the Euphrates 
towards the river known as PaUacopat. This is eight 
hundred stades away from Babylon, and this Palla- 
oopas Is a canal from the Euphrates, not a river which 
rises from its own springs. For the Euphrates river 
flows firom the Armenian hills, and in the winter 
season runs within its banks. Its volume of water not 
being very great; but when spring begins, and 
<~^pecially during the summer sobtJce, it grows 
insiderable and overflo%rs its banks on to the 
.\ssyrian land. For It Is then that the snows on the 
Armenian mountains melt and Increase its volume 
considerably, and since the stream is high and 
wollen, it overflows into the surrounding country, 
inless it were diverted alon^ the Pallacopas and to 
imed on to the marshes and the lakes, which begin 
.vith this canal and continue up to the territory 
nearest to Arabia, and thence running mostly over 
marshland finally pour out into the sea by many 


voXXa re irol a^oir^ aro^ra inBtBovai. Trrtf- 

BvffUf 6\iyo^ T€ o Ev^pdrff^ ^tt mak oCBiw fuiov 
TO iroXv avrov Kork roy \\aKKam^a¥ tuBtBol 
h r^c XiV^^v. EU* Sif TK M^ diro^pd(€t4 rw 
UaWoMowap av$i%, «k /rara t^« 6')(0a^ iirrpawkv 
^p§c0m rk t^p icark ro» wopof, Mifma^v Ap 
TOP Ev^pamfP i^ ainop, «»« fAifh' iwaphtcBai air 
avrov rf)P ^Acavpiop yifp. 'A XX* awt^patraotno 
fkp 04 i% Toy WaXKoKoirap rob Ev^pdrov iic/3o\ai 
wp!^ rov oarpdwou rrj^ BaffvXmpia^ iroXX^ 
wot^ Moiirtp otf ;^aX«viif ^¥aaropovti€Pai, In 
tkvmiffit% T« 4 rainfi y^ moX vi|X09 19 iroXX^ at/r^, 
oTa ttx^/Uwri TO Chmp rov vorapov pti tvfiapi) rtfp 
dwoarpo^p avrov wapix^iP* aXXJk koI /^ rpirop 
pSpKk Aoavpimp &9hp€% vwip rovs pvpiov^ ip 
r^U r^ wop^ f iWyorro. 

Tavra dwayyMkffhnm hnfirtofffp ^A'Sjfap^pop 
m^Xrfffoi Ti riip X**P^^ ^^^ Aaavpi^p, "EfOtp 
pkp hfi i% rop WaXKoMoiratf irprirrro rov Ev^pd' 
rov 6 pov^, ravrjj Bi ryvM fftffaim^ dwoK\€ura$ 
rifp ixffoXiip* irpo€\06m Bi oaov oraBUv^ rpui- 
KOpra inrovtrpo^ 1) yrj d^aiptro, o7a Biaxowtiaa, 
fi fvva^t)^ yivoiro TJ ird\a$ Buipvx^ rj tear a 
rop WaXKoKowa^, ovr Ap Biaxtladai vap<;^eiv 
TO (fBmp vwo artpporrfro^ rt^^ yrf^, nip Tf 
dwoarpo^p avrov r^ rrrayfUpp &pa p^ X^^' 
ir<i9 yiyptirdai, Tovrmp fptxa iirl t« toi^ tlaX- 
Xatorrap hrXevat xal xar avrov teara-frXMi i^ 
ra^ Xippa^ m^ M rtfv *ApdffttP yrjp, "Ei'Sa 
X^pop ripa ip xaXA iBwp iroXip i(<aKoB6pfjai 
TC KoX h-tixic^t 'a« ^^ ravryj icar^xiat rwp 



obtcore mouths. Then when the snow has melted 
•bout the setting of the Pleiads the Euphrates nms 
with diminished stream, and jet all the same lets its 
overflow run by means of the Pallaoopas into the 
lakes. If, however, the bed of the Pallacopas was 
not in turn blocked, so that the stream headed off 
bj the banlcs remains in its bed, it would have drained 
off the Euphrates into it, and then the Ass^rrian plain 
wonU never be watered from it. But the outlets of 
tiie Euphrates into the Pallacopas were bk)cked by 
the satrap of Babykm, with eooiiderable labour, even 
though they can easily be opened, since the earth 
about tlicre is muddy and the most part of it is soft 
clay such as lets through the river water and makes 
it nooe too easy to turn the river back. Yet even so 
for three mooths over ten thousand Assyrians were 
engaged on this task. 

When this was reported to Alexander it incited 
hUn to try to assist the Und of Assyria. So then at 
the point where the stream of Euphrates was turned 
into the Pallaoopas, he determined to dose the outlet 
securely ; but when he had gone about thirty stades 
he found the earth appearing rather stony ; suggest- 
ing that if it were quarried, and then united with the 
okl canal along the Pallacopas, it would not permit 
the water to pass through because of the solidity of 
the soil, and yet its shutting off could easily be done 
at the right season. For these reasons he sailed to 
the Pallaoopas and down, by it, to the lakes in the 
direction of Arabia. There he saw a good site and 
built a city there and fortified it, and settled there 



XXII. AuTOf Bk m^ ^(tXtyfa^ Bt) rctfy XaXBaimp 

4)^ap4, KoBdwtp iKMUfOi ifiawTMvcavro, <UX* M^ 

Mf«rX«« a^iv «aT^ tA IXi| 0app^¥, iv aptar^p^ 

ainr^ /«i/W¥ toi) Miirrc«oi) xar^ ra atwk awopl^ 
ifytlio¥fkK, wpU y% hfi aints wifAyjra^ row ii^CQ- 

t UH999 iwawifrft^yw aurovs €*? row vopow, A0709 
M Xiyrreu roioah^, Tmv ffaoiXimp rmw *Kaav 
plmw roifs rd^v^ iw rtu^ \Lumuh ro «lwai rov^ 
woXkoif^ Kok i» TOK iKM9i BooofA9ifUpou%. 'n« ^ 
hrXti *A\i(apBpo^ mark rk ikfj, gvfftpwop yiip 
avrow \6yo^ rtjw rpniprj, wwovparo^ fioyiXov 
ifiWtcotno^ atn^ tv rfjw xavoiOP ical to BioBuffia 
m^rj cvMXo^wop, Ti)y /Atw Bij ola fiapvripaw 
woffw ^9 TO CU0p, TO BtdBiffta 5i dirmftYBkv 
wpo^ rifs wpotj^ a^iOtjwai iw KoXafi^* row tcaXa- 
liow hk r&¥ ^jrtwti^v/corwp tlwat rd^^ rwl r&w 

twdXoi 0aci\4t»¥» ToDto rt ouv avro rrpo rmv 
luXKomww atififjpoi xal ori rS$v ri^ vavrtow 
iianjPdfi4W09 «•¥ itrl rh hdirifui d^Xatv rov 
xaXapou airro furk X^^P^^ f*^^ ^^^ ^f^fff^* ^r* 
PffXOfitPOV Ajr avTov ifiptxrro, wopt0tU Bi rp 

4 Kt^Xn TJ aurov oOrtt Bti^wtyMt. Kai ol piv 
iroXXoi rS»9 dwaypaylfdyro^p rk *A\gfdvSpou 
Xiyovctp Sri rdXawrow piv ih^priaaro airr^ 
*A\i(ek9Bp<K rij^ irpoOupia^ €iv€Ma, dnortptip Bk 
igiXtv^t Tffw K€^Xf}Vt rStv pdvT€o»p ravrfj 


tome of the Greek mercenaries, any wKo volunteered, 
and anj who through age or wounds were unfit for 

XXII. Then Alexander, as if he had proved false 
the Chaldaean toothsajeit, since he had suifered 
nothing harmful in Babylon^ as thej had prophetiedy 
but had marched out of Babybn again before any- 
thing had happened, sailed op the marsh lands boldly, 
with Babylon on his left hand; but here toaie of hit 
flotilla lost its way in the narrows for want of a pilot, 
tintil Alexander himself tent them a pilot and brought 
t hem badL into the stream. A tale is told as follows. 
Most of the tombs of the kings of Assyria are built 
in the Ukes and in the manh lands. And at Alex- 
ander was sailing along the marthet, for he at it 
said — was steering the trireme, a strong breete 
ntnick his sun-hat and the ribbon attached to It, and 
the hat being heavy fell into the ttieam, but the 
ribbon was carried off* by the breese and caught on a 
reed; the reed being one of them which grew near a 
tomb of the ancient Idngs. This itself seemed a 
presage of his destiny ; one of the sailors, moreover, 
ftwam oiT to fetch the ribbon, and removing It fimn 
the reed could not carry it in his hands, since it woold 
have become wet as he swam ; but he bound it round 
his head and so Inroaght it across. Most of the 
historians of Alexander say that he gave him a reward 
of a talent for hb smartness, bat bade them behead 

vol . I!. K * 


«f^4iX^ ^i« TO Bio^fta 4^6fni9t r^ fiaaCKtiw* 
* AfnorofiovXos hk rdXap-rop fuv Sri iXafft X#yf« 
airrop, aXKa irX77^9 Xafftlp rTfs irtpiBic^m^ 
5 ivtica rov Btaitjfiaro^, *Apt^r6fiov\o^ fi4v t^ 
ra>v Tiya 4>oiVMrMy tmv rairriM' Xiyti 5ti to 

^lO^/MI T^ *AX«(dl^p^ iK0fU99V ffiVl S^ ot 

SiXtftMtov X^TOi^i. KaX toDto t^ Tt ^Wt^dwhp^ 
aT)^tjHU Tffp TfXfirr^v 4ral t^ ^XtvKij^ r^¥ 
fiaatXtiap rrip fitydXrfp. HiXtuKOP yap fUyurrop 
rm¥ fAtrd *A\4(apBpop BiaBtfa^Uprnp rtip dpx^p 
fiactkia 'ttpiaSeu rrgp Tt ypmfit)p ffaaiXi/ciirarop 
«iU wXuffTfit ffjs hrdo^ p4id 7c avrov 

XXIII. 'EmamXBi^p U h VUifivXmpa scara- 
Xa/i^AMi ITfvWtfTair fjitoPTa iit llMpaitp, dyopra 
9rparikp \\9pamp h Si^/Ai/p/ow* ^Tf S^ «a2 
K«wai»y nal Taitovpt^p ovm oXiyov^, Sri ical 
ravra ^0pti rmp wpo^xmpmp rj UtpalBi ftax^' 
IMmtrara tlptu ^firyTtXXrro. *Hk€ Bi avrA Mtd 
^iXo^gyo9 or par Up irpt m ilvo Kapuif ita\ MipoP' 

' TOVf avr^ (vpraxdipra^. Kal iroieffetai 
Bi ip rovr^ i* T99 'EXXo^ 4^ov, maX rovrmp 
ol irpifffiti^ avroi rg iart^pm^oi 'AXtfdpBp^ 
wpoariXBop KaX iar§^dpovp avrop ffrt<f>dvoi^ 
Ypi/aoK, ttK dtuptii Brfitp i^ n^tfp 6tov d^ty^ivoi, 
T(^ Bi ov froppw &pa 17 TfXcirr^ ^v. 
S "Ey^a 5^ T0U9 Tt n(/Kra9 iiraiPtaa^ rrj^ rrpo- 
Bvfiia^, ort vdpra lUvtciara hrtiBopro, ical 
aiTTov \\€vic€arav ri)^ ip k6<t^ ainStp ^(yjyrja-eco^t 
icarfXty€v airrov^ /? ra^ 'Siatce^ovixen; rd^ei^. 


him, since the ptopbets to bade him not to leave aliYe 
that head which had worn the royal ribbon. Aristo- 
balat, however, states that be received the taleiit« 
but was flogged for fattening the ribbon about bit 
head. Aristobulus abo tayt that it was one of the 
Phoenician sailors who brought back to Alexander 
his ribbon ; tome saj it was Seleucns : and that tbit 
portended the death of Alexander and hit great em- 
pire for Seleueot. For at anj rate Seleucnt wat the 
greatett king of those who succeeded Alexander, and 
of the most rojal mind, and ruled over the greatett 
ezteot of territory, next to Alexander; all this I 
regard as Irrefragable. 

XXllI. Alexander then returned to Babylon and 
found Peucestas with an army of twenty thousand 
Persians arrived from Persia ; he had brought also a 
number of Cotsaeans and Tapurians, because it was 
reported that these tribes were mott warlike of the 
tribet bordering on Persia. There joined him alto 
Phik>xenut with an army from Caria and Menander 
from Lydia bringing others, and Menkiat with the 
forcet of cavalry wbieh had been tenrtng under 
him. Fjnbattiet alto in the meantimr came from 
Greece, and their envoys, themtelvet crowned, came 
forward and crowned Alexander with golden crownt» 
at if they had come on a sacred embatty to honour 
tome god. And yet he wat not far from hit end. 

Then he commended the Persians for their en- 
thusiasm* In that they had in all things obeyed 
Peoeettat, and Peucestat himself too for his orderly 
gov ernm ent of them ; and he enrolled them into the 



B^KaSdffxv f^^ "f^ h^tedSos tjiyuadeu McurcS^Mi 
KoX M Toirr^ htfioipirfiv MtutMim tct^l jtca- 
ffrdrripop, oOrtf^ 6ifOual^6ftMP€9 Jiwh r^ lu^- 
$9^opas9 ^frriwa /i€40va fUp rov Btfioipirov, 
vXtMMi i^ tAp ovm 4p TtfAJi arpartvofUtmy 

ralow 1% 3c«^3of lf«««£oMi» htrnmordr^pa^ mmL 
roirroif ^ T t Ir T^ tiM^St ria^apmf fM Am$ 
MmaMpaKt roi^ >iiv r^wt? r^ fuaSo^pa wpov- 
yorr«f , rbi^ S^ r^ apX9 ''% ^o^of • ^mStxa Si 
fiip^at, roi^ Jiuh MoirmMif r^v wdrpiov 
twlaaiP JpwXtfffUpouSt tovv S^ Il^pa'ac roi^ /i^y 

wttpofTp, wpXKaX U IjpiAfv avT^ ritp rpitjpttp «ra« 
O0'a« Tffr/>f{pfic «aTik rov wmafutv Mypomo, xal 
af mm ritp r^ iptrim «al rmp Kvp€ptnfTmp ««1 
r r M — P i T«ir piKmprmp. 

Mit iardXjui ipi^ofUpivt iwttt Bifus ain^ 
Tifiap ' W^taTimpa* ol Bi m^ ^P^^ H^fjcap Sn 
B%mp Se/UK 6 ''Afifutp Tjyti. 'O Bi ^X^upi Tf t^ 
ufuntia /cal dvo lovit m9 ^pt»a iyipatoi, Kai 
KXtOfUptt, dplpl tcoM^ xal iroXXA diixiifiara 
il^fjo'ajrri ip Kiyvwrw, hnartWu iinaroXi^f' 
Kal ravrrjp rrj^ flip /? 'H^a«rTtWa icai diro» 
Oapopra ^tXia^ htxa ira) fjunjfirf^ ou fUfi^ofUU 
7 ^tryc* dXXMP Bi woWmp fptxa fUfi^oftai. 
'EXryc yitp 17 iirtcroXrf KaracxevaaOtjvai 'llf^ai- 
crimpi ^p^op ip *A\M(apBp€la rfj Aiytrmla, €v 
T€ rrj leoKti aurff teal ip T^ t^V^^ Tff ^dptp, 
ipa o vvpyo^ iariu 6 ip rfj »nj<r^, fji^tOti re 


NUcedooitti brigades; to that a Macedonian cor- 
poral of ten led each company, and besides him a 
Macedonian on double paj and a *' ten-stater " man, 
called to firom the paj, which is less than the men on 
double paj, but more than the rank and file not 
belonging to the Distinguished Service Order. 
Thenbesides these were twelve Persians and last of 
the section a Macedonian, he also a ** ten-stater " 
roan. In the section, therefore, there were four 
Macedonians, three of these 00 extra paj, and the 

orporal in charge of the seetkm, and twelve Persians ; 
the Maeednnians wearing thdr native equipment, 
and Hnt Perrians either archers or with javelins on 
leather thongs. 

Meanwhile Alexander exercised the fleet con- 
stantly, and there were many rivalries between the 
triremes and such quadriremes as were on the river ; 
and there were races between oarsmen and between 
helmsmen, and crowns for the victors. 

'Iliere came also from Amnion the special envors 
whom Alexander had sent to enquire how he ought 
in honour Hophaestion; they reported that Ammon 

ii'td that it was lawful to sacrifice to him as to a hero. 
Alexander was pleased with this oracle, and from 
he n ee fe rward honoured Ilephaestion as a hero. To 
Cleomenes, an evil man who had done many grievous 
wrongs in Egypt, he sent a letter; and with this 
letter, in regard to the affection shown for Hephaestion 
even in death and the recollection of him, I do not 
find any fault; but I do, for many other reasons. 
For the letter bade him build a hero's shrine for 
Hephaestion in Alexandreia of Egypt, both in the dty 
itself and in the LsUiul Pharos, where is the lantern 
tower in the bland; the shrine was to be in site 


fUyiarou^ teal troXtrrMXtia iKirpmiaramv' koX 
Swm^ liriKpaTTiajf tcaXtiffOai dwo 'H^ai<TTi«i'09, 
teal TOiv cvfiffoXaiot^ leaft ova oi Hfiwopot dXXfjXoi^ 
(vfiffaXXova-ip iyypd^cBairo Svofta *H^aiarlm- 

8 vof. Tavra ftiw ouk fx^ fLifiylfUffOat, irXi^v y€ 
5J^ 5ti oific iirl fitydXoi^ fitydXtt^ BitairovBd^rro' 
ixtufa Ik Kol wdwv fUfi^fuu, *i\v ydp icara- 
Xdffm iym, iXty^ rd ypdfA^ra, rd Upd rd iy 
Alyvwr^ gaXm kot taxttfa^iuva mak rd vp^ ^^ 
^H^aiCT import ff ri ri wpdrtpop ^fAaprrritca^, 
^i^M a€ rovrmp, xml rh Xotwop, dmfXUop dp 
dftdpfTjf^, oMp wtiawi if ifAov &x^P** 'Vovro 
dw^pX dp\opTi iroXXf)^ fih x^P^^> ^oXXiap hi 
dpupmrmp 4m /So^iX^W ftttydXov iirtcraX^pop, 
4D UUk t« «al neucif dpBpl, ovk ^xm iwaivicau 

ZXIV. *AXXA ^dp avr^ ^Si| *AXtfdpfy^ iyyift 
^p TO T«XoY. Kai T« Mai rotop^ ^pd tmv fitXXop- 
rmp arjfAffpat Xiyfi *Aptar6ffovXos* <raTaXo;^4ffii' 
fikp avTOP rtfp ffrpartkp rifp (vp Ilfi/ireVTf rf 4tc 
Iltpeitp KoX dwo BaXdccrj^ (vp ^iXo(ip^ ical 
MtpdpBp^ IJMovcap 4^ rd^ MaxtBoPitcd^ rd(€iv 
if^njaapra Bi dwoxt^priaai i* rrjs fSpa^ icara- 
XtwoPTa l^pfifiop TOP Bpopop TOP ffaalXMtov. 

S EZmu 6i xXipa^ UartpttOtP rou Bpopov dpyvpo- 
woSav, t^* &p oi dfi^* atnop halpoi 4/ca0fjpro, 
TAp TiPa ovp rffAtXrj^pttp d»0ponrmp, oi Bk ical 
rmp ip SvXaxi dB4vfA^ 6pra Xiyovatp, IfprjfWP 
iidtna TOP Opopop koX rd^ xXipa^, irtpl t^ dpop^ 
id iarrjicdTa^ rov^ tvpovyov^, icaX ydp teal oi 
draipoi (vpaptcr'^xrap r^ paaiXMi dwoxofpovpri, 
* 8o B. A haa ttiymrt and imwptwi^mrtt olaarlj fai 



exceedingly Urge, and remarkable for its costliness; 
and that he was to take care that the shrine be called 
bj the name of HephaestioD, and the name '* He- 
phaestion '* was to be inscribed on all contracts which 
merchants entered on with each other. This I 
cannot blame; except that Alexander showed great 
enthusiasm in no great matter. But I do blame this ; 
the letter ran : '* If I find these temples set in good 
order in Egjpty and these shrines of Hcphaestion, 
whatCTer wrong joa have hitherto done, I pardon it ; 
and for the future, howcTer great wrong joa may do, 
yoo shall receive no harm at my hands." This 
ortfimMfwl of a great king to a man who was set to 
rule a great country and a large popolatioo, and an 
ctA man, too, I am very (ar from appnnring. 

XXIV. But Alexander's own end was drawing 
near. Aristobolas says that something else threw 
a shadow before of the erents to come. He was 
distfibating the army whidi came with Peucestas 
from Persia and from the ocean with Phibxenus and 
Menander, into the Macedonian ranks ; and feeling 
thirsty he went away from the tribunal, leaving the 
royal throne untenanted. On either side of the 
tltfone were eonchet with silver feet, on which the 
Gxnpanlons in attendance on him used to sit. Some 
quite obseore person — tome say a prisoner, bat trader 
open arrest— saw the throne vacant and the couches, 
and the chamberlains standing roond about the 
throne — for the Companiont had retired when the 



BUXBovra 5i^ rwy <ui^i/;^wv avafiijvtd rt iwl top 
S Spopop teal xaOi^eadoi. Toi^ Si oinc avaarffa'at 
tiiv a\not» iic rov Opovov Kara 09 riva vofAOP 
lit pcucop, wtptppnfafUpov^ Si TinnMcBeu rd tc 
arrfifif xal rk irpoaonra to^ cVl iiryaX^ kom^, 
Tavra tt»9 ^^^rryi^ff *A\t(dpCp^t tc€\€WTai 
9rp€0\mOffPai Tor KoOLcavra^ ptjvorM if inri- 
povXtfi fvyrrraypivov roino ihpaoM ywitptu 
idiXoma, Top Si ovSip &k\o ifturtlp ot« firj 
^wl povp ol fkBop oOru wpafar j Brf xal fuiKKov 
iw* ovStA aytkB^ (vfAfifjvtu aur^ ol fiainu^ 
4 'HfUptu rw ov woWal M roCr^ iyipomo teal 
rtdvKit^ TOK ^foK yd^ re voiut^opiva^ dvela^ 
/irl fvfi^paU 6ya$a4^ Koi ripa^ tcai itc pamtia^ 
fUMX'^'''^ ^A^ ^^ ^'XMf Koi fwiPt woppti r&» 
WKtuw, AoDyoi hi Xiyrrtu xal r^ arpan^ Upua 
maX olrov marii Xo^ov^ ical ixaroarva^* *Air^ hi 
rov ifoTOv airrop pip dvaXXdrrtaOaA iSiXup hr\ 
KoiritPi tlaip 01 dp4ypa^ap' Mf'fiiop Si avrA 
hrtvxopra, ri»p rraipmp ip r^ tot« top iriBapti^ 
rarop^ StrjOffpai xttpdctu irapk ol' ytpiadcu ykp 

ibf ^SvP TOP KOfpOP. 

XXV. KaV oi paaCXtioi i^tfptplSt^ &S€ 
fyovar iriptip wapa Mf}Si^ ainop icmpdaapra* 
ewtira ifapcLordpra KaX Xouadfi4POP tcadtvStip 
TC Kol av$i^ S€iirp€ip irapk VitiSl^p koX atfBi^ 
wlpup woppm Twr pvicrinr diraXXax'Stvra hi rov 
worov XovcaaBtu* tcaX Xovadptpop oXiyop ri 
ipi^yeip ical icaOtvStiP airrov, ori rjSff ivvptaatp, 
t ^EtcKopiffStpra Si iirl KXipfj^ vpo^ rk ieph Ovaai 
M9 p6po<i €<ft* (/cdtTTrj fffjL€pa, tcai ra lepa tirtOevra 

ANAbA.-?!.^ or ALEXANDER, VII. 24. 2-25. 2 

King did — passed through the rank of chsmberUins, 
ascended and sat upon the throne. They did not 
indeed— owing to some Persian custom — drag him 
off the throne, but rending their garments began to 
beat themselves on their breasts imd faces as if some 
terrible disaster had happened. When Alexander 
learnt this, he ordered the man who had sat on the 
throne to be tortured, desiring to know if perchance 
he had done this by some set arrangement, of the 
nature of some pk>t. He would only say that the 
klea had come to him to do so; and for this the 
seers aU the mofe prophesied that what had happened 
meant some great harm. 

Not many days afterwards, Alexander had offered 
to the gods eostomary sacrifices in thanln for good 
fortune, as well as some in oonteooenoe of the seert' 
advice, and was feasting with his mends and drinkii^ 
late into the night* It is said that he also gave victims 
to sacrifice to the armv, and wine, by their sections 
and centuries. Some have recorded that he desired 
to leave the carouse and retire to his bedroom ; but 
that Mediiw, one of bb most trusted Companions at 
that time, met him and asked him to come and take 
wine with himself; for it would be a merry party. 

XXV. And indeed the roral diaries have it this 
wav, that he drank and made merry with Medius ; 
:ind then having arisen and bathed, went to sleep, 
and afterwards dined with Medius, and again drank 
till late in the night; and then brealdng off from the 
carouse bathed ; and after l>athing ate a little and 
>ilept just where he was, the fever b«ing already upon 
him. However, he was carried forth on a litter each 
(lay to his religious duties and sacrificed aAcr his 
usual custom; after performing these sacrifices he 



icaTaKticOai ip r^ avhpwn tare iwl icvi^a^, 
ISjf rovTfp Si T0I9 ffytfioai napayyiWup inrkp 
rfj^ noptia^ xal tov irXov, rov9 ftip m^ wfff]$ 
lopra^ vapaaicfvdt^taBai h rrraprtip ^fjpop, 
rov^ W &fUk ol irXgoma^ ok €49 irrfjLimjp irX«v- 

3 cofUvov^. *Ejc€W€p Ik icaraxofuaOfjpai ^ir2 7% 
icXlpffs tt»9 ^irl TOP irorafiop, Koi wXoiov iwiffdpra 
BiawXtvaai iripap rov norafiov i^ top irapd" 
Bttaop, xoMti avOi^ Xovcdfupop dpavaviaOai, 
*Ec Bk Tfjp vvTtpaiap Xovaa^Bai tm uvSk teal 
Bvctu Tk pofut^ofupa' xal c/c rrfp tcafidpop §iat\r 
Oopra tcaroMticOai hiafAvBoKoyowna vpo^ M tfSiop* 
woDOffytTKai Ik xal roU ^tfioctP awaprrj^ai 

4 SmitP. Taura irp4i(<urra Scurr^oi iXiyop* 
KOfuaBhna hi avBi^ i^ rtfp maftdpap wvpiaaup 
i^iff (up€x^ T^v PVKTa iXffp* r^ Bk virrtpaia 
XovcncBai icaX Xovedfiitt'OP Bvatu, Nca^M 04 
xal roU d\Xo*9 fjytfioai wapaYyttXai t^ a^u^l 
TOP irXoup ^i»9 IfcTot €9 TpiTtjp fjfUpap, TJ Si 
vargpeu^ XovaaaBtu avBi^ /cal Bvaai Tk TtTay- 
fUpo, icoi T^ ttpa iiriBima ovxtTi ikipvtip 
wvpiaaopTa, 'AXX^ xal &9 tov^ tj^tfiopa^ tia- 
KokicapTa iraparfyiXKtip Tk rrpo^ top itcirXovv 
iwm^ avT^ iaTa$ froipA' \ovaaaBai t« iwl r^ 

6 iawipa, xal XotHrdfUvop <t\€^p rfirf tctucSt^* T$ 
hk vcTtpata fi€TaKOfii<r0tjtf(u ^9 Trjp oixlap Ttfp 
wpo^ T^ KoXvp^rfipa KoX Bwr(U fUP Tk Teray- 
fjjpa, e^oPTa Bi iropijp^^ 6p>9^ ia/caXiaai tS>p 
ffyep,6pc0P Tov^ ivuceupOTdTov^ col inrtp tov ttXov 
avBi^ irapayyiXXfiP. TJ Bi itriovarj fwyt^ 
iKKOfuaBrjpat irpo^ Tk Upk koX Bvaai, xal fiTjBip 
fUiOP €Ti irapaYyiXXtiP vrrtp tov ttXov toU 


lay down in the men's apartments till dark. Mean- 
while he instructed the officers as to the march and 
the voyage, the one to prepare to march three days 
later, and the others, who would sail with him, to 
sail on the fourth day from then. And thence he was 
carried on his mattress to the river, and embarking 
on a boat sailed acrott the river to the garden, and 
there again bathed and rested. Next day again he 
bathed and offered the usual sacriScct ; then entering 
hit loom lay down, talking to Medios ; and bade his 
oflkeri meet him next momliig early. Then be 
dined lightly ; and being carried again to his room 
remained in high fever the whole night ; next day he 
bathed, and after bathing, lacrificed. Then he 
explained to Nearchus and the other officers all about 
the voyage, and how it was to be conducted, three 
days thence. Next day he bathed again, and 
sacrificed the appointed sacrifices, and after sacrific- 
iog con t i nue d in constant fever. Yet even so he 
sammooed tbeoficen and bade them see that all was 
ready for the voyage ; he bathed in the evening, and 
after bathing was now very ill. But next day he was 
carried again to the house near the bathing place, 
and sacrificed the appointed sacrifices, and ill though 
he was, yet summoned the chief of his officers and 
again instructed them about the voyage. Next day 
he just contrived to be carried oat to the sacrifices, 
and offered them, and yet still continued inttrocting 



f)(Ovra o/Aft>v Ovaai ra rtrayfUua. TlapayjtiKat 
B^ rov^ fi4v CTparffyoi/^ iiarpiffnp tear a r^v 
avXfjy, X^'^PX^^ ^ '^ ^^praKoaidpxa^ vpo 
r&¥ Svpwv. ''HBff Bi wamdvtun wotnjpm^ iyovra 
ttaicofuaBrivai tie rov irapaBtiaou i^ ri ffaaiktia. 
EiatXBoprttp Bi tmv ffytfioimp ypAptu fikp avroik, 
^pf)aai Bi fiffB^P fri, dXX* cZmu ipavBop' icaX 
Tt)p PVKTa wvpiaaup KtucSt^ koX rrjp ^/iipap, xal 
r^p &\\tjp pvxra koX rtjp tjfUpop, 

XXVI. OuTMV ip raU i^^fi^plat raU /So^i- 
XtUH^ dpay4ypawrah teal M rovrot^ 5t« oi 
CTparMtrtu iw60ffuap iB€iP a\n6p» oi fUP, ak 
{c#rra irt iBoitP* oi B4, on rtSmjKipai ^5i| 
if»yy7/XX«To, iirixpvwrtaBtu Bi avrov irowafop 
wpo^ TMy atafuiTO^v\dM0»p top Bdparop, m9 Hytityt 
Boiem* Tov^ woWov^ Bi vwh whfBov^ icaX iroBov 
rov fiaaiXitt^ ff^dcaaBai iB§tp *AKi(apBpop. Top 
Bk d^POP fUP filial Xi^ovc^ jrapatroptvofAiptf^ 
rrj^ arparia^' BtfioiHrdai Bk xtu ^ ixdarovs ri/y 
TC Kt^Pakrjp ivalpopra fiirfi^ ical roip 6<pda\fLOiP 
iiriarj^aipopra, Aiyoi/ai Bi ai i^fifA4piB€^ ai 
ffaaiXeioi tp rov iapdwiBo^ r^ itp^ lltlSwpd 
T« iyieotfiyfOipTa xai "AttoXoi^ icaX ^iffux^wpra 
iroi UiVKiarop, wpo^ Bi KXtOfUprjp re xal 
MepiBop Kol l.iXtvKOP, iTrtpiorop top dtop 
ti X^op gal afietpop * AXe^dpBp^ €19 t^ i€p6i^ rov 
Otov KopuaBitna icai ixerfiKravra OtpairtvtaOai 
TTpo^ rov Otov' xai yevtadcu i^i^firjv ripk iie rov 
0€ov fit) KOfii^eaOtu CiV to iipop^ aXX* avrov 
fupopri iatcBcu dfutpop. Tavrd t drrayytZKai 
roiK eraipov^ naX * AXefavBpop ov -rroXv Cartpop 


hk officers about the voyage. Next day also, being 
now quite ill, he yet offered the usual sacrifices. He 
ordered, however, the generals to wait in the court, 
and the commanders of thouandt and half thousands 
to wait before the doors, and now being altogether 
ill he was carried from the garden to the palace. 
When the officers came in he knew them, but no 
bnger spoke, but remained speechless. All the 
night be was in high fever, and all day, and the next 
night and day also. 

XXVI. All this U written in the royal diaries ; and 
then that his sokliers longed to see him, tome, that 
they might see Urn still i^Ehre, and others since there 
was a report that he was already dead, beeanse tiiey 
snspeeted that his death was being concealed by the 
bodyguards — at least so I think; and most from 
grief and hM^ing for their King pressed fai to see 
Alexander. They say that he was already speechless as 
the army filed past ; yet he greeted one and all, raising 
his head, though with diflkulty, and signing to them 
with his eyes. And the royal diaries say that in the 

'•mple of Serapis an all-night vigil was kept by Peithoo, 
Attalus, Demophon and Peucestas, with Clcomcnes, 
Menidas, and Seleucus, enquiring of the god whether 

t would be better for Alexander to be brought into 
ihe temple of the god and after prayer to be healed 
by the god; but that an oracle was given from the 
god that he should not be brought into the temple, 
but that it woukl be better for him if he abode where 
he was. This the Companions announced; and 
Alexander shortly afterwards breathed his last; 



aito$a9W, m Toxno dpa H^ 6^ to J[/i«iyor. 
Oif woppm S^ rovrmtf ovrt *Agiaro0ov\m 0^9 
nroXc^uii^f Ju^yiypawreu, Oi Bk xai raSc 
Mypa^€L», ipiaOeu ftkp rov^ haipou^ ainhv 
irm rtjp fiaaCKtiav atroKtiirtt, ro¥ Bi airo- 
KpumaOcu 5ti t^ Kpaticr^* oi £c, irpoa$%l¥ai 
weUfi ToiTTM TM Xoyot OTi iktrfOif hntd^iov a y mfa 
opfjt^ avrm^tffOfUPOP, 

XXVn. hoXXa aa irai SXXa oUa J^yrypaf^ 
ftipa vwip r^ *AXt(apBpov TiXiintf^, xal ^dpfjui* 
KO¥ in iwifi/^Otf wap^ *Kimirdrpov *K\t^d»hp(p 
KoX iic Tov ^pfioMOv OTi dwi0ap€* tcai to (pdp- 
fiaxov 6ri * ApiCToriXff^ fUP ^AvTurdrpip i^€vp€, 
MoMcoK ^3i| *A\i(apBpow KaXKtaOtpov^ ivtica, 
KdeopBpo^ i^ 6 ^Airnwdrpou iic6fuc€v* oi 5e ico^ 
5ti ip ^fuopov oirX^ iMOfuat xal rotrro avtrfpa^atf, 

S AoOyai 5^ a\no *JoXXai' tov <iS«X^oy toO Kao-ov- 
3^v ror Pttintpop* cImh 70^ otVo;^ooi' PaciKtKOP 
TOP 'JoXXoy /rai t« «al XcXtrrr^^ai 7r/>o^ *AX«f- 
dpBpov ikiy^ vpoaBtP t^^ T<X«irrr}^' 01 5tf icai 
MifScoy fieraaxt^ toD Kpyov, ipaarfjp Spra tov 
*l6\\a' Ka\ avTOP yap tipai top €i<rrjyifTffp 7«vo- 
fufop *A\((dpBp^ tov ictafiov' oBvvTjp t€ avr^ 
^Trl TJ icvXnct y^Ptadai h^tiavt koX iirX tj oBvvrj 

3 dwaWayrjpiu i^ tov ttotov. "Hhij hi Ti9 ovk yc' 
yMfj dvaypdy^ai oti aiadofitpo^ ov ffidxrifiop 
6pTa avTOP A\i(apBpo^ is top Kv^paTTfv troTaphp 
jfei ifi0a\&p, 1^ d<Paprjs iP dpOptairoap y€p6fi€P0S 
inaTOTtpap ttjp ho^ap trapa to*9 eir€iTa iyicaTa- 
XeifToi oTi iic Oeov t« avT^ ^ ytvtais (vpeffrj xal 
wapa Ocovs v diroyutpriais, 'Puf^difrjv Be ttjp 
yvpauca ov XaOeip efiorra, dXXA eipyopMPOP y^p 



this, after aQ, being the '* better " thing. Beyond 
thitneither Ptolemaeusnor Aristobulus have recorded. 
Some, however, recorded that his Companions asked 
him to whom he left his kingdom; and he replied, 
" to the best "; others relate that he added to this, 
that be saw that there would be a great funeral 
ooDtett on hb death. 

XXVII. I am aware, of coarse, that there have 
been many other details reeorded of Alexander s 
death ; for instance, that Antipater sent him a drug, 
and that he died of this drug; and that Aristotle 
made up this drug for Antipater, already fearing 
Alexander on account of Callisthencs' death ; and 
that Casander, Antipater 's son, brought it. Others 
hare even said that it was conveyed in a mule's hoof, 
•nd that lollas, Casander *s younger brother, gave it 
to Alexander; Ibr that lollas was the royal cup- 
bearer, and had some grievance against Alexander 
not long before his death ; others again that Medins 
had some hand in the bnsincw, from an infatuatkxi 
for lolUs; for it was Medios who suggested to 
Alexander the drinklng^boat ; and that Alexander 
had a sharp feeling of pain after quaffing the cup ; 
and on feeling this he retired from the carouse. 
One writer has not even shrunk from the statement 
that Alexander, perceiving that he could not survive, 
went to throw himself into the Euphrates, so that he 
might d isap pe a r from the world and leave behind the 
tradition more eredible to posterity that his birth was 
of the gods and that to the gods he passed ; but 
Roxane his wife saw that he was going out, and when 



Spa atrrA Sofrj^ rtj^ ^ iwatf, ^ $€^ ^ ftytttff- 
fUp^. Kal raura ifMoX m^ fi^ iypotlp oofaifAi 
fiaXXov 5t« XtyofMtpd iartp ^ m iriaT^ i^ 

XXVIII. *Er€\0vra fihf ^ ^AXifavhpa^ t§ 
rtrdprrri koX h^Ktirti Koi ixaroc^^ OXvfiir$du 
htl *\{yfi<Tiov apxorro^ *AOtjtnf^itr ifiU» hi hvo 
KoX rfHOMOpra frty leal rov rpirov fifjpa^ iirikafi€v 
omrm, M9 X^TCi * AptoToBovXo^* 40aaik€vc9 tk 
hmh€Ka (hti KoX Tovv oxtm rovrov^ ^rjva^, to t€ 
amfAa xaXXiora^ xal ^iXowovmraro^ ical ofirraro^ 
r^y yvrnfLffp y€y6fA€p<K teal dp6p€i6raTO^ xdi 

JikmtfAoraro^ col ^XoMtpSvporaro^ xai rov 
tiov iwifiMXiararo^' ffiopiȴ hi twv fuv rov 
amfiaro^ iyKpariararo^, rStv hi r^ yvwftris 
iwaipov ficpov awXtfcroraro^' fvpthtip hi ro hiov 
fri ip r^ dSaptl 6p httforaro^t teal ix riap 
^tupofiipmp ro tUo^ (vfifiaXttp ^iriTi/j^caraTCK, 
Kol rd^ai crpartap mal ovXLaai Tt koX /coafirjaai 
hattiutpiararo^' icaX rop Svfiop roi^ rrparimrai^ 
htapai KoX iXwihmp h'foBiap i^wXfjaai zeal ro helfui 
ip roU KUfhvpoi^ r^ <&6«€t t^ avrov d^opiaatt (vfi- 
t wapra ravra ytppmoraro^, Kol ovp teal haa iv 
r^ a^aptl wpifai, (vp fjLtyiar^ Bdpau htpa^' 
Saa re ^daa^ v^aprwdaat rStp woXtfAUtP, rrplp 
teal h€i(rai rtpa avrk m^ ia6fi€pa, w poXa ffiip 
heivoraro^' teal ra flip fvvrtBivra ^ ofUjiXoytf' 
$€Pra ^vXd^ai ffiffatoraro^, irpo^ hi rS)v i^aira- 
rmprmp fit) dXoivai da^dXicraro^- yprjfidTtov hi 
H flip ^hop^^ T^9 avrov <^iih<aXoraro^, i^ hi 
tvwoUap Ttfv vAa? d^Oopdnaro^. 



she prevented him he cried aloud that she then 
grudged him everlasting fame as having been truly 
bom a god. This must suffice of stories ; rather that 
I may show that I know of them than because they 
are narratives worthy of belief. 

XXVI H. Alexander died in the hundred and four- 
teenth Olympiad, in the archonship at Athens of 
Hegesias. He lived thirty-two years and eight 
months, as Aristobulus says ; he reigned twelve years 
and the aforetaid eight months. In body he was 
very handsome, a great lover of hardships ; of much 
shrewdneM, most ooarageoas, most lealous for honour 
and danger, and moat careful of religion ; moat tem- 
perate in bodily pleasure, but as for p1ra«(ures of the 
mind, insatiable of glory alone ; most brilliant toselie 
on the right course of actioo, even where all was 
obscure ; and where all was clear, moat happy in his 
conjectures of likelihood ; moat maateriy in marshal- 
ling an army , arming and equipping it ; and in uplifting 
his sokliers' spiriU and filling them with good hopes, 
and brushing away anything fearful in dangers by 
his own want of fear — in all this most noble. And 
all tiiat had to be done in uncertainty he dkl with 
the utmost daring; he was moat skilled in swift 
anticipation and gripping of hia enemy before any- 
one had time to fear the event ; be was moat reliable 
in keeping promises or agreement ; most guarded in 
not bdng trapped by the fraudulent ; very sparing 
of money fbr his own pleasure, but moat generous in 
benefits of others. 


XXIX. E* B4^ ri iffXti^iUkTfifj *A\€(apBpf 
V o(vTtfra ^ inr' opyif^, tj §1 ti i^ ro inrMpoytco- 
Ttpop vpo^X^fi fiapfiapiceu, ov fuydXa ridt^uu 
tfmy€, ti rrjp iforr/Ttt rt T49 rrfv *A\((avBpov 
Itil oprwuitci*^ Mvf/LtjOtlfi teal to Bitj^tKi^ t^ 
cvTVYUif iroi Toif^ vpo^ ifSoyffp ovM iwl r^ 
0€\riar^ roU fiaaiXtvai (vpoma^ t« teal iwl 
tcaM^ (uytffOfUpovs* aXKk fitrayptavai yt i^* oU 
hrXfififUKriaM fiopf olBa rmp woKoi ffaatXittw 

S *A\t^apfy^ inrdp^tu vw^ 7«yy€UOTifro9. Oi hi 
woKKoit m moL t« ffpmaap w\fffAfAt\jiaairr§%, oi 
hi Tf» wpefffyopthf airrov, ak xaXc^ hif wpax' 
Ohnoi, hriMpvyjrftp otomeu rtjp afutprriav, xa^A^ 
yiypma KOtnt^, Momj yap l/ioiyf &>«€i laai^ 
afioprrias ottoXoyth* rt aftaprotna xal tijjXov tl¥€u 
iw* aimi fitrayiytit^Moma, m^ roU waBoOai ti 
^[va/M ov irdpTtj ;^aX€ir^ t^ waOtjfAaTa ^aiv6fi4va, 
u 6 hpdaa% axrrk (vyx^poifj on ov ledXii Upa^tP, 
avr^ ri tiw i^ ro fUiXov ravrriv iXwlha aya$rfv 
irwoXtnrofUtnjp, /417 vort Ay wapairXi^<rt6v t« 
i^taprtw, ti roU wpoaBty vXtfufAtXtfOtiatv axBo- 

S /leMK 4>ai¥Oiro, *0r^ hi i^ $tO¥ rifv yivtaiv rtjp 
airrov avi^ptv, ovU rovro iftol hoKtl fiiya tlvai 
avrm ro vXtjfAfUXrjfia, ti fit) ical aoi^iTfta ^v 
rv^op i^ Tov^ {/rrtjicoov^ rov atfivov fytxa, 
Oi^«ow hoxtl ifiovyt ^ Mi'ywof ytviaBai paciXtv^ 
iv^tufiartpo^ ^ \itucov ^ 'PoBafidvOtfo^' oU hij 
^ £kia a»tvt\Btlca 4i yivtci^ rrpo^ rStP irdXai 
hfOomirtnf ovhtfita avr&v Cfipti rrpoa-riOtrar 
ovhi SifO'^tM rov UoctiBcivo^ ovBi 'lotvo^ rov 

4 ^AfToXXwo^. 'fi^ €fioty€ teal rf Utpci/crj a/cevt) 
co^Cfia hoKti tipoi rrpo^ rt rov^ ffapffdpov^t 



XXIX. If, however, Alexandflr committed mny 
error through hiiste or in anger, or if he went some 
diifncc in the direction of Eastern arrogance, this I 
do not regard as important ; if readers will consider 
in a spirit of charity Alexander's joath, his mibroken 
success, and those courtiers who associate with kings 
to flatter but not to improve them, and who alwajrs 
win so associate with Idngs to their harm. But I 
do know that to Alexander akme of the kings of 
old did repentance for his faults come, by reasoo 
of his noble nature; while most people, if they 
have admitted any error, by defending their mis- 
deed, as if it were a good deed, think that they will 
conceal their error; and this is a great mistake. 
For I at least feel that the only core for sin is a con- 
fession of sin and evidence of repentance, since the 
offended party will not feci the offences so grievous 
if the offender agrees that he did not well ; and for 
the man himself this good hope is left behind for the 
future, that he will not so offend again if he appear 
grieved at the errors of the past. But that he 
r e f e r re d his birth to a god, even this I do not alto- 
gether think to be a grave fault, if it was not per- 
haps a mere device to impress his subjects, and to 
appear more dignified. In point of fact I hold him 
no less famous a Idng than Minos, Aeacus, or Bada- 
manthos ; they traced their origin bade to Zeus, and 
yet this was not associated by men of old with any 
arrogance ; nor yet Theseus' descent from Poseidon, 
nor Ion's from ApoUo. Moreover, I feel that the 
adoption of Persian equipage was a device, both 



m^ fi^ irdtmf aWorpiov avrw ^cutf^aBoA row 
fiaciXia, maX wpo^ rov^ MoMthoPU/i, m airo- 
arpo^i^p rtva thai airr^ «hr^ r^ 6fvrf)ro^ 
Tff ttal vpp4ta^ Ttf^ MoMOVMr^* ^^* St^ hfi 
KoX tytcaTafufai /mm So««i ral^ Taftap atnAp 
Tovv Uipca^ Tovf fifiXa^pou^ Mai roU aytj/ia^i 
rov? oficriftov^, Kal ol woroi B4, a>9 Xiyfi 
*AiM0To/3ovXiK, ov rou otpov hfixa futtcpol avrft 
iyiyvomot o^ *fkp wipttp woXvp olvop *A\i^ 
€Ufigotf, iXhA ^tXo^poavprj^ rfj^ A* tov9 haipov^, 

/tMfOtf Saa d(ia KaMiftaOai ion wpoc^pofiMPo^ 
MMMMm, aXXA (vfAwapra 'AXtfdpBpov fft9 ^p 

TC iW avrht maX iwoia rvxff /rc^^/uyo^ oprtva 
a90pmw(mff iXBotrra, ffaciXia rt dfi^lv ralp 

^wupoip apa^^Xaydnara ytvofitpop ical iwl irw 
i^iKopMPOP T^ ainov opofiari, teaKifti fffuiepo' 
Ttpos yt &p ainos xal iirl a^uxpoU nopovfupos 
t teal ovBi ravra ip miaftm rMfitPOS, 'fls fy^yt 
hoicct Sri oOr€ Ti KBpof owBpiirrMP ovrt ris iroXis 
4p t^ totc V oiht TK tU &p6pmiros, ciV hp ov 
vit^orrt;«€i to *A\t(dpBpov Spofia, Ovieovp ovS* 
ifuH I(m toO BtUw ^upai &p Bo/cet dvtjp ovhtpl 
UXkif dp$pwwMP ioixdfs. KaX ravra yprjafioi 
Tf ^larj/iffpai hrl tJ rtXtxrr^ rov *A\t^dphpov 
Xiyoprai xal ^anara &XKa &\\ois ytpofiepa 
Kal ipvwpia ^phna dXXa &XXots, teal 17 is 
rouro if dpOpwtrmp rtfiri rt ainov xal f^i^f^l 
ovK apBpmiriPff ovtra, xal pvp Bk BiiL rocovrov 



towards the PenUms, so that their King might not 
appear wholly removed from them, and towards the 
Macedonians, to mark tome reversion from Mace- 
donian abniptneas and arrocance; for the same 
reason, I suspect, he drafted into their ranks the 
Persian troops who carried the ''golden apples," 
and the Perrian nobles into their cavalry squiidrons. 
And his caroosings, as Aristobulos says, were pro- 
lonced not for the wine, for Alexander was no wine- 
bibber, but firom a spirit of comradeship. 

XXX. Whosoever speaks evil of Alexander, let 
him speak snch evil, not merely bv producing what 
detervct evil-speaking, but gatnoring all that 
Aleiander did into a single w£>le ; let such a one 
con rid er first himself, his own personality, his own 
fortunes, and then 00 the other hand Alexander, 
what he beeame, and the height of homan pro s pe ri ty 
which he reached, having made himself king, bejrond 
all contradiction, of both continents, and having 
spread his fame over the widest possible span ; let 
such a one, I say, consider of whom he speaks evil ; 
himself being more puny, and busied about puny 
things, and not even bringing these to success. For 
I myself believe that there was at that time no race 
of mankind, no dty, no single individual, whither the 
name of Alexander had not reached. And so not 
even I can suppose that a man quite beyond all other 
men was bom without some divine influence. More- 
over, oracles are said to have prophesied Alexander s 
death, and visions coming to different persons, and 
dreams, dreamed by different persons; there was 
also the general regard of manirind leading to this 
same eonduskm, mad the menBory of one more than 
human ; and even now there are other oracles, after 



ipyw¥, dXX' avTow •vt *A\4^vhpo¥ ovtc alaxv- 
wofuu OavfAa(»v ra Si fpy^ iieupa itcuKiaa 

Tiko^ rrj^ (vyypa^rj^ imw *AXt(afBpou Ifpytay, 



this great gmp of time, which have been delivered to 
the Macedonian race, and all tending to the highest 
estimation of him. True it is that I myself have 
quarrelled with certain acts in my history of Alex- 
ander's deeds, but I am bold to admire Alexander 
himself; and those acts I blamed, both for the sake 
of my veracity, and also for the general benefit of 
mankind ; and that is why I mrself too took up this 
history, not without the help of God. 

[End of the History or Alsxandba«] 





L T^ Sfm *Ii^u irarafiov r^ wp^ ieirip^p 

I^T« M rhm wtna^oif Km^rfva Waraicfipol teal 

t 'Aaaajn^rol, 90P€a *lpBiMa, iwoixiovaty, *AXX* 

otrrt /AT/oXo* T^ emfiara^ xardirtp oi imo^ rov 

*\vhov miciaiUpoi, oCrt ayaOol mcavrt^^ rhv Bufihp, 

3 O^TOi iraXai fUv * KacvpiotaKv vmJKOot ^aif 
M B^ Miy^oi^i Ilf/)^tf«*y ifKovov, xal ^opov^ 
airi^pop Kvp^ r^ Ka/Affvatm iit rtfi ytj^ c^&v, 

«y^ TMr *lpluir rvyop flip ical 'EWi^p^p, Saa 
awofiaxoi ^vtup iyipmno i» roiai woXdtioiaiv 
oCcripa^ ir/i09 *lySov9 ^opvcos iwoXtfuj^M' 
6 Tvxop ^ «al tAp hrtXbtpUtp rov^ iSiXopra^ 
r 04 7 IP *EXX>;a4 avp^urt rrfp rt yt^pfP livaaiffp 
mpofiaatp arro rov 6p€o^ t»/^ Nwriy^ Aiowo-CK, 

6 Koi rrjp voXiP avrrfp NCaay. Kal to ^/mk to 
w/>09 Tp woXit arov ip r^ip vv»p€irj<rtp attciffrai 
^ Nvaa, M*7po« kXfft^erai iwl rj cvp/^opv jriPt 

7 i\jpri<raTO tiSv^ ytpofitpo^' Taina ph oi iroiyj- 
rai itrl ^topva^ iwoitfaap* teal i(rty€i<r0a>p aink 

8 Sco* yJrfiot 'EXX171WF ^ ffapffdpofv. *Ep 'Ao*- 
o'airi7VOiO'i 5^ Maffffaxa, 7roXi9 /xryaXi;, TvaTrep 
icai TO Kpdro^ rfj^ 7^ ^<rTi t^ ^Aatrafclt]^* teal 





I. All the territorj that Uet west of the river 
Indus up to the river Cophen it inhabited by Asta- 
eentoM and Attaeeniam, Indian trfbet. But they 
are not, like the Indians dwelling within the river 
Indus, tall of stature, nor similarly brave in spirit, nor 
as black as the greater part of the Indians. Tliese 
k>ng a^ were siu>ject to the Assjrrians ; then to the 
Medet, and so thej became subject to the Persiant ; 
and they paid tribute to Cynit ton of Cambytet 
ftom thtdr territory, at Cyms commanded. The 
Nvtaeans are not an Indian race ; bat part of those 
who came with Diooytnt to India ; possibly even of 
those Greeks who became past service in the wars 
which Dionysus waged with Indians; possibly also 
volunteers of the ne^hbouring tribes whom Dionysus 
settled there toffether with the Greeks, calling the 
rountrr Nysaea mrni the mountain Nysa, and the city 
taelf Nysa. And the mountain near the dty, on 
whose foothills Nysa is built, is called Mcrus > 
because of the incident at Dionysus' birth. All this 
the poets sang about Dionysus ; and I leave it to the 
narrators of Greek or Eastern history to recount 
them. Among the Assacenians is Massaca, a great 
dty, where resides the chief authority of the Assadan 

> A thigh. 


4fXXi7 iroXif HtvKiXa, fieyaXri tcai a^ni, ov 
funep^v rov *lphov. Tavra fUp lfo> rov *IySou 
worra/Aov t^icrai wpa^ icw ip fgw iart iirl rov 

11, Tk tk airh rov 'Ii^SoO wpH^ #a*, rovrojUH t^rw 

4 rmf *Iv5«*v yfi, koX *\who\ ovro^ tartoaav. 

O/wi ^ 7% *Ii^«iy 7^ irpo^ fiiv 0op4tct avifiov 

5 o Tavpo^ ro Spc^, KaXitrtu hk ov Tavpo^ in 
^^ "^V yv ^**^^V' <>^^* ^apX^^* ^ Tavpo^ airo 
0a\a^9fi^ rtfi xark Ila/i^yXot/v Tt ital AvxlffP 
«al KiXnca^' itapmruvti rt icr^ r^y wpoi Xw 

3 BaKaaaoM, r4fUfmp r^ *Aaifjv waaav' AXXff 5^ 
SWo xaXUrtu rh Spo^, rj fiiP Tlapawdfuao^, rji 
Zk *H/i«Sof* ikXn Bi "Ifioow xXfiifiTM, Mul rvyov 

4 SKka c«l XXXa l;^fi ovvofiara' MomMm^ M oi 
^vr * AXtf drBp^ rrpartvcatnt^ KavKaaov avro 
ixaXtop' SXXop rovrop KavKoaop^ ov rop l^V" 
Butop* mi nal rk hrigtipa rov Kavxa^ov \6yop 

6 marix*^ ^* ^XBtP *A\i(apBpo^, TA xp09 
icwiptfp ^ 7^ *lirMir y^ o rrorafio^ o *Iv6o9 
«hrfip7ffi lore ^xl r^y fuydKtfP Bdkaaaop, ipair€p 
avro^ mark hvo aropara iicBi^l, ov avptx^tt 
iXKijXotai rk aropara, icardvtp rk w4prt rov 

"larpov iarX aw^xta' aXX' ck T<i rov NctXov. 
wiro T«i» TO dcXra iroiirrai ro Aiyvrrnov, &hi 
T4 iral [to]* t^ *\vli»v y^ AcXra rroiUi 6 'l*'5o9 
irora/io^, ov fMiby toO Aiyvrrriov ical rovro 

7 IlaTTaXa TJ *li^Bt»p '>/>Mca^ icaKirrai. Th hk 
wpo^ porov y€ apt^xov xal fuarffiffpltf^ avrif ^ 
p/tyd\ii BdXaaaa dvilpyti rf)p *Iv5iuy yfjp, xal 


VIII. (INDICA) I. 8-a. 7 

land ; and another dtj Peuccla, this also a great citj, 
not far from the Indus. These places then are 
inhabited on this side of the Indus towards the west, 
as far as the river G>phen. 

II. But the parts firom the Indus eastward, these 
I shall call IndU, and its inhabitants Indians. The 
boimdary of the land of India towards the north is 
Mount Taurus. It is not still called Taurus in this 
land ; but Taoms begfais from the sea oYcr against 
Pamphylia and Ljda and CiUda; and reaches as 
far as the Eastern Ocean, running right across Asia. 
But the mountain has different names in different 
places; in one, Parapamisus, in another Emodus; 
elsewhere it is called Imaoo, and perhaps has all sorts 
of other names ; but the Macedonians who fought 
with Alexander called it Caucasus; another Caucasus, 
that b, not the Scjthian ; so that the story ran that 
Alexander came even to the far side of the Caucasus. 
The we st e r n part of India is bounded by the rivar 
Indus right down to the ocean, where the rirer runs 
out by two mouths, not joined together as are the 
five mouths of the Ister ; but like those of the Nile, 
by which the Egyptian delta is formed ; thus also the 
Indian delta Is formed by the river Indus, not less 
than the Eg3rptian ; and this in the Indian tongue is 
called Pattala.' Towards the south this ocean 
bounds the land of India, and eastward the sea itself 
> Tha SaiKkfii for ''laaf *' Is PaUla. 


irpof ftMcrjfiffpiff^ Mara HdrraXd rt xal rov 
*\p^v ra^ €mJ3o\A^ ^Oi) wpa^ t§ *A\t(dvhpov 
/ral MoMtBotfUP xal woWi^w 'CXXi^i^mv* ri^ B^ 
irpo9 l»» *AXi(at^Bpo^ fU¥ ovx iirijXOt To^f wp6cm 
9 worafiov 'T^Viof. *OXi70i Si dviypayftav t^ 
/*€y^ wpraiioi) FaTTfM xai &a roO Fayvfo* ai 
kxpoXai ttai V0X19 TlaXifi0o$pa /AryiOTi; Ii^Sttiv 

III. Efioi M *E^To^^tyi7« o Ki/^vaAO^ irioTO* 
T«^ IXXov loTM. ^1 yrj^ wtpiolov irip* ifUktv 

S *EpaTo^cvfi. OvTO« axo roi; 5/M09 rov Tavpov, 
liHi rov *l9^i; ai vifyal. va/i* avroi^ *Iy5^y 
worttfAOP iotm Hart iirl rtfp firfaXf/p BoKaccav 
nai rov *\vhov rk^ ixffoXk^ fwpiov^ vraBiov^ teal 
rpiaxiXiov^ rfj¥ wXtvfnj¥ Xryci hriyt^ t^ 7^ 

S T^ X^l^w, Tavn^cX hi umiwopow wXtvprjp 
vWfi T^i^ ^ir^ rov avrov 6p€o^ wapk r^v ii^tjp 
Odkacaap, ovxirt ravrff rj irXtvpp tanip, dWk 
AcyNfy ykp dpi^^tp M fuya ciVm «k to wtXayo^, 
it rpi^i\iouf w^miBlov^ fidXicra dpartivovaav 
T^ iMpvip* ttff itw &9 awry 17 rrXtvprj Tf}v ^IpBcaif 
«m wpo^ h fivpiov^ xal tffa«iayiXiow araBlovs 
iwixovaa' rovro fUP avr^ irXaro^ rSjt 'Ii^w 

4 yrj^ avfiffaiPU, M^(K 5< to a^* iaviprj^ iirl 
im I^Tf /MV M rrjp noXtv WaXlfifioBpa, fitfitrprj- 
fUpop a^oiVoio'i Xiyei dvaypd^ip' icai tlvai yap 
oSop fiaatXtfttjp* rovro iirix^ip is fivpiovs ara- 
hiovs" rk Bi hrtMtipa ovtciri duravrt^ drpttcea. 

ft <t>i7>Aa9 Bi ocoi dptypayjrav, (vp t^ OMpj) r^ 
dptxpvcy is to wtXayos is fivpiovs craBiovs 



VIII. (INDICA) J. 7-3. 5 

is the boundUry. The southern part near PattaU 
and the mottths of the Indus were surveyed by 
Alexander and Macedonians and many Greeks ; as 
for the eastern part, Alexander did not traverse this 
beyood the river Hyphasis. A few historians have 
described the parts which are this side of the Ganges 
and where are the months of the Ganges and the dty 
of Palimbothra* the greatest Indian dty on the 

in. I hope I may be allowed to regard Eratoe- 
thenes of Cyrene as worthy of spceial credit, since he 
was a student of Geography. He states that begin- 
ning with Mount Tannis, where are the tptingi of 
the river Indus, aloqg the Indus to ^kt Oeean* and 
to the Booths of the Indus, the side of India is 
thirteen Uwosand stades in length. The opposite 
side to this one, that from the same mountain to the 
Eastern Ocean, he does not reckon as merely equal 
to the former side, since it has a promontory running 
well into the sea ; the promontory stretching to about 
three thousand stades. So then he would make this 
side of India, to the eastward, a total length of sixteen 
t h ousa n d stades. This he gives, then, as the breadth 
of India. Its length, however, from west to east, 
up to the dty of Palimbothra, he states that he 
gives as measured by reed-measurements ; for there 
is a royal road; and this extends to ten thousand 
stades; beyond that, the infbnmafion is not so 
certain. Those, however, who have followed com- 
mon talk say that including the promontory, which 



fiaXiora ^irtfVfiy Xiyovcip* thai S« Stm ^ to 
fitjieo^ rij^ *\poAp 7^, rraUmp ftdXurra hicfiv* 

6 pi»v. KTffcltj^ S« o KW2i09 T^y 'ly^i' Y^ t<rffp 
T$ IXXjy *Aaijj Xiyfi, ov^v Xiyttyy, ou^ *0i^ 
aiicpiro^, rpiryfp fiolpap rtf^ waa^ yt)V Niap- 
XO^ ^ /ii^i^cuv T€<radp»p oBop rifp 5i* avroO rou 

7 wtliou Tfj^ *\pBi$p yrj^, MiyaaOhti Bi ro ano 
iuforoXi^p ^9 iirwififfp wXdro^ ^arl r^ *lpBi!>p 
yij^, 6 rt irtp oi iXXot fiff^co^ wouovcr /cal X^tci 
M§y€iff6iprfs, fwplmp xal i(a€tffx^^^^ <rraBimp 

8 upo*, ipaw€p TO fipaxvrarop avrov. To 5^ avo 
Ap€roy wp&^ fttarififipiffp, rouro B^ avr^ fitjico^ 
yiptrat, ttrnX ^^X'* rpifiKociov^ icaX ^laj^iXiot/^ 
Koi hiCfivpiov^, ipawtp rh arttporarop aurov, 

Ilorafioi M roaolh^ mIgXp ip rp *lp^p yp, 6coi 
oM ip rp wdajf *Kaijf fiiyi^Toi ikkp 6 1^771^ 
Tff Ktd 6 IpBo^, 6rov teal rj 71} iirmpvfio^* &fi^ 
•fov Tff NfiXou Toi; Alytnrrlov xal rov "larpou 
rov l^v0iicov, ical tl i^ ravro avptXBoi ainolct, 
10 TO vhnp, /W{bifv* SotciftP 5* IffiOiyt, koX 6 *Am€' 
aipfj^ fiif^mp iarl rov Tff ''larpov ical rov NttXov, 
7pair§p irapaXafimp ifia rop Tff 'Tldawea icai rhp 
'TBpatirta xai rop "T^aaip ififfaXXa i^ rop 
*IpBop, i»9 «ral rpitJKOpra avr^ ardha ro wXdro^ 
ravrjf tipai' icai ru^op teal dXXoi iroXXol fU(oP€^ 
worafUfl ip r^ *lpbttp yfj piov^tp, 

IV. 'AXX^ ov fjLOi drp€K€^ tnrtp rw irritctipa 

'T^dato^ worafAOv iayypicaaOait Sri ov irpoata 

S ToD 'T<pd<rto^ ^X0€P*AX«(apBpo^. Avrotp 6i TOiV 

fieytoroip worofioip rov Tff ra77ff«» teal rov 

*lpiov rop Vdyyia fieyiOei iroXv rt tnrep^epup 

* CbAntraiiM w«ll anffgtutm tlmu I' ftr ^ (- •Ir). 

VIII. (INDICA) 3. 5-4. « 

runs into the sea, IndU extends over about ten 
thousand stades; but farther north its length is 
about twenty thousand stades. But Ctesias of 
Cnidus affirms that the land of India is equal in siie 
tothercstof Alia, which Is absurd; and Onesicritus 
is absurd, who says that India is a third of the entire 
world ; Nearehus, for his part, states that the journey 
through the actual plain of India is a four months' 
journey. Megasthenes would have the breadth of 
India that from east to west, which others call its 
length ; and be sajrs that it is of sixteen thousand 
stades, at its diortest stretch. From north to tooth, 
then, becomes for him its length, and it extends 
twenty-two thousand three hundred stades, to fits 
narrowest point. The Indian rivers are greater than 
any others in Asia ; greatest are the Ganges and the 
Indus, whence the land gets its name ; each of these 
is greater than the Nile of Egypt and the Scythian 
Ister, even were these put together; my own idea 
is that even the Aoesines Is greater than the Ister 
and the Nile, where the Aoesines having taken in 
the Hydaspes, llydraotes, and Hjrphasis, runs into 
the Indus, so that its breadth there becomes thirty 
stades. Possibly also other greater rivers run through 
the land of India. 

IV. Asforth€yoiidersideoftheHyphasis,Icannot 
speak with eoo6deoee, since Alexander did not pro- 
•*ed beyond the Hyphasis. But of these two 
greatest rivers, the Ganges and the Indus, Megas- 
thenes wrote that the Ganges is much greater than 

vol.. II. 



5 Tou Varfytm fxovaiP' avrop r€ ykp iiiyav <lWtf- 
vfiv iit ritv mfyivp, hiictaBod r« h airrov row Tt 
Kai%'k¥ worafAOP gal rh¥ 'Efxufpofioap ical rov 
Koaaooyor, wdma^ vXmtoi^* iri 6i Iwvoy re 
w^ffafthif col £4TT0«raTiv jcal SoXo/iariv, icaX 

4 Toi/roi;^ vX«»TOi^. *Eirl 5^ Koi^^o^^artyv re «rai 
^fA0o¥ Kol Mdymt^a koI *\y6paPtM moI "SlfidXip' 
ifi^dWov^i hi h avrhv Kofifntpdoff^ t« fUyas 

6 *ly^MroO TOM Moi'&A&i^y ptf^y* koX ivX roih 
roifftp 'A/AI/9TK wap^ woXiP Karahovirfip, teal 
*0(i;/ia7iv iwl UafaKtuet MaXtOfiipoiat, teal 
*Epp€yv<ri« h WdBatew} i$W€i ^XwUm^, (vfifidX- 

6 Xtfi T^ I^<>7T9* TovTi»r Xiyu MrioaBipfj^ 
ovlhfa €lp4U rov MauMpov dwoBioma, ivairtp 

7 paveiwopo^ i Waiophpo^, EJpai &p to tvpo^ tA 
rdyyjf. Ma wtp avro^ ipttnov arttpoTaro^, f«f 
hcarop araliov^ woXXax^ Bi stal \if£pd(np, «k 
fifl dirowrop tlpot rtfp wipffp X^opfiP, tpairtp 
xBapaXij ri iafi leaX ovhafAtj yr)\o^ot<rip aw- 

8 aTi|«i/ia. T^ Bi *Iy^ cV ravrop ipxtroA, 
'TBpamrti^ pip ip KapfiiaOoXoiai vap€t\fj^tbs 
TOP Tf "T^aatp ip *Karpv$aiai ica\ top ^apdy- 
ytfp i/e KfiKtofP ical top SMpop i( *ArraMrjpo>p, 

9 /? 'A realtor ipffdXKovaiP, 'Tidam^ 3i ip 
^OfvhpdKoiciP dytav &pa o\ top ^uapop ip 
*ApiaTrai(TiP i^ top ^Axtalpfjp iicSiBol »eal ovro^. 

10 'O hi *Aic€oipyf^ ip MaXXoU (vpffdWei r^ *lvB^* 
«al Tovrawo^ Bi piya^ worapo^ i^ top *Att€<ripriP 

^ Tbete MiHai are ankoown. lUooo taggcaU Kifwt {Aiuik, 
y. xxii 2). 


VIII. (INDICA) 4. 2-10 

tiie Indus, and to do all others who mention the 
Ganges ; for (thej say) the Ganges Is abead j large 
as it comes from its springs, and receives as tributaries 
the river Cainas and the Erannoboas and the Cos- 
soanos, all navigable ; also the river Sonus and the 
Sittoeatis and the Solomatis, these likewise navigable. 
Then besides there are the Condochates and the 
Sambut and Magon and Agoranis and Omalis ; and 
also there run into it the CommeiiaMs, a great river, 
and the Cacuthis and Andomatit, Bowing from the 
Indian tribe of the Mandiadinae ; after them the 
Amystis bj the city Catadupas, and the Oxymagis 
at the place called Pasalae, and the Errenysls among 
the Mathae, an Indian tribe, also meet the Ganges. 
Megasthenes says that of these none is inferior to 
the Maeander, where the Maeander is navigable. 
The breath therefore of the Ganges, where It Is at 
its narrowest, runs to a hundred stades; often it 
spreads into lakes, so that the opposite side cannot 
be seen, where it is low and has no projections of 
hills. It is the same with the Indus ; the Hydraotes, 
in the territory of the Camblstholians, receives the 
I lyphasis in that of the Astrybae, and the Saranges 
from the Cedans, and the Neydrus from the Atta- 
cenians, and flows, with these, into the Accsines. 
The Hydaspes also among the Oxydracae receives 
the Sinarus among the Arispae and it too flows out 
into the Aeeslnca. The Acesincs among the Mallians 
joins the Indus; and the Tutapus, a Urge river, 



ixhiot Tovrmw 6 *A«€a*i^ ifiwXiiaBtU teal rj 
^wiJcXiT^'i 4K¥ugt}<ra^ atno^ r^ iutnov HSfj 
11 ovKo/uiTi ia^dWgi ^^ rov *\vh6¥* Km^^v hk iv 
HtvmXairiTih*, a^ia ol aft¥ MaXavroi' t« koL 
Soa^TOv KoX Vappoiav, tfV5i£oi i^ tov *Iv2oy. 

15 Karvw€p$€ 64 rovrmp lldp€po^ «ai Sairapyo^, ov 
iroXv cUxorT€^, ifA0dXXovci9 i^ top *lMy. 
^6aifo^ ^, im tifi optiyTf^ r^ *A$ia<rap4wy» 
fpnfAO^ JDlXov warafiov, ixBi^t h ainop. Kal 
roinmp rov9 voXXpv^ Mrya^^^n^ Xtyci, ^1 

13 vXirroi fiVii'. 0(;«oi;y awiaritip y^ fX'<^ vircp 
Tf TOW 'li^v iral ToD Fottcw, firfik avfLffKtjrovs 

«ZmU aWTOi^l Toy Tff'loTpoy Kol TOV NfiXoU TO 

U (^^ *Ef uiy 7f Toy NcaXov oMtm woraiAOV 
hi h M m r m fo/Mv, aXX* av* awrou SiMpt/yac Trr- 

M /t^ ^ lw f iraTi T^r X'^P^^ "^V' Aiyi/irriiyr. *() 
5^ ft Harpov 0X470^ /i^y umV Yf < ctir*^ tmi^ Wfjyititv, 
Bht€ra^ hi woXXovv vora/iot/^, liXX* otrrc vXf)^«i 
Icov^ rourip 'li^wv inyrafAolaiw, oi V9 toi^ *lv5^y 
/ra4 Toy Voyy^^ iMhihcvar irXtarov^ Bi Btf xal 
rndpra oKirfov^, &v tovs fUi^ airro^ IS^p olBa, top 

16 'EVOP Tf KtU TOV ^Em09. *Ey09 flip ip fiM0Opi^ TfJ^ 

NMf>//rctfy ical ToirAp yfi^ fxiypvrat r^^larp^, o 
hk ^o^ xaTd Uaicpa^. '0 Bi x^po^, tpairtp 
ov/i/3dk\ovatp oi frorapol, Tavpoupo^ icaXJrrai, 
*OoTi« hi xdi SWop olh^ pavcivopop rSiP is 
r6p "lor pop iichihoprmp, aXKa ov iroXXoi^ irov 

V. To hi aXrunp Sffris iSiXtt ^pd^tiv rov 

w\tj0€os Tff teal fiiTfiO^os ritp *lphAp irorafimv, 

^pa^irw ifiol Bi xtu raura i)S dscatf dpayeypd^Sm. 

1 'C^ci KoX aXKmp itoXKmp irorapMP ovpofiara 



VIII. (INDICA) 4. 10-5. a 

flows into the Acesincs. All these rivers swell the 
Acesiiics, and proudly retaining its own name it 
flows into the Indus. The Cophen, in the Pence- 
laetis, taking with it the Malantns, the Soastus, and 
the Garroeas, joins the Indus. Above these the 
Parenos and Sapamus, not far from one another, 
flow into the Indus. The Soanus, from the moun- 
tains of the Abissareans, without any tributary, flows 
into it. Most of these Megasthenes reports to be 
navigable. It thoold not then be incredible that 
itcither Nile nor Istcr can be even compared with 
Indus or Ganges in volume of water. For we 
know of no tribatary to the Nile; rather from it 
canals have been cut through the land of Egypt 
As for the Ister, it emerges from its springs a meagre 
stream, but f ece l fc s many tributaries ; yet not equal 
in number to the Indian tribntarict which Baw fanto 
Indus or Ganges; and very few of these are navigable; 
I myself have only noticed the Enus and the Sans. 
The Enus on the line between Norica and Rhaetia 
joins the Ister, the Sans in Paeonia. The country 
where the rivers join is called Taurunus. If anybody 
is aware of other navigable rivers which form 
tributaries to the Ister, he certainly does not know 

V. I hope that anyone who desires to expUin the 
cause of the number and sise of the Indian rivers will 
do so ; and that my remarks may be regarded as set 
down 00 hearsay only. For Megasthenes has 



MrfaaO^mf^ <|yt7po^r«y, oi l{w rov VdyyH^ rt 
Kal rov *lylov tteEi^ovcip ^^ top i^v rt /cal 
fu^^pwov rov €(m worroy &cr9 tow ira'rra^ 
otsrm Mil vcrrijicorra Xryti oTi tialp *Ir5oi 

5 voTo^i, vavaiifopoi irayrcv. *AXX* ou3^ Mtyaa- 

X^^P^» v^>7<' 7« 07 1 ir\«t)ya ^ o< {^ *AX«fai»5/)^ 
T^ ^tXiirwov iir€\06trr99* ^vyytviaSoi fkp 
'^pBpOMorru Xiyn, rft ^uyi^rtf ffaaiXii riop 
4 *lMtp, Kol llmp^, h$ ro&TOv fUtbyi. Oino^ &v 
o MryaaOivft^ Xr/«i, o^€ *Ir&ov^ irrtarparwaai 
oifhafioiauf apBpmwola^p, otrrc *Ii^5o4aiy IXXoi/^ 

6 a9$pmvo%f^* aXkk Pernor puf flip top Aiyvwriop, 
rrj^ 'Aaifj^ Kara^rpfyftdfiitPOP rtfp iroWrjp^ iart 
M riip KvpmwfiP ffifp or par t^ ikdcapra^ owic^ 

6 awopo^rtfaar *\phdBvpaip & top l^vdta ix 
ZmvOifi^ opfin^mna woXXk uip r^ *Aaiff^ i6p€a 
ita7a4frpiitm^$ai, drrtXOtuf ci xai rtfp Kiyvwrlmp 

7 «v^ mpariotna' Stfupa^up Bi rifp *AaavpiriP 
iwixup^^ttf AMv ariiXicBtu i^ *ly£ov9i drroOaptip 
& wplp T<Xo9 iwidtuHii rola^ ffovXtv/MCiP' 
mkkk *Aki(aplpop yap crpartvaai M 'IpBov^ 

8 f irnk f op. Koi wpo *AXi(iMpov ^kopvcov fiip 
W/M woXK/9^ \6yo^ icarixiL, m^ xaX rovrov 
crpartvaarro^ is *IpBovs, «ai xaraarpty^a^pov 

9 *Iy5ouf* 'H/MurX^ hk wipi ov rroWos. Ci^iovvaov 
fuv yt Ka\ Nuo'tt iroKis fiyfjfjka ov i^aOXop rrjs 
arparffXacirjs xal 6 \\f)pos ro Spos, ical 6 xiaao^ 
on ip T^ 6p€i rovr^ ^vtreu* icaX avroi oi *\vhol 
vrro rvfirrtufti^p n xal icvfiffaktop artXKofUvo^ C9 
rd^ pAxas* icai iaBrfs avrouri icardariicros iovaa, 

10 icaBdirtp rov ^ovvtrov rouri ffdic\OiffiP' 'Hpa- 

VIII. (INDICA) 5. 2-10 

recorded names of nuiny other rivers, which beyond 
the Ganges and the Indus run into the eastern and 
sootbem outer ocean ; so that he states the number 
of Indian rivers in all to be fifty>eight, and these all 
navigable. But not even Megasthenes, so far as I 
can see, travelled over an j large part of India ; yet 
a good deal more than the foDowert of Alexander son 
of Philip did. For he sUtes that he met Sandr»- 
cottus, the greatest of the Indian kings, and Poms, 
even greater than be was. This Megasthenet lays, 
moreover, that the Indians waged war on no men, 
nor other men on the Indiana, bot on the other hand 
that Seao atils the Egyptian, af^er subduing the moat 
part of Asia, and after invading Europe with an army, 
yet returned back; and Indathyrds the Scythian 
who started from ScythSa cnbdoed many tribes of 
Asia, and invaded Egypt victorknisly ; but SemJramJs 
the Assyrian queen tried to invade India, but died 
before she could carry out her purposes ; it was in 
fact Alexander only who actually invaded India. 
Before Alexander, too, there is a considerable 
traditkMi about Dionysus as having also faivaded 
India, and having subdued the Indians; about 
Heradea there is not much tradition. As for 
Dionyans, the dty of Njrsa is no mean memorial of 
his expeditkm, and also Mount Mcnis, and the growth 
of ivy on this moontaln ; then the habit of the Indians 
themselves setting out to battle with the sound of 
drums and cjrmbals ; and their dappled costume, like 
that worn by the bacchanals of Diooytiis. But of 



«Xio9 hi ov iroXXA vwoftPfifAara, *A\Xk rtfp 
"AofMHW yap wtrprfv, v/in-iya *AXi(di^pO¥ fiiff 
^ffi/>i*aaTo, 5ti 'llpaxXirf^ ov hwfarov iyhfrro 

Kartiwtp &if teal tov llapawdfucov Kavteaaov 
itctiXioy MaxihoPi^t ovBip t« wpoat'jKovra Tovro¥ 

II T^ Kawcda^. Kai ti «a4 dtrrpov iw^Spaaditnts 
4p UapawafAiadBann, rovro K^paaa¥ ixiufo tZvai 
rav UpofAf/Bw rov Titi}i^o9 to dtnpov^ 4v or^ 

IS itpifUkTO iirX r^ irXoir^ rov wvpo^. Kal Brf teal 
iv ^ifimatp, *li^«M yivii, on 5op^c afurcYo- 
lU9ov$ ilBotf rov^ )LUia^, dwo r^ 'H/KucXiof 
9T/iaTiyXa^if|V i^aaK09 rov^ vwoXn^hna^ tZroi 
rove il0as' «al 7ap «al o«irraXi;y ^pioval re 
01 Si/3a4, iral roi^i ffovalp avriap (iowaXov im- 
teitcavrai* xal rovro i^ fiPtjfAtjp at^^poy rov /iorrd' 

13 Xov rov 'I{pa«X409. Ei ^' r^ iriO'TO rairra, <IXXo« 
^y ovro^ *\lp€uc\tTf^ tlrj, ovx o %fi0aios, 4 o Tvpio^ 
o^of* ^ o AiyvirrAOf, 4 T19 xal xarii rtfp dim 
vmpfiP ov iropptt rijq *lM$p 7^ ^KifffU¥f}v piya^ 

VI. Tatrra iJp fioi 4K0oXff farm rov \6yov #»> 
TO fif) wtard ^aiptcSai oca inrtp r&p Iwixeiva 
rov 'T^o^iof irorafiov *\phwv fitrt^€rtpoi dpi- 
ypa'^p- I^Tf yap ivl rop "T^aaip oi t^ 
*A\€(dphpov arparffXaciris fitracxoprt^ oif 
t wdprtf drtiaroL tlaip, *Eirtl Kal ro^ \^€i 
MiyacBtPff^ vnip worapLov *\vhtxovt ^iXav titp 
eivai Oi ovpofia, ptttp 5€ dwb tcpijprf^ iiratvvfiov 
rj> TTorafiA hid rij^ X^/"7^ "^V^ SiXi^v, teal rov- 
rmp hrmpvtimv rov rrorafiov rt teal rij^ tepijprf^ 
S TO 5< OBmp wapix'adai roiopht" ovhht flvo* OTfi 

VIII. (INDICA) 5. 10^. 3 

Heracles the memorUls are slight. Yet the story of 
the rock Aomos,^ which Alexander forced, namely, 
that Hendet ooiild not capture it, I am inclined to 
think a Macedonian boast ; just as the Macedonians 
called Parapamisus by the name of Caucasus, though 
it has nothing to do with Caucasus. And besides, 
learning that there was a cave among the Para- 
pamisadae, they said that this was the cave ol 
Prometheus the Titan, in which he was crucified for 
his theft of the fire. Among the Sibae, too, an 
Indian tribe, having noticed them cUd with skins 
they used to assert that they were relics of Heracles' 
expedition. What is more, as the Sibae carried a 
club, and they brand their cattle with a club, they 
referred this too to some memory of Heracles* club. 
If anyone believes this, at least it must be some other 
Heracles, not he of Thebes, but cither of Tyre or of 
Egypt* or some great king of the higher inhabited 
country near India. 

VI. Thb then must be regarded as a di gr ess i o n , so 
that too much credence may not be given to the 
stories which certain pertoos have related about the 
Indians beyond the Hyphasis ; for those who served 
under Alexander are reasonably trustworthy up to 
the Hyphasis. For Megasthenes tells us this also 
about an Indian river; its name b Silas, it flows 
from a spring of the same name as the river through 
the territory of the Sileans, the people also named 
both from river and spring ; its water has the folk>w- 
ing peculiarity ; nothing is supported by it, nothing 
» 8ss Anabo^ IV. xsviU. and xziz. 



orr^fi TO C^p, oirrc ri vrpftaBai iw airrov oijrt 
Ti /iriirXcciir, aXX^ iropra yhp i^ fivcaov SvPU¥* 
o&rm TI tifjLtPfjvonpop irdtnttv cZmu to vbmp 

4 ixtofo Kol rjtpotiB4ar€pO¥. "Ttrai B^ 17 '\pBttp 
jfj TO $ipo^^ lULktara fJUp rk 6p€a, llapawdfitao^ 
Tf xal *Ham»3o9 4(al TO *I/iai«ov 5po^, irai airb 
rovrmv fuyaXoi Mai BoXepol oi irarafAol JKovav, 

5 *Trra4 hk rov dipto^ xal ra trthia rStv 'Iv8ci>p, 
MO'Tf X4/iMi{>iy T^ iroXX4 avritv* xni If^vytv 1} 
*AXf faVSpov trrpar^ff awo rov *A««9ii^v TroTa/ioO 
/itfoov BijMO^, vwtpffakomo^ rov vBaro^ i^ t^ 

wt^Uk' MOTf tt70 T^ySf Iffo^Ti Ttic^rjpiowrBtu 
iroi ToO NciXov to wdBfjua rovro oti iottco^ thai 
V9C$ai rk AlBiowttP opta rov 6ip€o^, icaX dir 
imuprnv 4fA'W'iw\dfi€V0¥ rop NciXov vrrMpffaWup 
vwip rik^ 6x^a^ 4^ rijp ytjp rtiP KlyvrrrLrjp* 

7 BoXtph^ mp Kol ovro^ ^€i ip rjBt r^ &pn, m 
ovrt ip dwo ;^ioiW rtf/cofihnf^ ^pp^p, ovtm Ci 
irpo^ rmp upm uipto^ irp§6prtap trtfcimp dpifittp 
dptKowrtro 01 to H^p* ilXXft>9 n ovhk \iOp6^ra 

t «i^ iip rk Klfftoirofp opta vwo tcavfiaro^. "TtaOai 
Bi Mardrrtp rk *\yBt!tp ovtc Ifa* iarl rov tUoro^, 
hnl xal rdXXa tf *Iy5«i)v yr) ovtc d-niomt rrf^ 
AlBiowirj^, icai oi worafAol oi 'IvSol op,oi<D^ r^ 
NfiX^ Ty Ai6tov€i<p Tf tctu Aiyvrrrito KpoKO- 
8€tXoi/9 T« ^ipovcip, icrip hk ot avrcav teal 
i)(6va^ xal i\\a /ri/Tea oaa 6 NciXo^, rrXijv 
twirov rov rrorapiov *Opr)oUpiro^ W ical rovs 

• iirrrov^ tow9 irorafuov^ Xtyn Sri ^povai, 'l(ov 
Tf dpOpmwmp ai iStai ov ndvrrj dirdBovaiP ai 
*Iv5c0V Tf ical Ki0unrwp* oi fi^v rrpo^ vorov 
dv€pov *Ii^i TOK AiOioyfri fidXXop ri ioiKaGi, 

VIII. (INDICA) 6. 3-9 

cao swim in it or float upon it, but everything goes 
straight to the bottom ; so far is this water thinner 
and more aery than any other. In the summer there 
is rain through India ; especially on the mountains, 
Parapamisus and Hemodus and the Imaus, and from 
them the rivers run great and turbulent. The plains 
of India also receive rain in summer, and much part 
of them becomes swamp; in fact Alexander's army 
retired from the river Acesincs in midsummer, when 
the river had overflowed on to the plains ; from these, 
therefore, one can gauge the flooding of the Nile, 
since probably the m oon t alns of Ethiopia reee l ve 
rain in summer, and from them the Nile is swollen 
'tnd overflows its banks on to the land of Egypt ; the 
Nile therefore also nms turbid this time of the year, 
OS it probably would not be from melting snow ; nor 
yet if its stream was dammed up by the seasonal 
winds which blow during the summer ; and betidett 
the mountains of Ethiopia are probably not snow- 
covered, on account of the heat. But that they 
receive rain as India does Is not outside the boonds 
of probability ; since in other r e sp ec ts India is not 
unlike Etliiopia, and the Indian rivers have crocodiles 
like the Ethiopian and Egyptian Nile ; and some of 
the Indian rivers have fish and other large water 
animals like those of the Nile, save the river-horse : 
though Onesicritos states that they do have the 
river-horse also. The appearance of the inhabitants, 
too, is not so far different in India and Ethiopia ; the 
southern Indians resemble the Ethiopians a good 



^Xovcv re ihicBai tiaX, itaX 17 «o/ii7 ainoUr^ 
fiiXjuwa' irXffv 7« 5^ on aifiol ovx ^tivrm^ 
oifhi ovXoicpavot m^ AlBioirts* 01 Bi fioptMT€poi 
Toxnwv tear* Alyvwriovs fia\i<rra Ap mUp rk 

^ VII. ^FJ,^ Bi 'MiMik fr«o<ri seal Uarhw rk 
aw tuna Xirfti MrtatrOhffs, Bvol¥ ^orro. Kal 
iroXA^ /Uy tlpoi Wvfa ^XvUxa xaX avro^ evfi^i- 
poftai Mtyaffdiptl, to B^ arptxis ovtc ex^ uicdaai 
oirm^ iKfAoSmv ap4ypayjr9v, ovh^ woWoarov fiipo^ 
rfj^ *l¥Bt$p yij^ iwtXimw, avBk Iwtfju^iri^ iraai 

S roU yivtciv iovai)^ €9 aXA 17X01/9. IlciXai fup 
hii POfAoBa^ fivoi *lir£ou9* xardwtp 1,kv$(mv rotfS 
ovK dpcrrripa^t oT iw\ ^i^^^ o^Ppci wXtLPiifitvoi 
^XXoTf iXXqw Tff^ ijcvOifi^ afi€i0ovai¥, oOrg 

1 9oKia^ oU4o¥T€^ otrrfl Itpk $€mv eriffoyrt^* o&rm 
fUfBi ^WBoiai voXia^ ttpa$ fiffhk Up^ Ot&v S«- 
BofitifiiPa' aXX* a/Aino^^co'^ai /a^ Bopk^ 0fjptlovs 
oamp icaraMrdpoi€P, airuaBa^ B^ ritv BivBptmv 
rw ^XoiotT' KaXitffOai B4 rk BivBpta ravra r^ 
^IpB^w ^^»j TdXa, teal i^vtoOai ttr* avTwv, 
xardvip ri»p ^oivUti^p iirl r^at teopv^^aiv, old 

4 irfp rokvwa^, ^iruaBai Bi /cai riav Brfpiwp oaa 
fKoi€P mfio^ytopra^, irpip Bff ^lovvaop fXBtlp 

5 ^9 TffP \t!»pfip jStv *\pBSiP, tuopvaop Bi iXSopra, 
M9 /capT€pc^ iyiprro ^XpBw^ iroXid^ r§ oUurai 
Kol vofjLOv^ 0iaBai rfjat jroXttriv, otpov re Borrjpa 
*lvBoi<ri y€pf aOat, icardirtp ''EXXi;^!, icaX atreiptip 

6 BiBd^ai rrjp yrjp, BiBopra airrop awipfiara, ^ 
ovtc (XdaapTo^ ravrjj TpitrroXipov, Srt irtp iie 
^ijfiffrpo^ iardXrj ainipfip rrjp yfjp iraaap^ ^ 
irpo TpinroXtpov Ti9 ouro^ ^icpv<ro^ iirtXdo^p 

VIII. (INDICA) 6. 9-7. 6 

deal, and are black of countenance, and their hair 
black also, only they are not as snub-nosed or so 
woolly-haired as the Kthiopians; but the northern 
Indians are most like the Egyptians in appear- 

VII. Megasthenes states that there are one 
hundred and eighteen Indian tribes. That there are 
many, I agree with Megasthenes ; but I cannot con- 
jecture how he learnt and recorded the exact number, 
when he never visited any great part of India, and 
since these different races have not much intercourse 
one with another. The Indians, he says, were 
originally nomads, as are the non-agricultural 
Scythians, who wanderinff in their w a ggon s inhabit 
now one and now another part of Seythia; not 
dwelling in cities and not reverencing any temples of 
the go£ ; just so the Indians also luid no cities and 
built no temples; but were clothed with the skins 
of animab slidn in the chase, and for food ate the 
bark of trees ; these trees were called in the Indian 
tongue Tala,' and there crew upon them, just as on 
the tops of pahn trees, froat look like clews of wool. 
They also used as food what game they had captured, 
eating it raw, before, at least, Dionysus came into 
India. But when Dkxiysiis had come, and become 
master of India, he founded cities, and gave laws for 
these cities, and became to the Indians the bestower 
« >f wine, as to the Greeks, and taught them to sow 
their Und, giving them seed. It may be that Trip- 
tolemus, when he was sent out by Demeter to sow 
the entire earth, did not come this way ; or perhaps 
before Triptolemus this Dionysus whoever he was 

* The Unpalm ; it u Upprd for the n^ar. 



rf)9 *\p^p T^v oiripfAara <T^ia't¥ IfB^iet itapwov 

7 rov ff^pov fioas rt tnr aporp^ {fD^oi Ai6yviroi> 
wpArop, Kol dpOTrjpaK ami pofidotiu iroi^aoi 
'liMr T0V9 iroXXoir^, koX owXiaat 8wXo^a^ rolaip 

8 iptftotet. Kal Bioif^ aifftitf on iSiBa^i ^lotunro^ 
XKkcv^ Tc gal fiaktcra S^ imvro¥ ttv/AffaXi^oma^ 
Ktd Tt;/i7raW(brrav* tal SpX'W^^ ^ £i£a{ai ^fff 
aarvptxify, t6¥ KopUuca wap* "EXXi/ai xaXto- 

9 fupoir gal go/ukp IpSov^ t^ ^€^» furptf^opt^ip 
Tf aFa^ifcu, 4ra2 iivpmp oKot^k^ ixtiha^tu, i^rt 
gaX m *A\*(ayhpo¥ ir^ uiro gvfAffaXmw t€ xal 

Yin. *Aviorra & V^ r^ 'IrJ^i* y^. m« ol 
ravra KMxoafUaro, xart^artfaai 0aai\4a rrj^ 
Wfffq l,war4fA0ap, tAp haiptpp ha, rov fiaxx^- 
omrarow rtXttrnjaamo^ ^ 'S.iraripffa rtfp 
/So^iXfyAfV iM^aaSai Viovlvav rov rovrov iralha- 

S Kol T^ fiip wtprrpcovra ical Ivo hta ^aaiX^vaai 
*IiMv, 70¥ waripa, r^ hi wdiBa, tfiroaiv irta' 
mal rovrov iralBa iM^acBai r^y fiaeiXfitfjp 

% KpaB^vap-^ /rol to awo rovBt ro iroXXov flip 
xark yivo^ ap€ifftiP rtfp ffaaiXfjtqv, walBa napa 
warpo^ tmStMopMPOv u Bi iicXtiiroi ro yivo^, 
oCrm Bn apiaripS^iP icariaraaBai *\pholci fiaa^- 

4 Xia^. HpamXia Si, ovriva h *\pIov^ awutiadai 
X0709 xarevf^ ^^p' avrotciP *\ptoiai ytjytpta 

5 "KiytffOat, Tovrop rov 'HpamXia pLokicra irpo^ 
^MVpaarfprnp ytpaiptaOat, *IpBimov iBpto^t Tva 
hvo iroKit^ furydXa*, Midopd r€ koI K\€ia6^opa, 
Kol irorapio^ *\ttffdprf^ irX«#TOf ZiappUi rrjv X'^P^^ 

' K^Uc^v i« odd. There wm a ton of BoddhA called 
Pnnirmvtta. 8mm eoMod fai thb direoiioo. 


VIII. (INDICA) 7. 6-«. 5 

came to Indiii and ga%'e the Indians seeds of domes- 
ticated plants ; then Dionysus first yoked oxen to the 
plough and made moat of the Indians agriculturitta 
instead of wanderers, and armed them also with the 
arms of warfare. Further, Dionysus taught them to 
rererence other gods, bat especially, of course, him- 
self, with clashings of cymbals and beating of drunt 
and dancing in the Sat^-ric fashion, the dance called 
among Greeks the '* cordax " ; and taught them to 
wear long hair in honour of the god, and instructed 
them in the wearing of the conical cap and the 
anointings with perfumes ; so that the Indians came 
out even against Alexander to battle with the sound 
of cjrmbals and drums. 

VIII. When departing from India, aAcr making 
all these arrangements, be made Spatembas king of 
the land, one of bis Companiooi, being most expert 
In Bacchic rites ; when Spatembas died, Budyas his 
son reigned in hb stead; the father was King of 
India fiAy-two years, and the son twenty years; 
and hit tooy again, came to the throne, one Cradeuas ; 
and his deacendanta for the moat part reeelYcd the 
kingdom in suecftop, too succeeding fatber ; if the 
foiled, then the kings were appointed for 
pre-eminence. But Heracles, whom tradition 
states to have arrived as far as India, was called 
by the Indians themselves ** Indigenous." This 
Heracles was chiefly honoured by the Surasenlant, 
an Indian tribe, among whom are two great cities, 
Methora and Cleisobora, and the navigable river 



i^6p€€ MtyaaOtPff^ Xiyti 5ti ofuUffv r^ Bi7/3ai^ 
'H^KurX^i, m^ ainol *Jy£oi dwfjyioirrat' xal rovrf 
Spatpa^ flip walSa^ woWov^ Kuprra ytptcdtu iw 
TJ ^IphAp y^' woWjat yap Bij yvvoiflp ^9 yafutp 
iXB^tp gal rovrop top 'H/MirXia* Ovyaripa hi 

7 fAOtfPoytPtffP* ovpofia 6k cImu t^ tratBl llopBalffP 
Kai rtfp ymmp Xpa re iy4prro xal ffaripo^ iwi- 
Tpr^fp avTffp &px^^^ *\\ptutXifi^ WaptoLfiP, rtfi 
woibcs IwmpvfiOP' KoX ravrff iXi^apra^ iiip 
y€iia0ai im roi) warpit^ i^ irtpraMOciov^^ Xirirop 

hk h rrrpaMiex^^'^'^* ^^i^f^ ^ ^ ^^f rp€U teal 

8 Hmu fivptdBa^, Ka2 rdl^ firrtfirtpoi *lp6mp 
jrtpi 'WptuOUo^ Xiyovaur iw^XBopra avrop waaap 
yrfp xal OdXaaaap, xal tcaOrfpapra S nwtp 
KOMOp KipaBoSt i(4vp€iP ip T^ $a\dcarf tc6<rfiop 

9 yvpaiKTiiop* Bpripa koX «k Toirro in oX tc i^ 
*\pZmp T^ X^^PVi^ ^^ dymrfifka trap rjfiia^ 
afftp4opT€^ awov^i mptofiMPOi iKtcofu^ovai, xal 
'EXXf^Mwr ^ iraKai xal 'Pt^fuUwp pvp oaoi woXv' 
«T^a»Oi ical €vlaifAOPt^» fii(opi en cwovBj dtpi- 
oprai TOP fsapyapirrjp Brj top BaXdaaiov, ovrto 

10 T^ *|y5i»v yXmcatf Ka\€o^ifpop' top yap 'lipaxXtat 
m Kokiip oi i^PTf TO ^opTjfia, tie irdarjs ttj^ 
BoKA^^^ i^ Tfjp *\phtl>p yfjp avpayipuip top 
ftapyapiTrjp hif rotfroy, r^ BvyaTpl r^ imtnoO 

11 €lpai Koapuop. Kai Xiyti \\tya^6€Pff^,0f)ptv€a6a4 
ainou TTjp xoy^p SucTvonrif ptp^vSai K iv ttj 
OaXdaarj /rar* avTo voXA^ ic(yyx^^» tcaTairtp 
Ta9 p^Xurca^' ical ilpot ykp teal Tolai papya- 
piTjfct fiaaiXia ^ fiaaikurcav, ok t^oi titkia- 

IS o-lffiTi. Kol oaTi^ ptp ixthfop icaT liriTvylrip 

VIII. (INDICA) 8. 5-12 

lobaret flows through their territory. MegasthoMS 
also sajs that the garb which this Heracles wore was 
like that of the Theban Heracles, as also the Indians 
tbemsehres record; he also had many sons in his 
country, ibr thfo Heracles too wedded many wives ; 
he had only one daughter, called Pandaea; as also 
the country in which she was bom, and to rule which 
Heracles educated her, was called Pandaea after the 
girl ; here she poaseMed five hundred elephants given 
by her father, four thousand hofsemen, and as many 
as a hundred and thirty thousand foot-soldiers. This 
also some writers relate about Heracles ; he traversed 
all the earth and sea, and when he had rid the earth 
of evil monsters be found in the sea a jewel much 
aiTected by women. And thus, even to our day, 
those who bring exports from India to our country 
purchase these jeweb at great price and export 
them, and all Greeks in old time, and Romans now 
who are rich and prosperous, are more eager to buy 
the sea pearl, as it is called in the Indian tongue ; 
for that Heracles, the jewel appearing to him charm- 
ing, collected from all the sea to India this kind of 
pearl, to adorn his daughter. And Megasthenes 
says that this oyster is taken with nets ; that it is a 
native of the sea, many oysters being together, like 
bees; and that the pearl oysters have a king or 
queen, as bees do. Should anyone by chance capture 



avWaffott Tovrov hi evtrrrcdif w€pi0d\Xttp teal 
TO &\Xo afivjvo^ TQ»y ^lapyapiritav ti ht Sia^i^oi 
e^^ 6 0a4r^\ti^, toiatoi Bi ovxiri Otjparov^ tlvtu 
Toi^ &k\ovs' rov^ ciXorra? Bk irtpiopap icaraaa* 
wijtfeu c^iai rr)¥ aap^a, r^ Bi oirrtM i^ tc6<Tfiov 
13 yfiac$a%. Kal §lva^ yikp koX wap* luBoiai rov 
fiapyapirtjv rpi<jrd<jiov xayk nfiijv wpo^ \pwiiov 
TO &W€^$ov, KoX rotrro ip rp 'IpBiltp y^ hpvcaopwop, 
IX. *£» 2^ T$ Y«#P2y TovTji, l»a ifiaciXtuatP 

tOuydrifp rov ilpateXia^^ T^f fi^p yvpaltca^ 
roiTffav iovca^ U &pfiP ydfiov iivait rov^ hk 
JLfBpas rtcaapditopja h§a rk wXiiara fiimcKMc- 

% 0ai. Kal Irwip tovtov XtyofittPOP Xiytp ^Iptu 
wop* *lpBc4ff ur 'Hpa*\ia, O'^tyopou oi ytPOfihni^ 
T% iraiJot. iwtirt Brf ^77^9 ifiaOtp imur^ iov^av 
TffP rtXttnifP, ovic iyopra 6r^ dvBpH ixB^ r^p 
W€uBa imvToO iva^im, airrop tuyi)vai rj naihl 
htrairti iovc-n, m yipo^ i( oi Tt MUKtipti^ inro- 

% XtiitMaStu *lpiiMf /9atfiX«ac. Hoifjaai &p avrtfp 
'HpaxXia mpaifjp ydpov koX i* rovh€ dirap ro 
y6m^ rouro Srov 1} TlapBaiff iirijpft, ravrop 

4 'nOro yipa^ ^X*^^ irapk *li oaxXio^, *Efiol Bi 
iaaitt, tiW€p mp ik i^ roaopot drawa 'llpaxXirf^ 
olof Tt ^ i^€pydl^<taBai, koX alnop dwo^rjpai 
ftaxpoffidnepop, m »poip fuyrjpai rfj waiBL 

$ *AXX^ yikp §1 ravra (rwkp t^ &pfi^ r&p ravrjf 
waiBmp drp^Mia iar\p, i^ ravrop ^ip€iP Box^€i 
ipiotyt h o riwip teal inrip reap apBpStP r^^ 
ilXiKirj^ on r€<r<rapaKOPTovrt«^ dwoOprjatcovatP 

6 oi irptaffvTaTOi ainHtp. OU yap ro rt yfjpa^ 
roff^Bt rayyrMpop hr€px€rai icaX 6 Bdparo^ 
Ofiov T^ yVP^ wdprms irov teal ^ dtcfirj wpo^ 

VIII. (INDICA) 8. ia-9. 6 

the king, he can easily sarround the rest of the 
oysters ; but should the king slip through, then the 
others cannot be taken ; and of those that are taken, 
the Indians let their flesh rot, but use the skeleton 
as an ornament. For among the Indians this pearl 
sometimes is worth three times its weight in solid 
goM, which Is itself dog ap in India. 

IX. In this ooontrj where Herades' daughter was 
queen, the girk are marriageable at seven years, 
and the men do not live longer than forty years. 
About this there is a story among the Indians, that 
I leracks, to whom when in mature years this daughter 
was bom, realising that his own end was near, and 
knowing of no worthy husband to whom he might 
bestow his daughter, himself became her husband 
when she was seven, so that Indian kings, their 
children, were left behind. Heracles made her then 
marriageable, and hence all the royal race of Pandaea 
arose, with the same privilege from Heracles. But 
I think, even if Heracles was able to aooompUsh 
anything so absurd, he could have lengthened his 
own life, so as to mate with the girl when of maturer 
years. But really if this about the age of the girls 
in this district is true, it seems to me to tend the same 
way as the men's age, since the oldest of them die at 
forty years. For when old age comes on so much 
sooner and death with age, maturity will reasonably 



7 Xoyov TOW riKio^ raxvripirf iitavditi' wo-Tt 
rptaKoinovru% fUp mfioytpovrg^ &» wov mUv 
ainolauf oi &if^p€^, Miicoci Si irta ytyovort^ oi 
!{•• 4/9i|^ vtffviiTKOi- ff hi dtepordrif rjfftj dfi^l 
rd w€rT€Kaih€Ma irta* icaX rym ywai(\p wptf 
Tov ydfiov tcarii \orfOP Av ovrm 4^ rk hrrii frta 

8 avfiffaiiHH. Kal ykp rov^ itaprwov^ iv ravTfi 
T$ X«P9 wnraivwBaL t< raxvrtpap ftiw rrj^ 
HXXtj^, aino^ ovro^ MrfaaOhnf^ di4ypay^t, ical 

9 ^Olvtttf raxyrtpop. *Avo uhf S^ ^lovvaov 
fiaaiXia^ vfpi$fA40p *lphoi h iaphpoMorrov rp€U 
xai iftinriKOtna icai ixarop, frta Bi, hvo seal 
rtacapdicotrra gal <(a4ri^j^iXia* ^v hi rovrotai 
rpi^ TO wav fiV i\€v6€pifjtf • • rtfif Bi mil ^ 
rpii)i(6ata* rifp hi tilscoci t« irit^v koX iiearotf* 

10 vp€e0vTtp6¥ r§ ^iwvcop 'Wpaic\^^ hixa itaX 
wipr€ y€¥€riatp *\¥hoi Xiyovcip* dXkjop Ik ovhipa 
ili$aXtiP i^ yrip rijp *lphAp ^vl woXtfi^, ovhi 
Kvpop TOP Kap/9vtfCM, koLtoi M ^icvBa^ iXd- 
aavra mal t&Xka woXvwpafffiOpiararop hif rmp 
ma-rk rffp *A<ruiP fiaaiXimu ytpoftfpop top Kvpop* 

11 uWd *A\€(aphpop yap ixBtlp t« koX itparfj^ai 
wdpT^p rourip owXoiatp, 6<rovs y€ hvf iiri)\0€* 
icaX Ap ical wdtrrmp Mparifaeu, fi ti arparitf 

IS ffStXiP. Ov pkp hti ovhi *\ph€dP rtpa e(M rfj^ 
oLtfitff^ araXfjptu itrl woXifi^ htk hucatorrjra. 

X. Aiyrrai hi ga\ rdhtt fonffi^ia on ^\pho\ 
TOif TcX€trrf/<ra<7iy ov woiiovatp, dXKk rk^ 
dp€ra^ ykp tmv dvhptap ixapd^ i^ fun^^rjp rideinai 
rourip diroOopovci, tceu rd^ tfihd^ cu avToiaip 
2 iirahomai, WoXimp hk dpiBfjtop ovtc €lva^ dp 
drp€X€^ dvaypd^ai r&p *\vhncu>p viro irXijOso^* 

VIII. (INDICA) 9. 6-10. 2 

be earlier, in proportion to the end ; so that at thirty 
the men might be on the threshold of old age, and 
at twenty, men in their prime, and manhood at about 
fifteen, so that the women mi^ht reasonably be 
marriageable at seven. For that the fruits ripen 
earlier in this country than elsewhere, and perish 
earlier, this Megasthenes himself tells us. From 
Dionysus to Sandracottus the Indians counted a 
hundired and fifty-three kings, over six thousand and 
forty-two years, and during this time thrice [move- 
ments were made] for liberty . . . this for three 
hundred years ; the other for a hundred and twenty 
years; the Indians say that Dionysus was fifteen 
generations earlier than Heracles; but no one else 
ever invaded India, not even Cyrus son of Cambytes, 
though be made an expedition against the Scythians, 
and in all other ways was the most energetic of the 
kings in Asia ; but Alexander came and conquered 
by force of arms all the countries be entered ; and 
would have conquered the whole world had his army 
been willing. But no Indian ever went outside his 
own country on a warlike expedition, so rigbteoos 
were they. 

X. This also is related ; that Indians do not put 
up memorials to the dead; but they regard their 
virtues as sufficient memorials for the departed, and 
the songs which they sing at tlicir funerals. As for 
the cities of India, one coold not record their number 
accurately by reason of their multitude ; but those 


aXXJi yap oaat wapairoTdfuat ainiww ^ irapoBa' 

5 \aaaiai, ravrac /«^y (vXiva^ wotUaOai* ov ykp 
thai im irXLvOov wouofUva^ Btap/ciaai ^irl XP^^ 
rov Tff vBaro^ fp€xa tou i( ovpavovt koX ar^ oi 
worafiol avTolatv vwtpffdXXomt^ inrkp rk^ SvSa^ 

4 ^/AirivXacri tou CSaro^ rit ireSia. "Octu M ip 
vw€p60(ioiai T« teat fitrtatpoia i roirota^ gal rov- 
roicip {nfrtfXounv, tptcta^iivai tlci, ravra^ h^ iic 

A wXipOov Tf tetu wtfXov iroU^aBar fiMyiarrjv Bi 
w6\j¥ ip ^IvZoMiP tlvai UaXifAfioOpa teaXgOfUmip, 
hf ry UpaaUtp yj» tya ai cvfiffoXai ««Vi rov r§ 
*EptunfO06a irora/ioD gal rov Vdyy^^* rov pik¥ 
Tdrff^mt rov ptyicrov vorafitav o Bi *Epappofi6a^ 
rpiro^ p.€w &9 €ir) rm» ^Xphmw worafiAp, pif^mp Bk 
rmp dXXjf Moi ouTOf* <lXX^ ^vyx^^P^^ a^ov t^ 
Farrfff, iwuh^p ^pBdXXff h avrop ro CBttp. 

6 Kai XiyM Moyac^pf/^, ptpco^ pip iwix^^*^ "^V^ 
woKuf gar* huiripf/p rtfp wXtvpijp Ipawtp pa- 
Mpardrfi avrrj imvrifi ipKtorai U oyBorpeovra 

7 orahiov^' ro hi -rXdro^ is wnvrMKaiBtxa* rd<^pop 
Bi w€oifftffKfja6tu rj woXi ro ttpos ifdwXtOpop, 
TO M 0d6os rp^vpiopra wij^^Mmp' wvpyovs Bi 
iffBoptpcoKTa Ktd rrtpramoaiotfs /v^fiy to Tcr;^09 

• KoX irvXas riaaapas ica\ i^^gotna. Elvoi Bi xai 
T^ piya iv t$ *\pBi>v yfj, irdpras *lpBovt tlvai 
ikevOipovs, ovBt Ttpa BovXop tli^ai *IpB6p, Tovro 
pip AeunBtupovioiaiv is raifro avpffaipti xal 

9 *lpBotor AoMMBatpopioiffi pip yt oi ciXo»Tev 
BovXol tttri Ktd rk Bov\t»p ipyd^oprar *\vBoioi 
Bi ovBi dXXos BovXos icrt, pr)ri yt *\vBS>v rts. 

XI. Ntwiptpntu Bi oi rrdvrts *\vhoi is iirra 
pdkiora ytP€ds' ip pip avrolvip oi oo^iarai 

VIII. (INDICA) lo. j-ii. I 

of them which are near rivers or near the sea, they 
build of wood ; for if they were built of brick, they 
ooukl not last long because of the rain, and also 
because their rivers overflow their banks and fill the 
plains with water. But such cities as are built on 
high and lofty places, they make of brick and clay. 
The greatest of the Indian cities is called Palim> 
bothra, in the district of the Prasians, at the con- 
fluence of the Erannoboas and the Ganges; the 
Ganges, greatest of all rivers ; the Erannoboas may 
be the third of the Indian rivers, itself greater than 
the rivers of other countries ; but it jrields precedence 
to the Ganges, when it pours into it its tributary 
stream. And Megasthenes says that the length of 
the dty along either side, where it is longest, reaches 
to eighty stades ; its breadth to fifteen ; and a ditch 
has been dug round the city, six plcthra in breadth, 
thirty cubits high ; and on the wall are five hundred 
and seventy towers, and sixty-four gates. This also 
Is remarkable in India, that all Indians are free, and 
DO Indian at all is a slave. In this the Indians agree 
with the Lacedaemonians. Yet the Ljicedaemonians 
have Helots for slaves, who perform the duties of 
slaves ; but the Indians have no slaves at all, much 
less is any Indian a slave. 

XI. The Indians generally are divided into seren 
castes. Those called the wise men are less in number 



S Tifi^ y€papmraroi. Otrrc 7a/) ti t^ aa*/iaTi 
iayd(€a$tu ava-^/Kai*! a6lw ifpoaKUttu, otrrt ti 
awo^ifM^v aw* orov woi^tovatt^ ^9 to Kotpop* ovhi 
TI ^XXo upaymij^ d-nX^ itrfUai roiai iro^iaT^iy, 
5ti /i^ ^iWiy r^9 BiHiia^ rolai Otoiaip inrtp rov 

3 «oivou TMy'lvfictfir* Kai 6ari^ Bi lUa Ov€t»^^fiynrff^ 
atn^ rffi $vcitf^ tAp T19 oo^taiitiP tovtwv 
yiprrat, ak ov« ai' aXX«K K€X*H^ftUva roici Btolci 

4 dveapras. E^ai hi moI ftoprtinj^ ourot fiovpo* 
*\p6Ap BaijfMOpf^, oM i^Uai aXXf» fAOPrtvtvOai 

5 oti fAff ao^ dpipl, SlapTtvov^i 6^ oca vwip 
Twy mpiwp rov frto^ «al tf riv /« to tsoipop 
avfk^pfl KataXafAfidptr rk hi ^ihuL itdcrotat9 
oC a^p fu\u fUurrtiMadai^ 4 m ov* 4($MP90fUpfit 
rif^ /iaprtitfjs h rk Cfuteportpa, }j m oifM 

6 d(top ^trl rovroici wopita0ai, Oari^ Bi 
dfuipTOi 4^ TfH^ fuuntvcdfupo^, rovr^ Bi &\Xo 
fUP icoMOP yip€a$ai oMp, cutwap hk thai iwd- 
payMt% Tov Xoiwov* teal ovtt l^eruf 5^tiv i^ptvy^ 
mdau Tor iMpa tovtop ^pfpaai, Srov 17 ounrif 

7 KaTatclfpiTtu. Ovroi yvfipol Btair^prai oi 

ffo^iarai, rov fi4P x^^f^^^ inraidpioi iv t^ 
rouri \4tfMHri gal rolaip fktap vwo Bipoptct 

^\i^, rov Bi $ip€0^ i'nr)p o ffXio^ xari) 


fuydXoiaiP' &p rtfp axtfjp f^iapxos \iy9$ h 
whnt ir\i$pa ip KvxKip i^iKvitaSai, ica\ iLv 
Kai fivpiotfK dpdptlnrov^ inro m B€yBp€i CKid^ea- 

8 0av TtjXucavra tipai raOra ra BfpBpta^ Xiri* 
ovrai Bi tapala maX top ^Xoiov t&p B4pBp€ttp, 
yXvKVp t< opt a top ^Xotop xal rpoi^tfiop ov fi€lop 

9 fjwtp at ffdXoPQi rofp ^oufitcotp. AtvTtpoi B* ivl 


than the rest, but chiefest in honoor and regard. 
For they are under no necessity to do any bodily 
labour; nor to contribute from the results of their 
work to the common store ; in fact, no sort of con- 
straint whatever rests upon these wise men, save to 
offer the sacrifices to the gods on behalf of the 
people of India. Then whenever anyone taarificet 
privately, one of these wise men acts at inttmcior 
of the sacrifice, since othcmrise the sacrifice would 
not have proved acceptable to the gods. ThcM 
Indians also are alone expert in prophecy, and none, 
save one of the wise men, b allowed to prophesy. 
And they prophesy about the seatona of the year, or 
of anv impendiiig poblic calamity ; Imt they do not 
trouble to piophety oo private matters to in^vidoali, 
either beeante their piopbeey doea not oondeaeend 
to smaller thii^, or beeauic It it undignified for 
them to trouble about tuch thingt. And when one 
has thrice made an error in his prophecy, be does not 
suffer any harm, except that he must for ever hold 
his peace ; and no one will ever persuade such a one 

• > prophesy on whom this silence has been enjoined, 
lliese wise men spend their time naked, during the 
winter in the open air and sua^hine, but in summer, 
when the sun is strong, in the meadows and the 
marsh lands under great trees ; ^ their shade Nearchut 

omputet to reach five plethra all round, and ten 
- hotttand men could take shade under one tree ; to 
great are these trees. They eat fruits in their seaton, 
and the bark of the trees ; ' this is sweet and nutritious 
as much as are the dates of the palm. Then next to 

* The banyan. 

• P^rliapt an •rror like tkal of VII. 3 above (the bark 
•tripped, not eaten). 



rovrotffip oi ytmpyoi ciViv, ovroi xXi/^f i wXtiarot 
*Iv£^y i6tn9^' KoX rovrot<rip o6r€ 5irXa iarlv 
aptjia OVTM fUXti ra woXifua fpya, AkXii rijv 
Xi^p^P ohot ipya^ot^ar xai rov^ ^opov^ roiai 
Tf ffa9i\€vai Ktu T^i noXiCtv, oaai avroyofiot, 

10 ovroi airo^povcr koX €i iroXtfto^ h aXXrjXou^ 
Tola IV ^Ivhola^ rvyoi^ ritv ipyat^OfUvttp rtiv yrjv 
ov 6ifU^ ffi^tp HwrtcBoi, oM avr^v r^y yfftf 
rifumip^ dXX^ m ^r woXt^iovai leal garateaipov' 
aiv aXXi^Xot;^ oirw rvyottp, o! B^ nXff^iop a\n&p 
Kar ticvxifl^ apovoiv ^ rpvywrtp ^ tcXaBovauf ^ 

11 $€pi(ovatP, Tpiroi ^4 tiaiP *lpBolffUf oi vopit^, 
oi voifuvts T« Kal ^ovMoXoit Koi ovroi ovrt /rard 
voXiav oCt€ ip T^i ttrnfif^tp oimiova, l^oudB^K 
ri tici Koi ap^ rik o6p€a ffioTtvovctt ^opop ci teal 
ovrot airo tS>v Krrjpit^v airoi^ipown* itai dtjptvov- 
cvf olnoi apk r^p X'^P^^ SpptOd^ t« ttal Sypta 

XII. Tiraprop W iart to Brjfuovpyucop Tt ical 
gawrfXiJCOP yiPO^* Kai ovroi Xtirovpyoi tlai, icaX 
^pop awo^povcip air 6 r&p fpyt»v riav a^t- 
Tipmp, wXiJi' 7€ tt) ocoi fk aprjla oirXa iroiiovaiv 
ovTOi 5^ xal fuaSov itc rov Kotpov irpocXappdvov- 
aiP. *Ev Bi TOirrf> r^ 'vivti oi tc pauirrfyol xal 
oi vavrai tlatp, oaoi icara -rov^ irorapov^ irXtaovai, 

t ritf^iTTov h^ yipo^ icrlp *lpBoiaiP oi voXtfiurral, 
wXijBti flip htvTtpop ptrk rov^ ytvpyov^, irXeiarrj 
hk iXtvOepifj Tc ical tvOvpijj iiriyptop^pov koX 
oiroi a^Mfjrai fiovvmp tS)v iroXgfUKCJV Hpywv tiai. 

tTkZi oirXa &XXoi axnolai rroiiouai, xal iirrrov^ 
^fXXoi wapexpv^i' iceu Ztaxopiovauf iirl arparo- 
TriBov ^XXoi, ot TOW T« twirov^ atnolci $epa- 



thete eome the fannen, these bciiig the most 
numeroiit daas of Indians; thej have no use ibr 
warlike arms or warlike deeds, but they till the land ; 
and they pay the taxes to the kings and to the cities, 
such as are self-goTeniing ; and if there is internal 
war among the Indians, they may not touch these 
workers, and not even devastate the land itself; but 
some are making war and slaying all comers, and 
others close hy are peacefuUy ploughing or gathering 
the fruits or shaking down apples or harvesting. 
The third dass of Indians are the herdsmen, pastureis 
of sheep and cattle, and these dwell neither by dtlet 
nor in the villages. They are "**"*it* and get their 
living oQ the hUkides, and they pay taxes firom their 
animals; they hont also Mrds and wild game In the 

XII. The fourth class is of artisans and shop- 
keepers; these are w o r k e rs , and pay tribute from 
their works, save such as make weapons of war; 
these are paid by the community. In this class are 
the shipwrights and sailors, who navigate the riven. 
The fifth class of Indians is the sokiiers' class, next 
after the fanners in number ; these have the greatest 
freedom and the most spirit. They practise military 
povults only. Their weapons others forge for them, 
and again others provide horses ; others too serve in 
the camps, those who groom their horses and polish 



ircuouai Kol T^ ovXa ^KMaOaipovai ical rov^ 
iXj^€unaK ifovct icaX r^ &pfiara Kocftiovai t« 
4 KoX f^vio^cvoi/aiy. Kvroi hi, Ifar* hp ftkw voXt- 
fuup hijf, woXtiUotww, •ipriVTf^ h^ ywofUyrf^ 
€u0vfUoirrar xal a^uf fttado^ iic tov icoipov 
Toaoaht Hpxrrai^ ti»^ icai IXXow rp4^iP inr 

6 avTov €vpapim9, *Erroi hi Mtp *lyhoictv oi 
iiricKOWoi «aX«o/MPM. O^oi i^pA^i ra yiPO' 
ftMva Kara rt rffp X^P^ '^^ Mar^ rk^ voXiof* 
mmi ratha apoyyiXXovc^ r^ ffa^iXii, tpawtp 
ffaatXtvomai *lphoi, ^ rota^i riXtaiv, Xvair^p 
airctfOfim tlai* xaX rovrotaip ov 6ifu^ yfrtvBo^ 
iffyttXtu ovhip* oM Ti« *lphiap airirjv /<r;^c 

« ^vffaaBa*, 'E^SSofioi h4 tiViy ot vwkp rw 
KoiptlfP ffov\mf0ft€pm oftov r^ ffaaiXii, ^ ^otA 
Tikf woXia^ 6a ai avropofioi avv rnaip dp^vai, 

7 llXffOtl fu¥ oXiyop TO y4po^ toDto tort, ao^ff hi 
Kol hueatoTffri ig wdmmv irpoKtKpifUPOir fv$€p 
Oi T« dpxomi^ avroiatp iiriXiyomai /cal S<roi 
poiidpXBU KoX (rwapxo* koI B^avpo^vXatci^ rt 
Mol arparo^vXoMi^, povapxoi r€ icaX rafiiai, teal 

8 ri$p «aT^ ytmpyifjp fpy^p iinararai, VafiitiP hi 
i( iripov yipto^ ov BifU^, olop roici ytwpyoiaip 
im TOV hrjpuovpyttcoif, 4 tfiiraXiP' ovhi 6vo lixpa^ 
itnrrjhtvtip top airop, ovhi rovro Oifu^' ovhi 
dfitifftip i( hipov ytPto^ ciV fr^pop, olop ytttpy^' 
MP ix pofuo^ y€pio6ai, ^ POfUa im hfffUovpy$tcov, 

• Maupop e^uTip aptlrai cw^iCTtiP iic wavro^ 
yipto^ y€P€a6tu* on ov fiaXOatcd roiai ao^ia- 
rpciP fiVi T^ vpfjyfuna, dXXd 'rrdp70}p Ta\ai- 

Xm. Sffpiaffi hi *\phoi rd flip dXXa dypia 

VIII. (INDICA) la. J-13. I 

their weapons, guide the elephants, and keep in 
order and drive the chariots. They themselves, when 
there is need of war, go to war, but in time of peace 
they make merry; and they receive so much pay 
from the conmiunity that they can easily from their 
pay support others. The sixth class of Indians are 
those called overkMkers. They oversee everything 
that goes on in the country or in the cities ; and this 
they report to the King, where the Indians are 
governed by kings, or to the authorities, where they 
are indepradent To tbcM it is illegal to make 
any fidse report; nor was any Indian erer aecaaed 
of such fakiBcation. The seventh class is those who 
deliberate about the community together with the 
King, or, in such cities as are self-governing, with 
the authorities. In number this cIms is nnal], but 
in wisdom and uprightness it bears the palm from all 
others ; from this class are selected their governors, 
district g o ve r nor s , and deputiet, coftodlaiia of the 
treasures, officers of army and navy, financial officers, 
and overseers of agricultural works^ To marry out of 
any class is unlawful— as, fur instance, into the farmer 
class from the artisans, or the other way ; nor most 
the same man practise two pursuits; nor change 
from one class into another, as to turn farmer from 
shepherd, or shepherd from artisan. It is only 
permitted to join the wise men out of any class ; for 
their business is not an easy one, but of all most 
Xlll. Most wiU animals which the Greeks hunt 



$f)pia, tcardwep xal "EXX^^vcv* ^ Bi r&p iKt^dtf' 
rmv a^lp O^pff ovBip ri ^XXi; HouctP, Sn teal 
ravra ra Bfipia ovhafiolciv oKXoiai $9)pioiaitf 

S hriouttP. *AXX^ rowop yap iviXtfdfUPOi dir^p 
gat xavfiarm^a ip kvk\^ rd^pop opvaaovatPt 
oaop firfoK^ arparawiS^ iiravXiaaadeu, T^ 
^ rd^pov TO €vp4>^ i^ wipTM opryvia^ troiforrai, 

S 0d0o^ Tff is rtaaapas. Top Bk yoop Sprufa 
imfiakXovcuf im rov opvyfiaros, iw\ r^ >^tiXta 
huvnpa T»)v yd^pov iiri^prfatunts, dprl Tciy<09 

4 haxpiio ivr ai' axnoX hk tfVi Tf» xmitan toO Jiri- 
Xiikiot rov i^m T^ rd^pov axffpds a^ip opvicrks 
woUoPTtu, «a2 Bik rovrimp owks inroXtiwoproi* 
Bi mp ^«k Tff avjolffi avp€icipxrr«u koX t^ Btipla 
wpoffdyopra irol iatXavpopra is to fptcos o'cffir- 

5 Toprai, *EinavOa ipros rov fpK€os icaracrri' 
eoprts ri^p ripas Ofj^i^p rptU 4 reccapas, Satu 
ftdXuara rop Svfiop xttpofj0€^, fuap ttaoBop 
diroXtfAirdpovci Mark rtfp rd^pop, yt^vptoccunns 
rfjp rd^pQP* KoX ravrjf ^^^ ^' '^^^ iroirjp wo\Kf)p 
im^pova rov ^tj dpittfKop tlpoi rola^ Orjpioia^ 

6 rtjp 'Mvpop, iLfi npa BoXop oicBtHJtp. Avrol 
ftip ovp iicwoBrnp a^s hfovai icark reap atcffpimp 
rcjif inro^ t§ rd^p^ SiBvKarts. Oi W ifrpioi 
iXi^prts rffUpffs fJ^P ov irffXa{bt/o'i rol^tp oiKto- 
^tpoici, PVKrmp Bi ir\apt$praL rt irdprrj xaX 
dy€\»fB6p pifioprai r^ fityicr^ Koi y€PPaiordrtp 
a^p iwo/iitpot, icardirtp tu ffots relict ravpoiaiv, 

7 'Kirff^ir &p T^ ipK€i irtXdataai, rt)P Tff ^pffp 
dxovopr€s rAp OffXittp K<d rj oBfiy cdaBapopMPOi, 

s fcr^ to diScalt ; it shoold mmn ** down in " ; 8climi«ld 



VIII. (INDICA) 13. 1-7 

the Indians hunt also, but these have a way of 
liunting elephants unlike all other kinds of hunting, 
j ust as these animals are unlike other animals. It is 
this; thej choose a place that is level and open to 
the sun's heat, and dig a ditch in a circle, wide 
enough for a great army to camp within it. They dig 
the ditch Byc fathoms broad, and four deep. The 
earth which they throw out of the ditch they heap on 
either side of the ditch, and so use it as a wall ; then 
they make shelters for themselves, dug out of the 
wall CD the outside of the ditch, and leave small 
windows in them ; through these the light comes to, 
and also they watch the ■«■*■»•*■ *'**»fa»g in and 
charging into the enclosure. Then within the 
endotiire they leave some three or four of the 
females, those that are tamest, and leave only one 
entrance by the ditch, making a bridge over it; and 
here they heap much earth and graM to that the 
animals cannot distinguish the bridge, and to sotpcct 
any guile. The hunters then keep themselves out 
of the way, hiding under the shelters dug in the 
ditch. Now the wild elephants do not approach 
inhabited pkces by daylight, but at night they wander 
all about and feed in herds, (blbwing the largest and 
finest of tlieir number, as cows do the bulb. And 
when they approach the ditch and hear the trumpeting 
of the females and perceive them by their scent, they 



hpofti^ Uvrtu «»« hrl top yi^pop top irt^payfihfop' 
iinrtfH€\$6pT9% hk r^ Tii^pov ta x^^*^ <^* ^^ 
TJ y€^vpjj 4wiTvx*t^i, KaTk Tavrrjp i^ to iptto^ 

• iSioprai. Oi hi apBfmwoi aiaOofUpoi Ttfp icohop 
tS^ iXjt^PTmp Twy aypi^p, oi fihf ainitp r^y 
yi^vp€LP oNm^ a^TKop, oi Bi ^irl Ta^ iriXa^ 
temfia^ awoopm^itfTtK ayyiXXova^ tov^ Ai^orrof 

• Sri ip T^ ipiMi IvomroA* oi 6i axovaopTtK imfiai' 
povai TUP KparlaTUP t« top $vfiOP xal tup 
Xt»poft0€OTdTmp {Kt^PTUPt i'WifidpTt^ Bi ikau- 
POVCiP m ^l t6 fpMO^, i\aaairr€^ Bi ovm avritea 
l^ixn SwropTtUt aXX* iluai yap \tfi^ re TaXa<- 
wmp^Oifvtu Toif^ 6ypiou^ iXi^opTa^ ical vwh r^ 

10 {/^ffi BavXM0iiP€u. EuT* ikp Bi a^i^i komA^ 
ijfUP BoM^mai, Trfptxaiha imoTriatun^^ atSiK 
Tnp yi^vpap iKavvovai t« m^ i^ to tpxo^^ icaX t^ 
/tip wpmra iiaxil i^rarat tepartprj roiatp rifUpoiai 
TUP ikt^dtnup irpo^ toi/^ iaXwKoTa^* Hjrtna 
mparioprai flip xaTk to €uco^ oi AyptOi inro 
Tff Tn aBvfUji kqX r^ \ip^ TaXaiirupiVfUPOt, 

11 Oi M ctiro TUP fka^atnup KaraffapTt^ waptifU- 
wo^w 4^ TolaiP wypiouTi roir^ iroBa^ atcpov^ 
0vMovcur fwtira iyxtX^voproi Toitrtp rifUpoic$ 
wXffy^ai c^^ KoXdl^tiP TroW^aiv, ioT &p (Ktlpoi 
TaXaiwuptVfitvoi i^ yrjp wiatoar TrapaardpTts 
Bi fipoxov^ 7r€pt0aXXovciP ainolci Kark tov^ 

IS aifX^va^* fcaX ainoi iTrifiaipovci tcufUpoun, Tou 
Bi fAfj dvoatUoOtu Toifs dfxffdra^ f^V^i ti aWo 
aTcurddKop ipydl^taBai, top rpdx*l'Xov axnolaiv 
ip kvkX^ /la^a^p^V ^(^^ iiririfipovai, xal top 
Ppoxop tcaTit TtfP TOfifjp wepiBiovaip, d>^ drpifia 
e;^eiy tijp ict^aXrip re icaX top t/><i;^v^Xov inro tov 

VIII. (INDICA) 13. 7-ia 

rush to the walled enclosure; and when, working 
round the outside edge of the ditch, they find the 
bridge, thej push across it into the enclositre. Then 
the hunters, perceiving the entrj of the wild ele- 
phants, some smartly remove the bridge, others 
hurrying to the neighbouring Tillages report that the 
elephants are caught in the endosore; and the 
inhabitants on hearing the news mount the most 
spirited, and at the same time most disciplined 
elephants, and then drive them towards the enclosure, 
and when thej have driven them thither they do not 
at once join battle, but allow the wild elephants to 
grow distressed by hunger and to be tamed by thirst. 
But when they think they are sufficiently distressed, 
then they erect the bridge again, and enter 
the eockisiire; and at first there Is a fierce battle 
between the tamed elephants and the captives, and 
then, as one would expect, the wild elephants are 
tamed, distressed as they are by a sinkii^ of their 
spirits and by hunger. Then the riders diamounting 
from the tamed elephants tie together the feet of 
the now languid wikl ones; then they order the 
tamed elephants to punish the rest by repeated 
bkms, till in tbelr distress they fall to earth ; then 
they come near them and throw nooses round their 
nedcs ; and cUmb on them as they lie there. And 
that they may not toss their drivers nor do them 
any injury, they make an indslon In their necks with 
a sharp Imife, all round, and bind their noose roond 
the wonnd, so that by reason of the sore they keep 

T<»l. I!. 



13 <Xirco9. £i 7^ 'W€iHarp44>ourTo inro aracOaXiti^, 
Tpi/Brra^ axnotai ro tktco^ tnro r^ icd\^, OCrm 
fi(¥ &v arpifUk tayovai, teal atnoi ypwatfAayiomt^ 
i)Bf) ayovrai Kara ro¥ B€a^w irpo^ tmv fifUp^v, 

XIV. *0<roi hi vrfWioi avrm¥ ^ 5i^ icaKortfra 
ovK a(tot iierifcOtu, rovrov^ iStoiP affaKKaTTta- 

2 6«u is rk a^rtpa ffita, *A7orrff^ hi th ra^ 
Kmfia^ Tovs aXotrraK rov rg yX«*pot) xa\afU)v ical 

2 rff^ noifi^ TA trpinra ifn^aytiP icooaw oi hk tnro 
oBvfurj^ ovK iuiXovciv ovlkw airUaOait roi/^ 6^ 
WMptlardfuitiH oi *lySol ^Bauri re teal rvfiwdvoiai 
Ka\ mf/ifiaXotaiP iv KVicXif^ Moovomi^ re ical 

4 cir^5orrtv xartvpa^ovo'i, Hiz/ioao^oy ykp ttwtp 
Ti &XXo Bfipiop o tki^a^' Koi Tii^ ^f; airritv 
Tovf afifidraK a^p iv woXifi^ diroBavovra^ 
&paPT€s avroi i^rivryKav h ra^rjv, oi hi xal 
vwwptjcvtaop tettfUpov^, oi hi leal irtaoprtap 
irpO€Miphup€vaap' 6 hi tic trpos opyrjp diroKTtipa^ 
ro9 ^iifidrrip vwo firrapoinf^ rt xal dOvfutf^ dtri- 

ft $0999, ETSov hi Ify^t teal uvfAffaXifopra Hhrj 
iXA^pTa teal dXXov^ 6px<tofUpov^, Kvp^dXoiP 
T^ KVfiffaXi^oPTt * wpo^ roip agtXoiP roiiP ffiwpo- 
cBmp irpOiTrjp7y)fi4PotPt gal irpo^ r^ vpoffocicihi 

6 KaXtofiiPT) dXXo ievp.0aXo9' o hi ip fUpti r^ 
wpofioffKthi ticpov€ ro KVfipaXop ip pvBfi^ trpo^ 
kmaripoiv roiW aKtXolw oi hi opxtofupoi ip 
KvkXiit T€ ixop€VOP, Mat iircupopri^ rt leal iwi- 
Kd^iitropT^^ rk UfAirpoaBep axiXea ip r^ f^P^i iv 
pvBfi^ Ked oxrroi effatpop, tearori 6 icvfiffaXi^mp 

7 c^icip vwffyirro, Beuptrat hi iXi^a^, ^po^ 

> K^pkfiixm and '^ffrmiiv*^ Hercb«r, bot od« oymbftl ttriket 


VIII. (INDICA) 13 ,7 

their heads and necks still. For were they to turn 
round to do mischief, the wound beneath the rope 
chafes them. And so they keep quiet, and per- 
cdving that they are conquered, they are led off by 
the tamed elephants by the rope. 

XIV. Such elephants as are not yet full grown or 
from tome defect are not worth the acquiring, they 
allow to depart to their own lairs. Then they lead 
off their captives to the villages and fir&t of all give 
them green shoots and grass to eat ; but they, from 
want of heart, are not wilU^g to eat anjrthing ; so 
the Indians range themaehret about them and with 
songs and drums and Cjrmbab, beating and singing, 
lull them to sleep. For if there is an intelligent 
animal, it b the elephant. Some of them have been 
known, when their drivers have perished in battle, to 
have caught them up and carried them to burial; 
others have stood over them and protected them. 
Others, when they have fallen, have actively fought 
for them; one, indeed, who in a passion slew his 
driver, died from remorse and grief. I myself have 
seen an elephant clanging the cjrmbals, and others 
(lancing ; two C3rmbab were fastened to the player's 
forelegs, and one on his trunk, and he rhythmically 
beat with his trunk the cymbal on either leg in turn ; 
the dancers danced in circle, and raising and bending 
their forelegs in turn moved also rhythmically, as 
the player with the C3rmbals marked the time for 
them. The elephants mate in spring, as do oxen 



upTft Mardirtp ffoih 4 iirwos, /ircAy r^ai OtiXiffa^p 
al Trap^ roici tcpord^tauf ayairvotd dvoiydMiaiu 
imiFwimci* tcvtt Bi ^ov^ iXax^'rov^ fUP ixKolB^ica 
fikfjva^, rov^ wXti^rov^ hi oirrmKoihtica' rUrt^ hk 
ly. Kardirtp iinrcK* Ktu roxno iicrpi^i r^ 7^- 

8 Xa/cTi i^ frcK i^hoo¥, Zuai hk ixt^amup oi 
w>uMra irta ^mirrts ^^ 5ii7«oaia* iroXXol tlk 
povff^ wpoTtXtvrmciW avr^i^' Tip^i ^ ^^ roa^it 

% ipxomai, Kal fcriw avroiffi rmv fUw o^aXpMv 
tfffia TO 06fiov ydXa ijYfOfUPOv, wpo^ Bk ra^ 

roiauf {kMta$ tA (ma xpia owrmugpa teal /cara- 
wac^ofUPO^ Taiha trap *\pBoicur itmp ainolaiw 

XV. Tot) Bi Ai^orrov ro» riyptp iroXXoy t« 
AkMifuintpop *\pBoi Stfovai, Tiyoto^ Bk BopiiP 
mhf iB€ip XSyu N^opvof, avr^ M rlyptv^ ovtc 
IfifSr* dXkk Tovf *Ipoov^ fkp innrtit^tu, riypw 
thnu fiiy^Bo^ fiiv tfXLKOv toy tuyiarov Xmrov, rtfp 
Bi mtcvrtfra nal oXjctjp o7rf¥ ovB^pi d\\^ tUfureu' 

S TifpiP yito, hnkp Ofuw iKBjf iXJ^iurri, iiriirrfBap 
rt ivl rtfp K9^\f)v rov ikt^tLvro^ koX ay\tip 

t tinrtTtt^^. Tavras Bi daripa^ xal rffuU opioiup 
icaX riypia^ icaXioptP, BUm^ elva* aioXov^ xal 

4 fU^ova^ V^tp fov^ dXXov^ 0ma^. 'Eirci xal virkp 
ri»p fivpfiTficmp \iy€i Siapx^^ fivofiJiKa fihf airro^ 
PVM iBmiP, oiroiop Bri riva prr^fertpoi Biiypa'^ap 
9fi9^r$ai ip rp *IpBw yfj, Bopk^ Bi xal rointav 
t^Btlp iroXka^ I^ TO arparotrtBop KaraicopuaOtiaa^ 

ft TO \iaictBopiic6p, MeyaaOetrrj^ Bi K£U drptxia 
tlptu tnrip rtiP fivpfiijKWP top \6yop laroptti, 
' HAupt't 'WKm09i^i9w it likelj. 


VIII. (INDICA) 14. 7-15. 5 

and hones, when cerUin pcnres about the temples of 
the females open and exhale; the female bears its 
oftpring sixteen months at the least, eighteen at 
most ; it has one foal, as does a mare ; and this it 
stickles tin iU eighth jear. The longcst-liYed 
elephants survive to two hundred jears; but many 
die before that by disease ; but as far as mere age goes, 
they reach this age. If their eyes are affected, 
cow's milk injected cures them ; for their other wkk* 
nesses a draught of dark wine, and for their wounds 
swine's flesh roast, and laid 00 the spot, are good. 
These are the Indian remedies for them. 

XV. The Indians regard the tiger as much stronger 
than the elephant. Ncarchus writes that he had 
seen a tiger's skin, but no tiger ; the Indians record 
that the tiger Is In slse as great as the largest horse, 
and its swiftness and strength without parallel, for a 
tiger, when it meets an elephant, leaps on to the 
head and easily throttles it. Those, however, which 
we see and call tigers are dappled jackals, but larger 
than ordinary jackals. Nay, about ants also 
Nearchtts says that he himself saw no ant, of the 
sort which some writers have described as native of 
India ; he saw, however, several of their skins brought 
into the Macedonian camp. Megasthenes, however, 
confirms the aoooonts given about these ants ; that 



rovrotfs tZMU rov^ rov xp^^^^ opvaaowras, oinc 
avrov rou x^i/aoi) fvttca, aXK^ ^vci ykp icark rtj^ 
ytj^ opvcoovaiv, 7va ^Xivouv, Mardwtp ol f)fUrt' 
poi 04 CfUKpol fivpfirjK^ 6\iyoy rij^ yrj^ opvcaovaiv 

6 iMtiPCV% h^t «Zmu yap dX^-rritctay fii^opa^, irpo^ 
Xoyaw rod it/tylO§os a^iav teal rifv yijp opvctrtiv 
Tffv hi 7^1^ xpvclri9 cZmi4, Koi dirh ravTfi^ 

7 yit^aSai Mi^i^t tot xptwop. *AXXA Mtyaa- 
$hnii% T« oMofiv dirtfyi€r<u» xal iym 6ri ovhiw 
rovrov drptK4ar§pop dpaypdyjrai t)(u, dirirjfu 

% hci»p ro¥ vwip rmw fAVpfniump X^Toy. ^rraxov^ 
Bi SiapYo^ M^ ^ o^ Ti BAfM dwfuUrai ori 
yipomat 4P r$ *Iv5^v yjj, leal OKotos 8pPi^ icrlp o 

9 atrramo^t xal Swm^ ^ttifp Tfi dpBpmwivfiv, *£>/«> 
Ik 5ti aino^ T« voXXovv owmw^a kpX &KKo%f^ 
iwiarafUpovs oiSa top Spvida, ovhkp m^ drawov 
ti^€P hiYf^OfUU' oifBi vwip rbiv in$/}tca»p rou 
fiimf4099^, ^ or I xaXol rrap *{vhoU triOfftcoi €iatp, 
oM 5«i»9 BftpStprtu tp4m. Kal yap raOra 
ypttptfUL ipita, irXiip yi lij, Sri xaXol irov ifiBnKOi 

10 ciVi. Kai 6^ui^ hk Xiyti Ncapvov Or)p4u$rjpai 
aioXovs fi€P ical rayia^' fUy^Oo^ ti, hp fikp X^«« 
iXtlp lUiOt^pa TOP * AvnytPto^} irvfx^mp m9 
ixKaiBtica' avrov^ hk rov^ *\pBov^ woXif fU^opa^ 

11 rovrttp XiytiP tluai rov^ fieylarov^ 6^$a^. "Oaoi 
Bk Iffrpol ''CXXf7ye^, rovroiaip ovhkv dsto^ iftvprj- 
rai oari^ vwo 6^io^ hrj^Otitj *lpBtxov' dXX* avrol 
ykp ol *Ii^i lotpro rov^ irXrjyiprav ical iirX 
r^it Niapxo^ Xkytr avXX€\typ4vov^ «/*♦* avrop 

QiMry, 'Ayib**^* t ^Qt poaubly oiider Mine textoAl oor* 
niptioa or gloat there lurke e w^^ or pjtbon. A (Vindo* 
boDeneie) bM U iimpt u 

VIII. (INDICA) 15. 5-11 

ants do dig up gold, not indeed for the gold, but as 
the J naturally burrow, that they may make holes, 
just as our small ants excavate a small amount of 
earth ; but these, which are bigger than foxes, dig 
up earth abo proportionate to their sise ; the earth 
is auriferous, and thus the Indians get their gold. 
Megasthenes, however, merely quotes hearsay, and 
as I have no certainty to write on the subject, I 
readily dismiss this subject of ants. But Nearchus 
describes, as something mfaraculons, parrots, as being 
foond in India, and describes the parrot, and how it 
utters a human voice. But I having seen several, 
and knowing others acquainted with this bird, shall 
not dilate on them as anjrthing remarkable ; nor yet 
upon the sise of the apes, nor the beauty of some 
Indian apes, and the method of capture. For I 
should only say what e re r yope knows, except perhaps 
that apes are anjrwhere beautiful. And further 
Nearchus says that snakes are hunted there, dappled 
and swift ; and that whkh he states Pcithon son of 
Antigenes to have caught,' was upwards of sixteen 
cubits ; but the Indians (he proceeds) state that the 
largest snakes are much larger than this. No Greek 
phjTsldans have discovered a remedy against Indian 
snake-bite; but the Indians themselves used to 
cure those who were struck. And Nearchus adds 

^Th« syntax does not nukke dear which was thsvietisB. See 



rarot, teal Kitct'wvKTO <U^ to ffrparoTrtiop, O0T19 

It Oi M avroi oinoi «al r&¥ &Kkm¥ vovcmv t« koX 
wa$u$p iffTpol ^eop. Ov woXX^ ^ iw ^XvhoUri 
wd0ta fiprrai, Sri at m/mu ev^fitrpoi ciViv 
m^oBr Cft &' ti M^'tbi' KaraXafifiapOi, roici 
90^icrfici¥ a¥€KOt¥Ovino' naX iictlpoi ovx av*v 

XVI. *E^rjri hi 'la^Sol Xit4n y^otnai, KaraTr^p 
Xryff« fifapxo^, \ifOu rou awo tStv BtvBptttv, 
inrip irmp poi ^tfi XcXcitTai. To hi XufO¥ rovro 
4 XafAWpoTtpop rff¥ x/^"?" ^^"''^'^ JtKKov Xipov 
watrro^, 4 pi^APt^ airrol ioirr9% Xapwportpov to 

5 XIpop ^olmaBtu woiiovcip. ''Eari hi tc^Omv 
X^Ptof tUrrok If^rt M piarriP t^m tcpiffA'rjp, tlpa hi 
rh phf W9pi rolaip tapotai irtpiffiffkfipipop, to 

9 hi wtpl r^i Kt^aX^ip MiXjypiPOP, Kol ipwrria 
*\phoi ^opiovetp iKi^vro^t Scot tcdpra €vhai' 

4 poP9%' OV ykp irdrjt^ *\ptol ^piova^, Tov^ hi 
vmywpa^ X<7«i Siapxo^ ^ti ffdirrotrrat *lphol, 
XPOi^v ^ ^XXiyi' KoX dWfiv' oi piv, m^ XtvKOv^ 
^aip^aOai, o7ov^ Xtvicorrdrov^, oi ti mvavtov^' 
T0V9 hk ^ipuciov^ fflyoi, toi^ hi xal wop^vptov^t 

6 JXXoi/f wpaaotthia^, Kal axidhta Sr$ wpofidX' 
Xovrai rov Bipto^ oaoi ovk ^p^Xtjpipoi *lvhwv, 
*Twohiipara hi Xmvxov hipparo^ <^p€ov<ri, 
irtpuraif^ Mai raura rf<rKyjp4va' /cat ra i^vfa 
TMP xnrohfipdTWP ainolai wonciXa ical tnlrrjXA, 

6 ToO pi^opa^ ^aip€aBcu, 'OirXiaio^ hi rrj^ *lphwv 
ovK diVTO^ €l9 Tpoiro^, aXX* oi pip Trcfol ai/rouri 
r6(op T€ <ixp^^^^* itropffKt^ r<p ^opiopri ro to^op, 

VIII. (INDICA) 15. 11-16. 6 

that Alexander had gathered about him Indians very 
skilled in phjrtic, and orders were sent round the 
camp that anyone bitten bj a snake was to report 
at the rojral pavilion. But these same men cured 
other diseases and illnesses also. But there are not 
many illnesses in India, since the seasons are more 
tcm|»erate than with us. If anyone is seriously ill, they 
would inform their wise men, and they were thought 
to use the divine help to cure what could be cured. 

XV'I. The Indians wear Unen garments, as 
Nearchtts says, the linen ^ coming from the trees of 
which I have already made meotkm. This linen is 
either brighter than the whiteness of other linen, or 
the people's own blackness makes it appear unusually 
bright. They have a linen tunic to the middle of the 
calf, and for outer garments, one thrown round 
about their shonlden, and one wound round their 
heads. They wear ivory ear-rings, that is, the rich 
Indians; the common people do not use them. 
Nearcfaos writes that they dye their beards various 
cokwrs ; •ome therefore have these as white-kwidng 
as possible, others dark, others crimson, others purple, 
others grass-green. The more dignified Indians use 
sunshades against the summer heat. They have 
slippers of white skin, and these too made neatly ; 
and the soles of their sandals are of different colours, 
and also high, so that the wearers seem taller. 
Indian war equipment differs; the infantry have a 
bow, of the height of the owner; this they poise 00 

* lUally ooltoo. 



MoX TovTO icdrtt M tV y^^ 04pt€^ teal r^ irolU 

7 r€vpfj¥ ^ir^ M^A owiam dwayayomt^* o yap 
oiaro^ ainoiaip okiyop dwMf$v rpiiri^x^^* ^^^ 
Ti dprtfti ro(tv0i¥ wpo^ 'Ii^SoO dpSpo^ rofiffoO, 
ot/Tf dawU ovr€ 0offn)( our€ ff ti maprtpop 

8 iyhfrro, *£r 5« t^iv dpt^rtp§^^ wiXrtu ciVii^ 
•vroZ^iv mfio06lttoit cruyartpoi fthf ^ xark rou^ 
^piomaif, fi^tcti ^ ov wo\\o¥ dwMouatu. 

9 Toi^i 3^ ^«orrfv orrl To(«y fiV/. MuYaipay 
^ wdvit^ ^opiovet, wXarhf^ B^ xal to fiijtco^ ov 
fiil^m rpiwtjxto^' teal ravrtfv, iirtdp avardhfp 
Karacr^ avrolct^ t; fidx^ (t^ Ik ovk 9vpupim^ 
*\vhoici9 h dXkfiXov^ yivrrai) d^L^olv ralp 
Xfp^^ Kara^^povaiP i^ rri» irXif/^y. roO tcap- 

10 r€pffP rtfp wXtjyrjp yfviaOat. Oi Bk imrit^ aKomia 
Bvo avrolaiv ixovirtPt ola t^ aawta iiKoima, 
gaX wi\rtfp CfUKpvripfiP Twr vffMv. Oi hk 
Xnwoi avToi^t¥ ov ataayfiiifo^ ticlv, oM 
XaXiPovmtu rolaiv '}c^\\f)vncolci X""^^^^ 4 

11 TOiVi KMKrixolaiv ifi^p4»^, dXXA ircpl ^p^ 
T^ ar opart rov tinrov iv kvkX^ ^x**^^^ hippxk 
mpo^oivop pawrov irtpii)prrjpivov' ical iv rointp 
Xd\jc€a Ktmpa ^ aBijpta, ov ledpra o^ia, tatt 
iarpapfupa' rohri Bi irXovaioiaiv ikt^dtniva 
fcitnpa iari9' ip Bk r^ or opart ciBfjpov avrolaiv 
oi iiriroi ^;^ot/<yiv, olov trtp 60€\6v, Mtv i^^prr)- 

IS piivoi tlaXv avrolfftp oi pvrrjpt^* hniip otv irra- 
ydrimai rov ovrfjpa, o rt o^Xo^ icpariti row 
Xmfovt ical ra Ktinpa, ola Bt) i( avrov rfprrjpiva, 
K€vriopra ovic ia &XKo n fj W€i0t<r0cu r^ 

VIII. (INDICA) i6. 6-ia 

the ground, and set their left foot against it, 
shoot thus ; drawing the bowstring a very long way 
back ; for their arrows are little short of three cubits, 
and nothing can stand against an arrow shot bj an 
Indian archer, neither shield nor breastplate nor 
any strong armour. In their left hands they carry 
small shields of untanned hide, narrower than their 
bearers, but not much shorter. Some have javelins 
in place of bows. All carry a broad scimitar, its 
length not under three cubits ; and this, when they 
have a hand-to-hand fight — and Indians do not 
rradily fi^ht so among themselves — they bring down 
with both hands in smiting, to that the stroke may 
be an effective one. Thdr horsemen have two 
javelins, like lances, and a small shield smaller than 
the infantry's. The horses have no saddles, nor do 
they use Greek biu nor any like the Celtic bits, but 
round the end of the horses' mouths they have an 
untanned stitched rein fitted ; in this they have fitted, 
on the inner side, bronze or iron spikes, but rather 
blunted; the rich people have ivory spikes; within 
the mouth of the horses is a bit, like a spit, to either 
end of which the reins are attached. Then when 
they tighten the reins this bit masters the horse, and 
the spikes, being attached thereto, prick the horse 
and compel it to obey the rein. 



XVU. T^ Bk cm^mra UxpoL rt ciVlv oi 'XvM 
kqX §yfuUt€^, Ktu itov^oi iroXXov Ti vwkp rovs 
iXXovt iwBfiwwoif^. *0;^f7/uiTa hi roio'i flip iroX- 
XotaiP *IM»P KafiffKoi tiai ical tniroi teal ^vo«, 

i rdlai hi tvhalfioaiP iKi^rrt^. BactXttcov ykp 
SXVfia o iKi^^ wap* *lph6iauf ian* Stvrtpov h^ 
TtfAp M rovT^ T^ riOptirwa, rpLnm hk ai 
KUfifiXoi' TO hi iw* tfvof iwwov ox^i^tu &nfiov, 

9 Ki yvpauet^ hk ayroicut, 6aai Ktipra am^povt^, 
hrl fjip aXX^ fuc0^ ovit &p ti hiaftdproitp, 
iXS^apra hi \a0ovaa yupt) ftiayrrtu tm hoprt* 
oM« altrxpop *U5<M ayov^i ro M Ai^rr« 
fuy^pat, a\\a Kal atftpop 8o«f«« r^t yvpa^^p, 

4 aflfip TO iraXXo^ ^apifptu Ai^orrof . VafUova 
hi ojrrc t« hihoprn oirrt Xafi0dpoPT€^, dXXA 
Scat i^hfi mpaioi ydfiov, ravras oi itaripn 
wpodyopr€K i^ fh ift/^apis Kartardcrtp iK\4(aeOtu 
t^ puc^oprt wdXfjp 4 *'^( 4 hpdftop, ^ mar 

5 &kXriP Tcjra dphpiffp wpoKpiOitn-t, ^rtn^dyoi hi 
Mol dpoTfUHS Iphoi iiciP, oao€ y fiif 6p4iOi 
aurAp' ovTM hi r^ Bijptta tcpia airioproi. 

6 Tavrd /i4H dwoxpV h€hf)\ma$ai vwip *lphAp, 
tea ypmptfimrara Uiapx^ ft xaX l/irtacBhnf^t 

7 hoxipM dphptf dt^paylrdrrpf iwtl hi ovhi i) 
vwoStah M04 rifaht t^ f«nryp«^^ f^ *lphAp 
pofufta dt'aypdyjrai ^f, dXX oirM9 y^p irapt- 
KOfuaSui *A\tPdphp^ i^ Uipaa^ if *lphAp 6 
0T0X09. TaDra 017 ftoi i/effoXtf eartd rou Xoyov. 

XVIIL *A\(fapBpo^ ykp, iirtihri oi traptaicev' 
aoTO TO pamitcop ivl rov *Thdove<a t^ktip 
hxOriagp, iwiXtyofUPos oaot, t« ^oiviicttp Kal 
hcoi Kvirpioi Tj Aiyvirrioi tiirovro ip rj dp» 


VIII. (INDICA) 17. 1-18. I 

XVII. The Indians in shape are thin and tall and 
much lighter in movement than the rest of mankind. 
They nsoallj ride on camels, horses, and asses ; the 
richer men on elephants. For the elephant in India 
is a royal mount; then next in dignity is a four- 
horse chariot, and camels come third ; to ride on a 
single horse is low. Their women, such as are of 
great modesty, can be seduced by no other gift, but 
yield themselves to anyone who gives an elephant ; 
and the Indians think it no disgrace to yiM thus on 
the gift of an elephant, but rather it seems bonoitr- 
able for a woman that her beauty should be valued 
at an elephant. They marry neither giving anything 
nor receiving anything; such girb as are marriage- 
able their fathers bring out and allow anyone who 
proves victorkNit in wrestling or boxing or running 
or shows p r c - emln cDcc in any other manly pursuit 
to choose among them. The Indians eat meal and 
till the ground, exeept the mountaineers ; but these 
eat the flesh of game. This most be enough for a 
description of the Indians, being the most notable 
tilings which Nearchus and Megasthenes, men of 
credit, have reoofded about them. But as the main 
subject of this my history was not to write an account 
of the Indian customs but the way in which Alex- 
ander's navy reached Persia from India, this most 
all be accounted a digression. 

XVIII. For Alexander, when his fleet was made 
ready on the banks of the Hydaspes, collected 
together all the Phoenicians and all the Cjrprlans and 
F^^yptlans who had followed the northern expedition. 



vwffpta'ia^ tc avr^ai ical iph-a^ iirtKeyofiMPa^ 

5 6ffo$ rmp 6a\a(jaitiȴ ipymv daif/AOVtv. *Haay tk 
icaX ytfatitrai avhp€^ ovk oXiyoi iv rj arpan^ 
olffi raxna tfuXt, teal "Iwifv ical *EXX»70"7romoi 

3 lotripapxoi hk avr^ itrtardSficav, itc Mair«5owv 
fUP *H^aiffri»p^ re Wiivvropo^, Koi Atovuaro^ 
6 FJji'ov, Kal Avffifiaxo^ 6 'AyaBotcXiov^t teal 
*Aag\fpri66t»po^ 6 TifMpBpov, ical "Aoj^^Mf o 
K\€ipioVt xal AfjfAOPiMO^ 6 *ABffpaiov, ical Apx^^ 
6 *A»a(i^6rov, «al *0^'XXa9 ItiXfj^ov, ical 

4 Tifidp&rj^ IloirruiSoy* ovroi tUp FlcXXaioi. *C« 
hi 'A/A^ivoX^Mf ^opoihf Siapx^ *Avlporipov 
t^ tA afi4>l "^^ 'wapawX^ apiypa'^4' ical Aao 
iMmp o AapiX^v, xai *ApBpoa0hn)^ KaWtarpd 

6 Toir iic Be 'OptariBo^ Kpdrtpo^ rt 6 *A\e(dpBpov 
xal UeplUica^ 6 *Opmmt$, *EopBaioi t« I1toX« 
iuua^ re 6 Adyov xal * Apicrovov^ o Heicaiov 

2jc llvBpfi^ re Mrirp^p re o *lSnrix^Pt^^t ^a| 

6 Ni4ra/>x^'£i7^ o ^i^v, 'Eirl W 'ArTaXo^ re o 
*ApBpofUP9e$, Srv/i^uK, iral nft;«€VTa9 'AXef 
dpBpov, M««{tuc. iToi llei^wy Kpareua, *AXiro 
p/evWt Koi Aeoppdro^ ^Apriirdrpov, Aiyalo^, ica 
Udmavxo^ SixoXdov, *AXiaplrff^, ical Mi;XX<a9 
Ztftkov,oepotato^* ovroi titv oi (vfiwapre^ Waxe 

7 SoMT. 'EXX>jy<»y Bi MjBio^ pep 'OfvpOiptBo^ 
Ampiaaalos, Evphni^ Be lepwpvpov, iic KapBirj^ 
Kpiro^ovXo^ Be Il\drt»po^, Ka>o^, ical H6a^ 
MifPoBwpov, KOI MaiapBpo^ WapBpoyepeo^t Mdy- 

> Many tuaam of this chapter have been emended from 
known aouroee. A. makee Mreral mitUkee, tach m 


VIII. (INDICA) 18. 1-7 

From these he manned his ships, picking out as 
crews and rowers for them any who were skilled in 
seafaring. There were also a good many islanders 
in the army, who understood these things, and 
lonlans and Hellctpo n t in es. As commanders of 
triremes were appcrfnted, from the Macedonians, 
Hephaestiaii ton of Amjmtor, and Leonnatus son of 
Eonons, Lysimachos son of Agathocles, and Ascle- 
pkNioms son of Timander, and Archon son of Cleinias, 
and DemonSeiis son of Athenaens, Archiat sod of 
Anaxidotos, Ophelias son of Seilenus, Timanthes toil 
of Pantiades; all these were of PelU. From 
Amphipolis these were appointed officers : Nearchus 
ioa of Androtimns, who wrote the account of the 
voyage; mod Laomedon aon of Ljuichus, and 
Androatheiiet aoo of CaUttralos ; and from Orestit, 
Cratents son of Alexander, and Perdiocas aon of 
Orontea. Of Eordaea, Ptolemaeus son of Lagoa 
and Aristonoot ton of Peisaeus ; from Pydna, Metron 
son of Epicharmns and Nkuurchides aon of Simos. 
Then beskles. Attains son of Andromenes,of Stympha ; 
Peocestas son of Alexander, from Miexa ; Peithon 
son of Crateuas, of Alcomenae ; Leonnatus son of 
Antipater, of Aegae ; Pantauchus son of Nicolaus, 
of Aloris ; MyDeat aoo of Zoilus, of Beroea ; all these 
being Macedonians. Of Greeks, Medius son of 
' )xynthemis, of Larisa ; Eumenes son of Hieronymus, 
iromCardia; Critobulus son of Plato, of Cos ; Thoaa 
son of Menodonis, and Maeander, son of Mandro- 



8 mfre^, "Aw^p^p Bi Ketfl^Xttt, Tifldf, Ktnrpimw 
hk Ni«o«Xii79 na<riirpaT€(K» !£oXi<K, icaX N^$a^»p 
Hwvrayoptmt £aXa/Aiv<o9. *Hv S^ 5^ itaX Uipatf^ 

9 avT^ rpiiipapxo^, Bajwg^ 6 ^appovx^^^' t^ 
5^ avToi) Wt^dvhpov rco9 Kv/Btppijrnf^ ^p 'Optf- 
eUoiTO^ * Aarvjra\ai€jk* ypafiLfAartv^ B^ rov 
croXov wapTo^ KiKtyopa^ Eu«Xi«vo9» ¥iopip$io^, 

10 Havapxo^ B^ avrolaiP htiaroBrj ^^pxo^ 'Avfip»- 
Tifioy, TO 7fvo9 /Up Kp^ N^ap;^09, fMrcf Bi ip 

11 *A/i^iiroXfi T$ hrX ZrpvfAOPt, *fl^ S^ raura 
itc€K6a fiffTo *A\t(apBp^, 1$V9 roiai Otoiaiv oaoi 
T« wdrpioi ij /AOtrrttnol avr^, icai HoctiBtiPi teal 
^Afi^irptrrj ical Stiptitat teal avr^ t^ *CiK€(iP^» 
gal T^ 'TSaawjf wara/iA, airo tov wpfiaro, xal 
T^ 'AK€CtPn, ^« BpTtpa JxBiBoi 'TBaairfj^, tccu t^ 

IS *li^. #9 iprtpa ift/^m Mihov^tp' 1I7MW9 rt 
avr^ fiovciKoX koX yvfunxoi iiroitvpro, icaX Up^la 
tJ rrpanj ndaij xark WXca iUBoro. 

XIX. 'n^ hi "wdpra i^riprtno airr^ fiV ikParfU' 
j^, Kpdrtpop flip ra iirl Bdrtpa rov 'Thd^wtm 
i€Pat avp tJ crparij ixiXtvat irc{>«^ rt teal 
iirwiKJf' €9 TO M 6dr€pa Bi 'H<^<rrU»p aur^ 
wap€wop€v€ro, avp &KKji arparij ir\eiov$ eri t^ 
T^ Kparipip avprrrayfUpffS* Kal roif^ Ai- 
^apras 'II^oioriMy aur^ ^hf^» 6pra^ ^9 Bifitco* 

t aiov^, Avro^ Bi Toik rt viraairiark^ /raXco- 
fupov^ &/Aa ol ^t, xal rov^ Tofora^ irdvra^, 
teal rw iinriwp rov^ eraipov^ Ka\top.evov<;' rovs 

S wdpra^ ^9 o/rra4fi<TX<Xioi/9. Toiai fih Bfj dfi^l 
Kpdrtpop Ktu 'H^ai<rri«tfi/a irtraKTOt Iva rrpo* 

4 itoptvBhnt^ vwofitpoitp rop aroKop. ^PiXiTrtrop 
Bi, h^ avr^ a-arpdirrj^ rrj^ X*^P^^ ravrrj^ ^v, ^nl 

VIII. (INDICA) i8. 7-19. 4 

f^neSt of MagnesiA; Andron son of Cabeleus, of 
Teo8 ; of C jprians, Nioocles son of Pasicrates, of Soli ; 
and Nithaphon ton of Pnytagoras, of Salamis. 
Alexander appointed abo a Pendan trierarch, Bagoas 
SOD of Phamnccs ; but of Alexander's own ship the 
hrlmsman was Onesicntus of Astjpalaea; and the 
aoooontant of the whole fleet was Euagona too of 
Ettdeon, of Corinth. As admiral was appointed 
Nearchus, son of Androtimus, Cretan by race, and 
he lived in AmphipoUs on the Strymon. And when 
Alexander had niaide all these dispositions, he sacri- 
ficed to the gods, both the gods of his race, and all of 
whom the prophets bad warned him, and to PoAcidnn 
and Amphitrite and the Nereids, and to Ocean 
himself and to the river Hjdatpes, whence he started, 
and to the Acesines, into which the Hydaspet runs, 
and to the Indus, into which both run; and he 
instituted eontcats of art and of athletics, and victims 
for sacrifice were given to all the army, according to 
their detachments. 

XIX. Then when he had made all ready for starting 
the voyage, Alexander ordered Craterus to march 
by the one side of the Ilydaspes with his army, 
cavalry and infantry alike ; I icphaestion had already 
started along the other, with another army even 
bigger than that under Craterus. Hephaestion took 
with him the elephants, up to the number of two 
hundred. Alexander himself took with him all the 
peltasts, as they are called, and all the archers, and 
of the cavalry, those called *' Companions " ; in all, 
eight thousand. But Craterus and Hephaestion, 
with their forces, were ordered to march ahead and 
await the fleet. But he sent Philip, whom he had 
made satrap of this country, to the banks of the river 



rov *A«€0'ivov irora/AoO t^9 SyBa^ wifiwu, &iia 

6 crparifi iroWrj koX toutov* vjdt; 7^/) ical So^Stca 
fivpidSt^ avr^ fidj^tfioi ttirovTO cvv ol^ iiwo 
6aXd<raff^ rt aino^ avtjyayt leal avOi^ ol hr\ 
avXXoyrfv avr^ arpariif^ irtfiipOivrt^ ^tcov 
txpvrt^, warroia iSvta 0ap0apneik &na ol 

« dyopTi, xal vaaap IBhjv mwXitrfUPa, Avro^ 8^ 
^^9 TouTi yv^val xariwXu xarik rw 'Thdawta 
irrt iir\ rov WKtaivou rg teal rov 'TSdair€u» tA^ 

7 avfiffoXa^. Nccv Bi ai <rvftira<rai avr^ ;^iXiai 
Kal otcraKo^iai ^aav, oi rt fuucpai teal oaa 
arpoyyCXa irXoia koI <i\Xa Imraymyk icai atria 

M ifia rp arpartj ayovaoi, "Oictt^ fU¥ Bfj tcara 
rovs worafAoi/^ hiiirXMcmf avr^ 6 aroXo^, teal 
Sea i¥ r^ wapawX^ f0v9a tear gar pi'^aro, koX 
&r«K hik Ktifhwov avro^ iv WaWolaiv 4«c, ical 
TO rpA/ia h 4rp«iOfi iv MaXXoi^-i, ttal lleu/ciara^ 
T< «al AfoyyarcK 5««k Inttpriarricatf avro¥ 
wgaoma, wdwra ravra XiXixrai fUH ffitf iv tJ 

9 &XKjf tJ 'ATTi/rJ f «0n^P«^5* 'O W X0709 5&I 
rov rrapdtfXov fun dwifytfat^ iariv, hp liiapxo^ 
avw r^ ar6\^ vapivKMatv dno rov *\vhov rSiv 
imfioXiuv opfiriBu^ xark rrjv ddXaaaav rtjv 
figydXrjv fart ivi rov xoXvov rov Utpaiicov, f^v 
hi) *Epv0pfjv ddXaaaav putrt^irgpoi icaXiovai. 

XX. Sgdpx^ 3< XiXttcrai tnrto rovrtav oBt 6 
X0709* voBov fiiv €41 ai *AXt^dv6p<p itcmpiirXtlt' 
aai rtjv SdXaaaav rtjv diro *\vhatv tart iiri rrjv 

2 Utpanctjv, OMvitiv Bi avrov rov tc wXoov ro 
fir)fco^ tcaX /*i7 Tiy« dpa x^PV ipVMP iytcvpaavrt^ 
4 6pfi»v dirop^ 4 ov ^vfAfurpca^ ix^^'^V "^^^ 
mpaUtv, ovrm crj hia^dap^ avr<^ o aroXo^, tcaX 


VIII. (INDICA) 19. 4-»o. a 

Acesines, Philip also with a considerable force; for 
by this time a hundred and twenty thousand men of 
fighting age were following him, together with those 
whom he himself had brought from the sea-coast ; 
and with those also whom his officers, sent to recruit 
forces, had brought bade; to that he now led all 
sorts of Oriental tribes, and armed in every sort of 
fashion. Then he himself loosing his ships sailed 
down the Hydaspes to the meeting-place of Acetliiet 
and Hydaspes. Hit whole fleet of ships was eighteen 
hundred, both ships of war and merchantmen, and 
horse transports besidefl and others bringing pro- 
viskMiB together with the troops. And bow his fleet 
deteended the rivers, and the tribes be conquered 
on the descent, and how he endangered himself 
among the Mallians, and the wound he there 
received, then the way in which Peucestas and 
Leonnattts defended him as he lay there— all this I 
have related already In my other history, written in 
the Attic dialect. This my present work, however, 
is a story of the voyage, which Nearchus successfully 
undertook with his fleet starting from the mouths of 
the Indus by the Ocean to the Persian Gulf, which 
some call the Red Sea. 

XX. On this Nearchus writes thus : Alexander 
had a vehement desire to sail the sea which stretches 
from India to Persia; but he disliked the length of 
the voyage and feared lest, meeting with some 
country desert or without roadsteads, or not properly 
provided with the fruits of the earth, his whole fleet 
might be destroyed; and this, being no small blot 



ov ^avkrf ittfXi^ avrtf roiaiv Ifpyotfftv avrov roiat 
fM/rfdXoitriu Iwtytt^fA^yri rrf¥ iraaaw Mxnvyifiv 
avTM a^aviffOA' aXXA ixpiKfj^ai ykp avr^ r^y 
hriuvfUiiP Tov KOivw ri aiti koX arvwov ipn/d- 

3 {ca^oi. ^Kwoprn^ hk lY««y. ovnva ovk dBvvarow 
re 4^ rk iw^¥0€Vfi4Pa iwiXiftUTQ, Ktd Sfia ra>v 
hf rffi difhfAv, W9 ical rw rotaurop aroXop arfX- 
XofiiPUP a^fXtfAy to Stlfia rou Brj r)^Xrj^ipms 
aurov^ i^ wpovTrrop niphvpop iKwifAir€a0eu, 

4 A^* ^ o N^o^o^, iwtrrm (vpowrBai top 
' AXifap^pop, SpTtPn wpox^tpi^ffrai t^ffyitaSat 
TOV (TToXJov mi Bk dXXov ical dXXov ttv fAPrjfirjp 
iopra rovs ft^P fl»9 ovm idiXopra^ tctpBvP€vtip inrip 
ov dwoXiyuP, roifi Bk ms fUtXaKOu^ top Ovfiop, 
Tovv W mi w6$m T^ oiscfitfji tcartxou^pot/i, rolai 

5 Si dXXo gal aXXo itn/caXtotna* totc Brj avrop 
vwoardyra €ivtlp, or$ ^il fiaaiXtv, iyto roi 
vTroh^MOfAOA 4(fu^ac$ai rov aroXov, /cal rd drrh 
rov 0€ov (vp€wiXafA0dpo$' wtpid^m roi a Mi rdi 
ptai ical Tovi dpSpmwovi icTt M rrjp Utp<rlBa 
yrfp, •* If) wXmroi Tf iarlp o ravrjf iroproi icaX 

6 TO iprpiP OVK dwopop yvmfi,^ dp&pmwlvrj. *AXi(- 
opBpop Bi Xoy^ fikp ov 4^dpa^ tOiXtiP ii roai]pB€ 
raXoiirmpifjp ical roc6pB€ kIpBvvop rmp rtpa 
imvTOv ^tXmp ififfdXX€tp, avrop Bi ravTfj Brj ical 

7 fAaWop ovic dpiipai, dXXd Xiwap€€ip, Otrr<k» Brj 
dyavrjaai t€ *AXi(apBpop rov fi€dpxov rrfp 
wpo6vfiir)P, KOI iTTicrrjaai avrop d^tip rov 

8 o^ToXov vavroi' icaX rort Srj en fuiXXop t»> 
arpariiii on irtp iirl r^ trapdirXv t^Sc erda- 
aero ical tdi imrjpeaiai tX€<a ix^iP ti;p yptofirjp, 
on Bf) ^eapxop y* ovtron dp AXe^apSpoi vpoij- 


VIII. (INDICA) 20. 9-8 

on his great achieTcments, might wreck all his 
happiness; but yet his desire to do something 
unusual and strange won the day; still, he was in 
doubt whom he should choose, as equal to his 
designs ; and also as the right man to encourage the 
penoonel of the fleet, sent as thej were on an 
eipeditkm of this kind, so that they should not feel 
that they were being sent blindly to manifest dangers. 
And Nearchus says that Alexander discussed with 
him whom he should select to be admiral of this 
fleet ; but as mention was made of one and another, 
and as Alexander rejected some, as not willing to 
risk themselves for his sake, others as chicken- 
hearted* others as rommnrd by desire for home, and 
finding some objectkm to eaeh; then Nearchus 
•imself spoke and pledged himself thus : *' O King, 
1 undertake to lead your fleet ! And may God help 
the emprise ! I will bring your ships and men safe 
to Persia, if this sea to so much as navigable and the 
undertaking not above human powers." Alexander, 
however, replied that he would not alkm one of hto 
friends to run such risks and endure such distress; 
yet Nearchus did not slacken in hto request, but 
besought Alexander earnestly; till at length 
Alexander accepted Nearchus' willing spirit, and 
appointed him admiral of the entire fleet, on which 
the part of the army which was detailed to sail on 
thto voyage and the crews felt easier in mind, being 
sore that Alexander would never have exposed 



icaro i^ icivhvvov Kara^via^ tl firi o-^i anOtf- 

atctv^ iirtovaa icai icoefio^ rAv Ptatv, xal atrovBai 
TWf T^fipdpx*ov «M^i T^^ {nrnp€aia^ rt xal tA 
vXrjfHa/jLara iieirpnrit^ icaX rov^ wdyrtf 5^ trdXai 
tcaroKviovra^ i^ ptifitjv a^a »cal ikwiBa^ XP^' 
roripa^ tnrkp rou wavro^ Hpyov imjpKora ^v 

10 iroXXoi* Si Bij avvtiri\a$ia0cu h Mviffvfiirju rj 
arparij ro Brj avrop *\\i^avBpop opfitfOima 
KaTa rov *\pBov t^ arofiara afi^ortpa itcvXaxrai 
^9 Toy irotrrop, a^dytd t« t^ \\o<rtita>vi ivr(p,tlv 
KoX 6aot dWoi $€o\ OaXdaatot, fcai Btitpa 

11 fityaXoirpntia rrj OaXdaarj yapiaaaSai' rj re 
dWp rp * AXtfdpBpov wapaXoy^ €inv\ifi irnroi- 
Biira^ ovhkv o, ti ov roXfirjroy re iKtivtp Kcd ipiciov 

XXI. 'fiv Bk rk iyrjata irv€Vfiara ixoifAtjOrj, h, 
B^ rou $epio^ rijp &pr)p wdaav /carix^i iic rov 
irfXuTffOf iwiwpiopra hr\ rtfp yr/p, teal ravrjj 
Hiropop TOP wXoop woiiopra, rare Btf &pfjLfjpro iirl 
dpxopro^ *K6flprici Krj^aoBwpov, tUdBi rov 
BotfBpOfuApo^ fiffpo^t icarori *A0ffvaioi dyovaiv 
m Bi Ma€€B6v€^ rt xal *Aaiat'ol ^y, ♦ • * to 

S €pB(Karov PaaiXfvovro^ 'AXi(dpBpov, Buei Bi 
teat Ncop^o? trpo t^ dpayttyrjf: Ail lurrjpi, teal 
dySiva irouti tcaX oxno^ yv^piKov. "Apapre^ Bi 
dvo rov vavardSfiov r^ Trpunrj rffitprj tcard rop 
*\pBop oppi^ovrai rrorafiop trpo^ Bii»)pv\i ^e^dXrj, 
Kal fi€Povaip ainov Bvo r)p.€pa^' ^rovpa Bt ^v 
ovvop.a T^ x^PV ordBioL diro rov pavarddp.ov 

% €9 ixarop. Tfj rpirrj Be dpapr€9 twXwop earg 

* Af t«r iyM» kcoDA marked by VolouiiiM (ed. 1676)b 

VIU. (INDICA) ao. ft-ai. 3 

Nearchos to obvious danger unless they also were 
to come through safe. Then the splendour of the 
whole preparations and the smart equipment of the 
ships, and the outstanding enthusiasm of the com- 
manders of the triremes about the different senricct 
and the crews had upliAed even those who a short 
while aco were hesitating, both to bravery and to 
higher hopes about the wnole affair ; and besides it 
ontributed not a little to the general good spirits of 
t he force that Alexander himself had started down 
the Indus and had explored both outlets, even into 
the Ocean, and had ottered victims to Poseidon, and 
all the other sea gods, and cave splendid ffifts to the 
sea. Then trusting as tner aid in Alexander's 
generally remarkaMe good fortune, they felt that 
there was nothini^ that he might not dare, and 
nothing that he could not carry Uirough. 

XXL Now when the trade winds had sunk to rest, 
which continue blowing from the Ocean to the land 
all the summer season, and hence render the voyage 
impossible, they put to sea, in the archonship at 
Atliens of Cephisodorus, on the twentieth day of the 
month Boedromion, as the Athenians reckon it ; but 
as the Macedonians and Asians counted it, it was . . . 
the eleventh year of Alexander's reign.* Nearchus 
also sacrificed, before weighing anchor, to Zeus the 
Saviour, and he too held an aUiletic contest. Then 
moving out from their roadstead, they anchored on 
the first day in the Indus river near a great canal, 
and remained there two days ; the district was called 
Stura; it was about a hundred stades from the 
roadstead. Then on the third day they started forth 

* A oaoM of a aionth has been loil. It wm probably 
Octobsr SM,thoagh Droyaeo fixes tba date as SeptooibertSD. 



iwl Ji«>pu;^a aXXv|v arahiov^ rpitjtcoirrat aX/Avp^v 
^5iy ravTfjp t^i» hitapvxa* ayrjn yap rj OdXaaaa 
99 uvrffp, fUM\t<rra fA4v hf TJiai ir\rip,fivpiri<Tiv, 
tnrifA€V€ ht ical ip r^ip dfAirMr€<T$ to tStap 
fi4fJuyfUyo¥ TO) worafup' Kav^pa ^ ^v ovpofia 

4 T^ X^PT' '^*^^ ^ ttxoat araBiov^ tcarawXt^ 
oamt^ i^ Kopttariv opfut^opreu fri tcarik top 

6 worafAov. "Et^gv Si op/jLtfOitrrt^ fwXmop ovk iirl 
iroXXoir* fp^ia yap i^dvri avroun icarii r^v 
^gffoXrfp Ttfp ravrn rov *ipBoO, koI ra icvfiaTa 
ipp6y6t€ wpa^ rj tfiopt, seal rj rfiwp avrr) rpax^fi 

6 ii9. AXXA Xpawtp fxaXBaxop ^p rov fy/Aaro^, 
ratrrjf htmpirxa woitjaaprt^ <irl ara^ov^ wiprt, 
hiffyop Td9 waf, ^v«i^ tf wXiififwpa iwtjXStP iff 

7 ix Tou woprov, *Eirw€piw\maaPT€9 Si ^raSiov^ 
wtpTt^sgopra ical ixarop opfufoprai i^ Kprn^aXa 
pifcop dfAfAmSta, xal fUpovop avrov rf)P dWtfp 

% fIfUpflp* wpoaotK^ii Ik ravrn Wpo^ *\phiieop» oi 
'Apdfftts xaXtofAfPOif &p Kci ip rj fiit^opi (uy- 
ypai^i tiyr)^r)p i^xpp* Koi Sn ticlp dinouvfun 
waraftoO *Apdfiio^, 5^ StA rr/^ yrj^ avrSiP pivp 
ixiiStH i^ 6d\aa<rav, opl^ttp rovrvp rt rtfp X^P^^ 

9 xal r&p *n/MiTtMv. *Em Bi KpattcdXttp iv ^^ifj 
liip ixuprt^ Sp<K ro KaXtofUPOv ainourip Elpov, 
ip apiar%pj Bk prf^rov dXiT€vka eirXtaov tj hk 
pfjco^ wapartrafitpfj r^ rjiopi icoXirov arttpop 

10 voiici. AK/rrXwaoKTCV Bi ravrijv oppi^oprcu ip 
Xiiihn €v6pfA^' ori Bk fuya^ rt koi tcaXo^ 6 Xifirjp 
Ntdpx^ ^Bofip, ivopofui^ti avrop *AX«(dvBpov 

11 \ifuptu N^(K Bi iarip iirl r^ arofULri rov 
\ip.€vo^ 6<T0P araBiov^ Bvo dtrexovaa' IMffaicra 
ovvofia T^ Pfja<p' 6 Bi ;^a>i709 aira^ ^dyyaBa' 17 


VIII. (INDICA) 21. 3-1 1 

and sailed to aDother canal, thirty stades' distance, 
and this canal was already salt ; for the sea came up 
into it, especially at full tides, and then at the ebb 
the water remained there, mingled with the river 
water. This place was called Caumara. Thence 
they sailed twenty stades and andiored at CoreCstis, 
sUll on the river. Thence they started again and 
safled not so very far, for they saw a reef at this 
outlet of the river Indus, and the waves were break- 
ing \iolently on the shore, and the shore itself was 
cry rough. But where there was a softer part of 
I he reef, they dug a channel, five stades long, and 
brought the ships down it, when the flood tide came 
up from the sea. Then sailing round, to a distance 
or a hundred and fifty stades, they anchored at a 
sandy island called Crocala, and stayed there through 
the next day ; and there lives here an Indian race 
eaQed Armbeans, of whom I made mention in my 
burger histofy ; and that they have their name from 
the river Arabb, which runs through their coontry 
and finds its outlet in the sea, forming the boundary 
between this country and that of the Oreitans. 
From Crocala, keeping on the right hand the hill 
they call Irus, they sailed on, with a low-lying island 
on their left ; and the island running parallel with 
the shore makes a narrow bay. Then wfien they had 
sailed through this, they anchored in a harbour with 
ffood anchorage; and as Nearchus considered the 
harbour a large and fine one, he called it Alexander's 
Haven. At the beads of the harbour there lies an 
^land, about two stades away, called Bibacta; the 
neighbouring region, however, is called Sangada. 



£^ yrjco^ MoX rw Xifuva, vpoxttfAhfff wpo rov 

It wtXdyto^t aMi hroUtv, *}£tVTav$a nvfvfiara 

aeydXa tic rov wovrou HirvtM seal awtxia, leai 

Ohnt^ iw* dowayijv rov arparoiriSov rpairoiaro, 
13 irrtix^iti rov xS^pov \i0iy^ f^^X^^ Tiaaapt^ 
I4 «ai tUooi¥ fffiipoi rp fioit^ iyivovro' koX Xryci 
^Ti fiva^ rt iBrip^v rov^ OaXaaaLov^ ol arpariSt- 
Toi, leal 6crp€a 5tf icaX rovs C€i»\fjva^ tcaXtofiivovSt 
&rorira to /Ar/c^(K. «i9 roiciw tw rjB€ rj fip^ripri 
6a\aa9ff avfiffaXitUf' ical ^B^p &t$ akfivpov 

XXn. 'A/«a T« o dptpo^ iwavcaro ical ot 
dinfyopro' xal wtptumShm^ araSiovf h i^ 
mowra oppi^oyrtu irpo9 aiyiaXji yltafApm^l* ptjao^ 
i 6^ hrqp T^ cLVfMkX^ ^p^PV' iavTffv Bi vpofikti- 
pa woii)9dp€POi atppicBffffap* dopai oCpopa rn 
ri^^* (flmp hi ovK ^v iw rm aiytaX^, dXXa 
wpotkBovrt^ i^ rwfv ptaojai^jv o<rov ffiVo<ri 

5 araiiov^ hnrvyxdvovatv wan «raX^. T^ hk 
vcrtpaiff h PVKra avrolaiw o irXoo^ iyivtro <9 
^Morfya arahiov^ rpirjKoaiov^, xal oppi^ovrai 
wpo^ tuytaX^, gal CB^p ^¥ dwo rov aiytaXov 

4 04roy o«Tft> araUov^, 'Ci^fy Bi w\waturr§^ 
oppi^ovrai iv ^tucaXoici^ rotr^ ^PVM*' ^^^ 
huKw\Mcapr€^^ axowiXov^ Bvo, ovrto ri aXX*;- 
Xoia$ wtXd^oina^, &are rov^ rapcov^ riav veoav 
itrrtaBai Mtv koX Mtv ri»p irrrpit^p, icaOoopi- 
^otnai iv Moporro6dpoi<ri, oraBiov^ BieXBoine^ 

6 (9 rpif)ico<Tlov^' o Bt Xiprjv p€ya^ xal evfcvicXo^ 
KoX ffaOis teal dxXvaro^* 6 Bi eairXovs i^ avrop 

VIII. (INDICA) ai. xi-2a. 5 

lliis isUnd, forming a barrier to the sea, of itself 
makes a harbour. There constant strong winds were 
blowing off the ocean. Nearchus therefore, fearing 
lest sume of the natives might collect to plunder the 
camp, surrounded the place with a stone wall. He 
stayed there thirty-three days; and through that 
time, he says, the soldiers hunted for mussels, oysters, 
and nior-fish, as they are called ; they were all of 
unusual sise, much Urger than those of our seas. 
They also drank briny water. 

XXII. On the wind falling, they weighed anchor; 
and after sailing sixty stades they moored off a sandy 
shore; there was a desert island near the shore. 
They used this, therefore, as a breakwater and 
moored there; the isUnd was called I>omai. On 
the shore there was no water, but after advancing 
oroe twenty stades inland they found good water. 
Next day they sailed up to nightfall to Saranga, some 
three hundred stades, and moored off the beach, and 
Neater was found about eight stades from the beach, 
llicnce they sailed and moored at Sacala, a desert 
spot. Then making their way through two rocks, so 
ck»e together that the oar>blades of the ships touched 
the rocks to port and starboard, they moored at 
Morontobara, after sailing some three hundred 
stades. The harbour is spacious, circular, deep, and 
calm, but its entrance is narrow. They called it, in 


areipo^' rourov r^ yXtaaa^ rp iirtynpiff Vvvtu- 
icu¥ XifUpa iicdktop, OTA yvpff rov X^P^^ rovrov 

6 wpmrti iwfjpftp, 'Hf S^ 3i^ r&w amoiriKt^v 
B$€^ir\t»op, KVfioal Tf fuydXourtP Mtcvpaav ical 
T$ OaXacajf pow^i* aWA iidrtpnfXSicai yap 

7 virip Tovv ffxoweKov^ f^<^ epyov i^aivrro, *£k 
^ TffP vcrtpaiffp fir>MO¥ injcop ^9 apiartpk 
k)((0irr9^ wpo rov ircXi^yfCK. oOrtt ri r^ aiyuMX^ 
avpo^ia, &art Moaeu &p Bimpuxa tlptu to 
lAiiaop rov rt 04710X01) xal rrf^ K170-O1;* aTo^ioi 
04 irorrfv ifihoiirficowra rov MxwXov Kal iiri 
Tf ToO alytaXov BMp§a ^p iroXX^ leaX Baaia, 

8 xal if pfjco^ vXjj wawr^lff av^/cio^, 'Tir^ M rifp 
Sm hrXMotf l{t» r^V p^^ov xar^ k^X^^^ artivi^v 
It* 7^ lUovirrif «ot«i.y<. FIXaKJorrcf 5^ i9 
ixarop xal mUo^i rraUov^ 6pfu(oprai ip r^ 
arofULri rov *Apd0to^ irorafiov' teal Xifitjp 
/iryoc icaX tcaXo^ wpo^ r^ arofiari' C^p Bk ovtc 
^y worifAOP' rov ykp *Apdffio^ ai itcffoXal ava^JLt- 

9 fuyfifpai r^ woprtp ^aeur aWk rtoaapuKOvra 
orahiov^ h ro &pm wpox^pfj^aprt^ XtUtcip iiri- 
rvyxdpovcit xal Mmp vtptvadpMvoi oirlctif dptpo- 

10 arfjaap. Srfao^ Si /iri t^ Xi^vi i^l^h '*i 
iptlfio^' KoX trtpl ravryjp oar pita » rt teal ix^vt^P 
watrrohairUpp Ofipij. M^)(pi pip rovBg *Apo)9i«v, 
ISiTXaroi *lpht!fp ravryj ^/ciCfUpoi, rk Bi diro rovh€ 
*ilp€irai iwtlxoP' 

XXITT. 'OpftffOhne^ Bk iic t% ixffoXij^ rov 
^Apdfito^ rrap€TT\M0P rStp *Clp€irit$p rrjp )(a>pTjv 
tcoi oppit^ovrcu iv 1 1070X010-1, irX^orrc^ craBlov^ 
I9 BiT)tcoclov^, irpo^ RVX^V" dXKa dytcvprja-t yap 
iwl/SoXo^ fjif 6 \(opo<i, TA p,€v uiv trXrjpujpMTa 

VIII. (INDICA) 22. 5-23. I 

the lutives' kngnage, " The Ladies' Pool/' since a 
Udy was the first sovereign of this district. When 
they had sot safe through the rocks, they met great 
waves, and the sea running strong ; and moreover it 
seemed very hasardous to sail seaward of the cliflb. 
For the next day, however, they sailed with an island 
on their port beam, so as to break the sea, so cloae 
.iidccd to the beach that one would have conjec t u r ed 
that it was a chamiel cat between the island and the 
coast. The entire paMige was of some seventy 
stadet. On the beach were many thick trees, and 
the island was wholly covered with shady forest. 
About dawn, thev sailed outside the island, by a 
narrow and turbulent pMsage ; for the tide was still 
falling. And when they had sailed some hundred 
and twenty stades they anchored in the mouth of 
the river Arabia. There was a fine large harbour 
by its mouth ; but there was no drinking water ; for 
the mouths of the Arabis were mixed with sea-water. 
However, aAcr penetrating forty stadet Inland they 
found a water-hole, and after drawing water thence 
they returned back again. By the harbour was a 
high island, desert, and round it one could get 03rsteni 
and all kinds of fish. Up to this the country of the 
Arabeans extends ; they are the last Indians settled 
in this direction ; from here on the territory of the 
Oreitans b^ins. 

XXI II. Leaving the outleU of the Arabis they 
ooatted along the territory of the Oreitans, and 
a n chored at Pagala, after a voyage of two hundred 
stades, near a breaking sea ; but they were able all 
the same to cast anchor. The crews rode out the 



am^dkivw hf rici vtivaiv oi Ik iw* CBtap 

t imffdtrrt^ v^ptvotno, TJ h* i^repairj avaxBtvr*^ 
afjM Tf^tprj Kol irXmaawrt^ araBiov^ €9 rpitJKOvra 
mal rrrpOMoalov^ icardyomai i^wipioi i*: Kdffava, 
Koi 6pfu(otrrai irpo^ aiytaX^ ^pnf^$»* «rai ivravSa 
pnxh ^PAXM ^i^t teal M T^^ firrtmpov^ ra/f 

9 Wac mpfuaturro, Kar^ rovrov rov wXoow irtfWfM 
vwoXaii&dvti Tdf pia^ M^V* ^'^ trorrov, ical i4c9 
Bvo pagpal Sia^tftuMrrai tfV r^ v\6^, teal 
xiptcovpo^* oi hk iMpmnroi acufovrai dirovii^^d' 
utpot, 5ti ov woppta rrj^ yr}^ o w\6o^ iyiv^ro, 

4 Afi^l hk fUaa^ yvxra^ d»ay6(VT^ ir\wov<r$v 
icTM hr\ KmKoKa, h rov aiyiaXov, Mgy 
mofii^^ap, d-rtix^ araUovv Bttjxociov^' teal al 
fU9 rii^ aaXfvovaai Stpptop, rk trXupo^piara hk 
imfiiffdaa^ Stapxo^ irpo^ TJ yp tivXiadri, on 
hrl iroXXoif rrrdKaiW^pfiKOTt^ iv rj BaXdaajf 
iuKLwavcaoBtu iiroBMOp* arparoyrtBop hk wtptt- 
fidXXrro tAp fiapfidpmp r!}^ ^vXatci)^ fvitca, 

• *Ep Toirr^ T^ X**^ Atoppdro^, or^ rk *np€iri€jp 
i^ 'AXt^dvhpov hrrrhpairro, fUMXJJ fuy^V "'^f* 
'HpciTav Tf Koi Scot *tlpt'nrici ain^€wiXa/5op rov 
Ifpyov ical Krti¥€i ainofp i(aM^<TXiXiotf^, xai roif^ 
fff€fi6pa^ wdyra^' rStv Bk aup Atoppdrf lirirw 
flip diroBptiuKovai irivrtieaiBtMa, rmp ok tre^ofp 
£XXoi T€ OV JToXXoi ical ^AiroXXoikdvrj^ 6 VaBpta' 

6 0^imp aaTpdwTf^. TaOra fikv oi) iv rfj d\X-p 
(vyypa^ji dpaytypaTrroi, xal OKto^ Aiopvdro^ ^irl 
r^h€ €aT€^pdt$rj irpo^ *AXM^dvhpov XP*^^^V 

7 OT9^dp(p €v Mate€h6(riv. *Eprav$a trlro^ ^p 
pfvtfifjfUfo^^ icark trpocraypA *AXe(dvBpov i^ 

* DobrM soggMtod p^wmtirM. 

VIII. (INDICA) 23. 1-7 

•eat in their vessels, though a few went in seach of 
water, and procured it. Next day they sailed at 
dawn, and after making four hundred and thirty 
stades they put in towards evening at Cabana, and 
moored on a desert shore. There too was a heavy 
surf, and so they a n chored their vessels well out to 
sea. It was on this part of the voyage that a heavy 
squall from seaward caught the fleet, and two war- 
ships were lost on the passage, and one galley ; the 
men swam ofl* and got to safety, as they were sailing 
quite near the land. But about midnight they 
weighed anchor and sailed as far as Cocala, which 
was about two hundred stades from the beach off 
which they had anchored. The ships kept the open 
sea and andiored, bat Nearchus disembarked the 
crews and bivouacked on shore ; after all these toils 
and dangers in the sea, they desired to rest awhile. 
The eamp was entrenched, to keep off the natives. 
Here Leonnatus, who had been in charge of opera- 
tions against the Oreitans, beat in a great battle the 
Oreitans, along with others who had joined their 
enterprise. He slew some six thousand of them, 
including all the higher officers ; of the cavalry with 
I^eonnatus fifteen fell, and of his infantry, among a 
few others, Apollophanes satrap of Gadrosia. This 
I have related in my other history, and also how 
Leonnatus was crowned by Alexander for this 
exploit with a golden coronet before the Mace- 
donians. There provision of com had been gathered 



wnroit^€^a¥ itar^ rw irXoov f^^XP^ rouJc ^irt- 
acctWay* xal t&p pavr^v ocot h tA ipy^ 
fiXaMtv€tP i^aipovro ^tdpx^* rovrov^ /Uv irc(^ 
SfftiP Atoyvdr^ iBmicfp' avro^ Si air 6 tmm ainf 
AcofvoTM rrparutrittp avfiwXripoi rh pamtxov, 

XXTy. *Ep$ipl€ 6pfArj0ipr€^ hrXmop atepaei' 
gal hitXSoprt^ arnliov^ ^9 wtvrateociou^ aatpfii^- 
OPTO wpo^ worafiA xupupptp' Touiipo^ ovpofia 

t v}y T^ worafi^, Kal Xlumrj ^ hrl rvatp ixfio- 
Xnci rov mrafiov' rii M 0pax^^ ^^ ^P^ "^V 
tuyiaX^ iw^WP IMpmwoi Ip icaXvBjfai wpi- 
yripj<r$* Ktil ovroi m^ wpoairKmmnaK mIZop, iOdfA- 
ffrjffdp Tc teal frapartipam^ c^^ wapii rhp 
alyiaXhp irdx^vicop m^ dwofiaxovpMPOi irph^ rov^ 

I iitfiauHnna/^' Xoyxa^ Bi i^op^op irax^a9, fUytdo^ 
«9 «^iri7X'A9* dMt$igff B4 ovM iinip ahripiti, dXKk 
ro of V axrrfjai WfwvpaicrmfUfop to avro iiroitM' 

4 ifXifOo^ Si ^cap m^ ifoMoaioi' teal rovrov^ 
Nca^X^ ^ virofiit^prdK n leal waparrrayfjJpov^ 
KaT€id€f T^9 fiiP Pia^ dpaict^ytvtiv /rcXcvci ivT(>^ 
0i\€o^, m$ ra To^tvpara h t>;v ytip dir* ainStv 
ifiKvuaBav al yap t&p 0apfidpc9p Xoyx^i 
ira;^c'ai^ 4>atp6p€vcu dyx^P^X'^* f^» d^ofioi S< 

% h ro dMOPTi^€a$tu ^aai^. \vrb^ Si rtop arpa- 
riitrit^p 6<roi ainoi re icov^oraroi koX icov^orara 
mwXiafUpot rov rt pietp hatfpopiararoi, rovrov^ 

6 Bi iicvri^acBai /ce\€V€i dwo (upOfjparo^' irpoc- 
raypa Si a^iaip ^p, 0Kt»^ T19 iicvrj^dp€vo^ 
araiff ip r^ vSart^ wpocpipup rop irapcLcrdrfjp 
' «ax> ff' oomes in ttrangely, «nd Hercber omiU. 


VIII. (INDICA) 2$. 7-44. 6 

readj, by Alexander's orders, to victual the heal; 
and thej took on board ten days* rations. The ships 
which had suffered in the passage so far they 
repaired; and whatever troops Nearchus thought 
were inclined to malinger he handed over to Leon- 
nates, hot he himself recruited his fleet firom 
Leomiates' soldiery. 

XXIV. Thence they set sail and progressed with 
a favouring wind; and afier a passage of five 
hundred stades they a nch ored by a torrent, which 
was called Toments. There was a lagooo at the 
months of the river, and the deprettiona near the 
bank were Inhabited by natives In stifling cabins. 
These seeing the eonvoy sailing op were astounded, 
and lining aking the sliore stood ready to repel any 
who should attempt a landing. They carried thk:k 
spears, about six cubits long ; these had no iron tip, 
but the same result was obtained by hardening the 
point with fire. They were in number about six 
hundred. Nearchus observed these evidently stand- 
ing firm and drawn up in order, and ordered the ships 
to hold back within range, so tliat their missiles might 
reach the shore; for the natives' spears, which 
looked stalwart, were good for close fighting, but 
had no terrors against a volley. Then Nearchus 
took the lightest and lightest-armed troops, such as 
were also the best swimmers, and bade them swim 
off as soon as the word was given. Their orders were 
that, as soon as any swimmer found bottom, he should 

VOL. II. N 377 


ffapffdpov^, nfHV ^i rpi&tf ^ fidBo^ rax$f)vai 
ttiy ^Xa77a* tot« hk hpofi^ i;^ icvoi ^iro- 

7 XaXa{oyTaf. " Apn tk ippiir-rtov i^irrovs ol iwl 
r^Bt rrrayfUvoi ix t&¥ Ptwp <9 Toy irovrov, teal 
iprixomo o^iftK. «al ioratno iv MoafiM, leal ^dX- 
ayya i/t a^mp wPifi^duMfOi hpofA^ iirri€aav axrroL 
Tc dXaXdi^imri^ t^ EmmiXa^, kcu ol M To»y 
mmp fvp€Wffxiopr€^t ro(€vnard t« ical diro 
frntvawimp 0i\ta i^ipomo <9 rov^ ffapfidpov^* 

8 01 M rup TC Xa/Airp6rfira tm^ owX^p ^«nrXa- 
yhnt^ Kol Ttf^ i^lov rf)P ofirnyTO, /ral irp^ 
TMy rof^vfidrttif rt xal rmp SXKmp fitkimp 
/9aXXo/A<voi o7a 5^ fffuyvfipot dpOptttrot, ovBk 
dXiyop <9 dXxffp rpavitnt^ ^ygXipovcr seal oi 
fU¥ avrov ^ttVyorrfv diraBptfcieovcuf, oi hi moI 
dXiateoprar ian H 6t teal Ui^vyop ^ t^ Spta, 

9 ^Haap Bi ol aXorrtv rd t« &Kka emfiara Beur^ 
teal T^9 irt<fcaXic. «ai tovv ^I'l/xav BrjpiwBtt^ 
ToU y^p Off 6vv(tp oca cih/jp^ BiaxpacSai 
iKiya m o, teal rov^ Ix^w rovroiai wapek^xlK^vr*^ 
mampydt^icdai, teal tStp (vXmp Sea fioXaKatrepa' 
rik M dXXa rot^i XiBotai roiaip oficiP iieoirTOP* 
aiBtjpos yap avroictp ovte ^p, ^EaOrjTa Bk 
i^p€OP htppara Oriptia* ol h^ teal ix^viop rwv 
ft/tydXtfP rd irayiei, 

aXV. ^fLp^aioa pta^Xxiovai rd^ p4a^, leal 
Saai w€WOPfitevtai avrtvp iiriaietvdt^ovai. T$ Bk 
fteTff ^fUprj iartWovro, teal TrXuxravrf^ oraBiov^ 
i^ rpiffteoaiovs diriKvioprtu i^ x^P^^» ^ ^V 
taxaro^ ^p r^ *Vlp€iT€tav yrfS' MaXai/a rip 
S x***PV ovvopA, *Clp€iTai Bi ocoi aveo diro 6a' 


VIII. (INDICA) 24. 6-25. a 

await his mate, and not attack the natives till they 
had their formation three deep ; but then they were 
to raise their battle cry and charge at the double. 
On the word, those detailed for this service dived 
from the ships into the sea, and swam smartly, and 
took up their formation in orderly manner, and 
having made a phalanx, charged, raising, for their 
part, their battle cry to the God of War, and those 
on shipboard raised the cry along with them ; and 
arrows and missiles from the engines were hurled 
against the natives. They, attoonded at the Hash 
of the armour, and the swiftneia of the charge, and 
attacked by showers of arrows and missiles, half 
naked as they were, never stopped to resist but gave 
way. Some were killed In flight ; others were cap- 
ttucd; but some escaped into the hills. Those 
captured were hairy, not only their heads but the 
rest of their bodies; their nails were rather like 
beasts' cUwi; they used their nails (according to 
report) as if tliey were iron tools ; with these they 
tore asunder their flshes, and even the less solid 
kinds of wood ; everything else they defl with sharp 
stones ; for iron they did not possess. For clothing 
they wore skins of animals, some eveo the thick skins 
of the larger fishes. 

XXV. Here the crews beached their ships and 
repaired such as had suffered. On the sixth day 
from this they set sail, and after voyaging about 
three hundred stadcs they came to a country which 
was the last point in the territory of the Oreitans : 
the district was called Malana. Such Oreitans as 



^li^ol §lci^ Koi T^ ^9 woXt^v mcavT^t^ wapapri' 
oproA* yXAaaa B^ &Xkrf avrol^i teal HXXa pofuua, 

1 MfJMO^ rav irapdirXov wap^ pkv X'*P^^ '^^ 
*Apafiimp ^ X'^^^^ futXiora <TTaSioi/v. Mwit§p 
mpuijBflcap, wapk ^ r^y *Cip€irim¥ yrj¥ i^axoaiot 

4 gal ;^iX40i. UapawXatotnmp h^ T^y 'lyOMV yi^if 
(to ivrtvBw y^p oviciri ^IwBoi fiVi) Xryfi N^p;^ 

6 &ri ai axtal avToic$¥ ov rairrh iiroUov aXX^ 
&SOV iUp hrX iroWov rov voinov m^ wpo^ ntcfffi- 
ffplnfp wpox^piicftop, aiSf «al avrtd ai aiciaX 
wpo^ fnafi^piilP r€rpafAfUpat S^alpoirro, o«or« 
M TO fUaop T% ^fUpfi^ iwlvoi o 4^^^* /f^^ ^ 

6 xal Ifpfifui aKifj^ irtuna A^ifi avrolot, ritp tc 
Jiariprnp 6aovt wpaa9mf p/tr^mpov^ mmrt^o^p, oi 
fth il^ai4ff wdimi ^a», oi M wp^ a%n^ if 
yy i^aipoiPTo, xarahvpoprh r€ xal avrixa auariX- 

7 XoKTf^ 01 wdXat <Ui^a4€V ioprt^, Kal ravra 
OVK awtueorra BoKi€i poi dpaypayfrai Siapxo^, iml 
gal h ^vripn if Kiyinrrijf, iinkp rponrk^ &fp 
Oipto^ &pfl^ o ^\iO^, ^^P^'^P airoB€B€iyfUpop ierl, 
Ka\ toOto icKiop 4p pt<rrjp0pifj ^aiprrar ip 

8 Weporf Bi wdpra acgta rfj ainjf ttpji' tUo^ &p 
gal i» *\phol<riP, &Tt wpo^ p4<n}pffpifjif tpteicpivoiffi, 
rk axnk S^ iraBta Iwix^iP, xaX tiakiara htf /raT^ 
TOP iroprop TOP 'IpSigop, 6c«p paXKop axnoiaiv i} 
OdXaatra irpo^ p€<rrfpfiplfjp gtgXiroi, Tavra piP 

XXVL *Birl 5€ *flp€lTf}4Ti gark phf p€aoyeurfp 
FaSpmiruH hrtlxop* &p rtjp xu»priP xaXtirSt^ 
Bit^XBfp &pa if arpaTij 'AXi{ay3/>09, gal 


VIII. (INDICA) 25. 2-26. I 

Utc inUnd, away &om the sea, dress as the Indians 
do, and equip themselYes similarly for warfare ; but 
their dialect and cnftoms differ. The length of the 
coasting voyage along the territory of the Arabeis 
was about a tboosand stades from the point of 
departure ; the length of the Oreitan coast sixteen 
hundred. As they sailed along the land of India — 
for thence onward the natives are no longer Indians 
-Nearrhtts states that their shadows were not cast 
in the same way ; but where ther were making for 
the high seas and steering a southerly course, their 
shadows appeared to fall southerly too; but when- 
ever the son was at midday, then everjrthing seemed 
shadowktt.^ Then such of the stars as Uiey had 
seen Utfaerto in the sky, some were completely 
hIddflBf others no'wed IheiBieiyes low down towarai 
the eardi; those they had teen eontinually belbre 
were now observed both setting, and then at once 
rising again. I think this tale of Nearchus' U likelv ; 
since in Syene of Egypt, when the sun is at the 
summer tolstioe, people show a well where at 
midday one teet no snade; and in Meroe, at the 
I, no shadows are cast. So it seems 
that in India too, since they are far 
southward, the same natural phenomena may occur, 
and especially in the Indian Ocean, just because it 
particularly runs southward. But here I must leave 
this subject. 

XXVI. Next to the OreiUns, more inland, dwelt 
the Gadrosians, whose country Alexander and his 
army had much pains in traversing; indeed they 

^ Ncarahas— or Arriao^it co nfu ie d ; and the 'nrrtmftn 
obserratkm thai fa> mibern latitudes at inidday oUsels sssn 


to slaod apoa and so hkla tbair own shadowi ooold 



Ktuea rocavTa eira^«v, Sea ov^ rk ^vfiwavra 
rrj^ avfiirdaff^ crparrfXaaiff^* ravTa fUH iv 

t Tp fU(o»i (^nryp^^P nuayiypairTai, Kara» ^ 
raip^eimv weipa r^y BoKaacav avrr)p ol *I;^^t/o- 
^ayoi KoXtOfUPOi oi/tiowrr vapk rovTMy ri)y yr)v 
iw-Xmop* T» fiiv wpmrff titupn wtpl t^i* h^irripfiv 
^uXaxyjp avaxBhrrt^ icaraipovaiv €iV l^ayi(Tapa^ 

t ard^fH rov vapdwXov ifateoaioi, Aifitjv rg Ivi 
avroOi tvopfio^, teal Kut^if) FlaVi/ki, awt^ovca 
airo BaXdaar^ i^i'iicovTa arahlov^* koX ol mpoa- 

4 oiKoi avrrf^ Uaaipifs. *E/^ B^ rifp vertpaiffu 
wpmiairtpotf r^ &f^ dvaxBirrt^ irtpiirXMOvciv 
OKfnfw inl iroXv rt aWxovo'oy h rov wovtov teal 

6 ainffv v^ijXfjp xal xpfjfumBta* ^piara M ipv* 
(tun€^, vUtp ovic oXiyow italittp wopfiphv ikpvcd" 
p4ttoi ravTjf i$kp r^ f^hUp^ M aytevpittp &pfjtmv, 

6 5ti jnixifi Kara rop aiyiaXop dptix^' *^^ ^ 
rtjp vcrtpaiffp icaraipovatp is KoXra, arahiovs 
iXBoprts 6tfi€0<riovs. "Er^cv Bi h»$tP irX«iaaKr*v 
rraUovs i^aieoaiovs ip KaXvfiowiP opfufoproi' 
Ktofif) vpos T^ aly^aX^, ^Oipucts hi wtpl avrrjp 
hXiyoi W€^vtctaap, mal fidXavoi iir avrolai 
VKmpaX hrrjcap* xal pfjaos w^ i tear op crahiovs 
awo rov aiytaXov dirixovaa, Kappipvj o^pofia, 

7 *EprauOa ^€lp$a Stdpyt^ irpoc^tpovaiP ol «a>- 
fifjroi wpopara teal ixuva^- icai ra>p irpoffdrwp 
T^ xpia X4y€i on ^v ixBvwhta, taa rota roiv 
oppWmp ro»p weXayittP, 6ri icaX avr^ iyBvttp 

8 airUroA* woirj yap ovx hfi ip tJ X'^PV* AXXA 
rfi var€paLjf irXwacunes is oratiovs Cirjicoclovs 
opful^opra^ TTpos alyiaX^ xal fca}firj diro daXdcarjs 
if arahiovs rptijtcopra uTrexovaij' i} fiiv xdofirj 

VIII. (INDICA) 26. 1-8 

suffered more than during all the rest of his expedi- 
tion: all this I have related in my larger history. 
Below the Gadrosians, as you follow the actual coast, 
dwell the people called the Fish-eaters. The fleet 
sailed past their country. On the first day they 
u n moored about the leooDd watch, and put in at 
Bagisarm; m distance along the coast of about six 
hundred stades. There is a safe harbour there, and 
a village called Pasira, toine rizty stades from the 
sea ; the natives about it are called Pasireana. The 
next day they weighed anchor earlier than usual and 
sailed round a promontory which ran far seaward, 
and was high, and precipitous. Then they dug wells ; 
and obuined a good deal of water, but of poor 
quality ; and for ttiat day they rode at anchor, beca u a e 
there was heavy surf on the beach. Next day they 
put in at Colta aAcr a voyage of two hundred stades. 
Thence they departed at dawn, and alter voyaging 
six hundred stades anchored at Calyba. A village 
is on the shore, a few date-palms grew near it, and 
there were dates, still green, upon them. About a 
hundred stades from the beach is an island called 
famine. There the villagers brought gifts to 
^'earchos, sheep and fishes; the mutton, he sajrs, 
had a fishy taste, like the flesh of the sea-birds, since 
even the sheep feed on fiiih ; for there is no grass in 
he place. However, on the next day they sailed 
two hundred stades and moored off" a beach, and a 
village about thirty stadet from the sea ; it was called 



Kicaa ^/raXirro* Kap0W hi r^ aiyuiX^ ouvo/ui 
• ^. *EtnavOa wXoioifftif iiriTirf\dvovvi fffjuicpol- 
atp, ola d\i€t»p tiPtu irXoui oinc tv&u/iovMy* 
ainov^ Bi ov tcaraXafi^dvovaur aXX* i^vyop 
ykp maBopful^OfUPa^ Karitoprt^ rk^ Pia^, S1T09 
T« avroOt ovK ipifp, xaX irwoXiXoiwtt rtfp arpaTirjp 
o iroXAo^* oKkA alya^ ififfaXkofifPOi i^ r^ p4a^, 
oCr^ hrf ihr^trXMoy. Kai mpiwXmcaprf^ Hiepffp 
tnjrtiXfjp Baop wfm^irorra «al iMarop arahiov^ 
Mx<nfcap h top vorror, Marayoprai ip Xifim 
i«Vu9T^ KoX CBmp airroOt ^p, xal ikU^^ fMctor* 

XAVn. *E9^#y M Kal ^ftmp roy wXcov 
Xiyti N^opvof 6n avpiwXm^tp avroiP, 'TBpdteff^ 
a^ofia» Taeprnfftos* intiartf hi 'TBpdxtf^ Kara- 
CTfjattP airrov^ MXP* Kapftapiff^, Tk 6i dwo 
roOh€ ovK4r$ ;^aXtfird ^p, d\Xk fiaWov ri opO' 
iui{o/Afvo, /oTfl iwl rip tcokwop top llepcucop. 

t Em hk Moaapp^p pvkto^ iirdpam^ irXmovai 
rraBlov^ hnroMoaiov^ Kal wtprtfKOPra ^« BdXwfJLOP 
aiyuiXoP' Mwp 5# ^v Bdppa^ tctafitjp ffraUovs 
rrrpaKoctov^, Xpa ^oiPttci^ rt woWoi ivriaay 
KoX KTiwo^' KoX ip r^ '^^^ fivpatpai iirt^v- 
Ktaap, leal &\\a &p$€a, aw* ormp art^avwfiara 
roiur^ M»fitjrr}o-tp iwXiicovTO' ivravBa wpSnop 
Biphpfd T€ tlhop ^fitpOt tral dpdpdnrovs ov iramt) 

% $^p»mUa^ hronciopTa^, *Eif6M€ ^ hifjKo<rlov^ 
OToSftOVf wtpnrkmvapTi^ KaraipovctP h Aeyjpw- 
fioaa, Kol €u Wcv iir* dyxvpewp iadXtvaav, 

4 *EpO€ph€ dfi^l fUcas pvxra^ dpavrt^ h Kw^avra 
Xitiipa dwucopTo, rrrpoKoiriov^ fuiXurra artihiov^ 
* Uif If ttUer and Toni«M;heck. 

VIII. (INDICA) 26. 8-27. 4 

Cisu, and Carbts was the name of the strip of coast. 
Iliere they found a few boats, the sort which poor 
fishennen might use ; but the fishennen themsehret 
thej did not find, for thej had run away as soon as 
they saw the ships a n chor in g. There was no com 
there, and the army had spent most of its store ; but 
they caught and embarked there some goats, and so 
sailed away. Rounding a tall cape miming •ome 
hundred and fiAy stades into the sea, they put in at 
a calm harbour ; there was water there, and fisher- 
men dwelt near; the harbour was called Mosama. 
XXVII. Nearrhus telb us that from this point a 
pilot sailed with them, a Gadrosian called Hydraces. 
lie had promised to take them as far as Carmania; 
from thence on the navigatioo was not difficult, but 
the districts were better known, up to the Persian 
(!ulf. From Mosama they sailed at night, seven 
hundred and fif^y stades, to the beach of Balomus. 
Thence again to Bama, a vilUge, four hundred stades, 
where there were many date-palms and a garden; 
and in the garden grew myrtles and abundant 
flowers, of which wreaths were woven by the natives. 
There for the first time they saw garden-trees, and 
men dwelling there not entirely like animals. Thence 
they coasted a further two hundred stades and 
reached Dendrobosa, and the ships kept the road- 
stead at anchor. Thence about midnight they sailed 
and came to a harbour Cophas, after a voyage of 



5 Bi€Mw\mffatne^ imavda a\Ut^ tc t^xtop, Koi 
irXoia avTolaiv ^v afUKpa xal irotnfpa* teal rfJ<T^ 
xtim^atv ov Kara aicaXfiov ijptaaop ^ 6 'EXXy;iQ»i^ 
pofUK, 6.\\* &cir€p ip irora/A^ to utttp iwtffdk' 
Xoi^es MtP Kai MtP, Kardinp oi atedirroprt^ 
rrjv fijjp* ttmp S^ woXXoi' re tyy €v r^ Xifiitu 

6 Mol KoBapoP, Htpi hi frpwrtjp ^t/Xa/r^v apaprt^ 
maraipavaip i^ Kvi(a, ^v oicreueo^iov^ crahiov^ 
hi€Kir\mcapT9^' ipa aiytaXo^ re fptf/io^ ^p teal 
^nxh' A^^ ^^ ^* oyievpimp &pfi€OPt Kara 

7 via Tf htl-KPOP ^vociorro. *Ei^Mc huKrtXmcaprt^ 
araliov^ wiproKoalov^ hrrUopro h nva iroXiv 
apiKpfjy, oiKto^pfiP irrl yrfXo^v ov iroppm rov 

8 aiyiaXov. Kal fiiapxo^ twi^paaOtU ori arrti- 
p€o6at rtjp X^pfjp «i«of > \iyti irpo^ *\pxLf)p (5^ 
^p *Apa(tBcrov /a^p waU, llcXXaiov. av»iir>M€ 
Si ^tdpx^» r»p hf atpjf imp McurfSoyw), rrp^ 
rourop \iy€i, on KaraXfiwriop c^iaiP tttj ro 

9 xuplop* iKomaK r« y^p ovk Ap oltoBcu Bovvai 
r$ trrparij atria, 0i^ rt ovk o\6p ti tlpcu 
i^aipiup, rroXtopKiti^ hk koX rpifirf^ h€i]a€tp* 
a^a9 ^ iviXMXotwipiU rik atria* on h^ v yv 
airo^opo^, rf KaXdfUff r€Kp,fjpiova6cu, ijprtpa ov 

10 woppm rov aiyuiXov d^mpwp fiaBkffp, Tat/ra 
^ir€i a^iatp ihoKtt, ra^ flip &XKa^ pia^ K€\evti 
irapaprteaOai «9 h wXoop* Kal 6 ^Apxiv^ avr^ 
ifijprvt rk i^ rop wXoop' avro^ Bk inroXeupBeU 
ptrk fUff9 v«o9 ^irl ffeap hrfiep rri^ iroXio^ fjti. 

XXVIII. npoadyoprt hi avrjt rrpo^ ra rdx^a 
^iXioif (dpta i^€pop ix T^9 Tr6Xio<; Bvvvov^ r« iv 
Kpiffdpoiaip onrov^ {ovroi yhp €axo,rot rwp 


VIII. (INDICA) a;. 4-28. i 

about four handred sUdes; here dwelt fishennen, 
with small and feeble boats ; and they did not row 
with their oars on a rowlock, as the Greeks do, bat 
as yoa do in a river, propelling the water on this aide 
or that like labourers digging^ the soil. At the 
harbour was abundant pure water. About the first 
watch thej weighed anchor and arrived at Cyisa, 
after a passage of eight hundred stades, where tiiere 
was a desert beach and a heavy surf. Here, there- 
fore, thcT anchored, and each ship took its own meal 
Ilicnce they voyagMi five hundred stades and arrived 
at a small town built near the shore on a hill. 
Searchos, who imagined that the district must be 
tilled, tokl Archias of Pella, ton of Anazidotnt, who 
was sailing with Nearchtts, and was a noteble Mace- 
donian, that they must nirprife the town, since he 
had no hope that the nathret would give the army 
p iayi ak » i of their good-will; while be could not 
captafe the town br force, but this would require 
a siege and much delay ; while they in the mean- 
while were short of provisions. But that the land 
did produce com he cookl gather from the straw 
whicn they saw lying deep near the beach, ^lien 
they had come to this resolve, Nearchus bade the 
fleet in general to get ready as if to so to sea ; and 
Archias, in his place, made all ready for the voyage ; 
but Nearchus himself was left behind with a single 
ship and went off as if to have a look at the town. 

XXVIII. As Neaichus approached the walU, the 
natives brought him, in a firiendlv way, gifts from the 
dty; tunny-fish baked in earthen pans; for there 

M.«. they **di«**tha water with a paddla. TUauBan al 
ooahng porta soiMiiaMa actually oit their shovals as paddletb 
giving point to Arriaa*a comparoon. 



*\y$V9^drfmw ouciovrt^ trptttroi avroUnw cSt^^aav 
OVK M/AO^OT^orrft) «ra« irififiara 6\iya icaX /8a- 

5 Xavov^ TMV ^oiPiMuv, 'O £^ rairra fA^v aafUvm^ 

I oi li €t09P irap€\0€ip, '09 ^ cfad* irvX4tfy 
irapi;X^(, Svo /A^y Ta»y lofori^v icarixetp ic§Xtvn 
rifp wvXiia, atni^ hi firrk hvo HXXmp teal rou 
ipfiflt^os iwi TO T(iY<K TO ravTjj drf\^ci>y iatjfAtjv^ 
roiaiP afi^ top Apyir;y oiraK awitcuro, top 
flip itp ^ arifirfpat, top C4 avfiffaXopra woUtiP ro 

4 TrrayfUpop. *lSorrff hk to af)^riiov oi Ma««- 
^Mf iwmuikXop re ^totA Ta;^09 t^v Pta^ teal 
i(€w4^m9 9wavii 4s rijp OdXaaaap* oi B4 fidp* 
ffapoi i^wXayhrm rolai yiPOfUpoifftp M rk 

B &wXa l^for* o S^ ipfAtiPtvs o cifp l^idpx^ iitfi* 
pvact drop &Sorai rj arpartn, §1 awv^v idiXM' 
eip fx^ip rifp voXiir 04 hi tjpviopro thai a^iffi, 
aal afia wpocifiaXop r^ rtix^i* aXXJi cIvcVtcX- 
Xop atrrovs oi roforoi oi afn^l tov N^ap^^oy, 

6 if (nnpB^fiov ToffwovT*^. 'tis hi fftaffop iyo- 
lUpflP Tff rfh/ff maX ocop ouwm aphpawohieBtfcofiiPffP 
a^iai Tfjp woXit', rorrt hi hi) ihiopro rov Stdpyov, 
TOP fUP elrop oairtp ^p ainoiai Xa^ovra avd- 

7 fUP, rrjp iroXijr hi firj hia^B€ipai. Niapxos hi 
TOP flip *ApxifiP ic§\€JMi KaTokafitip t^v irvKa^ 
C€U TO Kar aina^ t«a;^09* ainos hi ervfiirtfinei 
roi/s KaToyffOfiipovs top airop, u a5oX«i9 htiic- 

6 PvoiHTiP. Oi hi ro flip airo ra>p iyOveop rS)p 
owritp dXrjXtfffifvop oKevpop rroXv theitcpvaaPt 
wvpoifs hi icai /cpiBas oXiyas' €01 yap teal 

* If th« ■cBteoee k oontisnoat, ^r, io«eit«d bj Valcaotui, 
■hoold be omttud. 


VI!! ^NDICA) a8. i-8 

dwell the westernmost of the Flah-eating tnbes, and 
were the first whom the Greeks had seen cooking 
their food ; and they brought also a few cakes and 
dates from the pahns. Nearchus said that he 
accepted these gratefully ; and desired to visit the 
town, and they permitted him to enter. But as 
•^oon as he ptMed inside the gates, he bade two of 
the archers to occupy the postern, while he and two 
others, and the interpreter, mounted the wall on this 
side and signalled to Archias and his men as had been 
arranged : that Nearchus shoaki signal, and Archias 
understand and do what had been ordered. On 
seeing the signal the Macedonians beached their 
ships with all speed; they leapt in haste into the 
sea, while the natives, astounded at this manccuvre, 
ran to their arms. The interpreter with Nearchus 
cried out that they should give com to the army, if 
they wanted to save their dty; and the natives 
replied that they had none, and at the same time 
attacked the wall. But the archers with Nearchus 
shooting from above easily held them up. Wlien, 
however, the natives saw that their town was already 
t)ccupicd and almost on the way to be enslaved, 
they begged Nearchus to take what com they had 
and retire, but not to destroy the town. Nearchus, 
however, bade Archias to seize the gates and the 
neighbouring wall ; but he sent with the natives some 
soldiers to see whether they would without any trick 
reveal their com. They showed freely their flour, 
^nx>und down from the dried fish ; but only a small 
quantity of com and barley. In fact they used as 



9 hi iproifftp oca 5^r^ Ciavp^ofjupot, 'He Bk r^ 
ioma iwtBtUyvov, olrrv 6rf ix rStv wap^ovrmw 
htiaiTurdfifpoi avrfyovro^ ical opfii^ourai irp^ 
^Mptjp, fjmipa 01 4vixtip*oi ipff¥ i^X/ou ^ov* 
oOt^Ofta T^ ^pp Bdy€ta. 

XXIX. *£ir^fV^ dfti^l fUaa^ yv/cra^ &pavT9^ 
t^9mr\mov€fi araBiou^ ^^ viXiovv ^v TaX^i^a 
Xifiiva €VopfiOtr ivBhf^ is KapaalBa noXiv 
iprifii)v araSiovs <V rrrpOMoaiovs^ Xva nvi ^p^ari 
opvKT^ hnrvyxopov^^, xal t^oivttcts dypioi 
iwt^wMcatr rovr^p roifs fy/rf^aXou^ Movrovrts 

f iairiorro* eiras yrip <iriXfXoiirci t^v orpaTifjtr 
«al MoicAs H^ vwo XifAov ^X"^^*^ hr\mo¥ rriv r€ 
^iupff9 Koi rti9 wvitrat koX opfiit^otrrtu irp^ 

3 euyiaX^ iprj^i^. SiapxQS ^ /raraSfiO'a^ f^h ^P^ 
is rtjv yrjv inffiipr^ oiroXfiiroicy ras pw inro 
aSvfiifiSt M T^3c arr§mpovs IS<rx^ '''^^ *'^^^ '^* 

4 aytcvpitf¥, *B»^iyOf ApaxBitnts is Kapdrfjp 
opfii^oprau ^raUovs ms kwrtucoa iovs Kal irtpni- 
Kovra httKirXtmaatms. 'Eori Ik coi alyioKiiS ip 

6 avT^ KoX himpvx^S fipaxio** "EpOepBt Bk ara- 
Uovs OKratgociovs wXmaaprfs ip Tpoiaip o/>/u- 
toKrOA' tcAfUU ik CfUMpal teal woinjpal inrjaap' 
Koi oi iUp UpSpmiroi ixXtiwov^i rti oixiiia, airrol 
Bk air^ TiPi oXiy^ i'Wtrvyxdpovai, ical /SaXd- 
poicip i» ^oii%Kt0P* KoX KOfiiiXovs hrra oaat 
iyMaT§\ti^tfff<rap tcaraKoyjtaprtSt diro rourecav ra 

6 tcpia (atrtoPTO. 'Tiro oi ri)p fm dpaYj^iprts 
araBiOVS rpirjicoaiovs irXioovait kcu /caropfii^oprai 
is /^aydaapa' ipOa pofiuB^s rivis di/OptaTroi 

7 ijtKtop, "ICp^fir Bi &ptun€S ri^p re vvicra teal rrjp 

VIII. (INDICA) 28. 8-29. 7 

floor what they got from the fish ; and loaves of com 
flour they used as a delicacy. When, however, they 
had shown all they had, the Greeks pro\isioned them- 
selves from what was there, and put to sea, anchoring 
by a headland which the inhabitants regarded as 
Mcred to the Sun : the headland was called Bagela. 
XXDC. Thence, weighing anchor about midnight, 
they voyaged another thousand stades to Talmena, 
a harbour giving good anchorage. Thence they 
went to Canasis, a deserted town, four hundred stades 
farther ; here they found a well sunk ; and near by 
were growing wild date-palms. They cut out the 
hearts ^ of these and ate them ; for the army had 
run short of food. In fact they were now reaUy 
distressed by hunger, and sailed on therefore by day 
and night, and anchored off a desolate shore. But 
Ncarchus, afraid that they would disembark and 
leave their ships from faint -heaitedness, purposely 
kept the ships in the open roadstead. They sailed 
thence and anchored at Canate, after a voyage of 
seven hundred and fifty stades. Here there are a 
l>each and shallow channels. Thence they sailed 
eight hundred stades, anchoring at Troea; there 
were small and poverty-stricken \illages on the 
coast. The inhabitants deserted their huU and the 
Greeks found there a small quantity of com, and 
dates from the palms. They slaughtered seven 
cameb which had been left there, and ate the flesh 
of them. About daybreak they weighed anchor 
and sailed three hundred stades, and anchored at 
Dagaseira; there some wandering tribe dwelt. 
Sailing thence they sailed without stop all night and 

> TbeohMlan of young leaves have a *' heart " like that of 
the lettuce whieh ii worth eatii^ 



4llUpfi9 oi'hhf rt i\tPvorr€^ iirXmotr AXAi ^X- 
Bovrt^ 7<^ OTahiov^ Xi^ov^ r« xal ktcatov 
4(4w\mffa» TO ^^yof tAp ^Xx^vo^dyttp, iroXX^ 
Ktuck ravTff xa^orrcv dwopifj rtitv dpayicaimv, 

8 'Opful^otneu Bk ov wpo^ r^ yj* ^tixit) ykp ^¥ 
<Vi woXkhv Mxovca, aXAA fjurrkt^poi hr* dyxv- 
p4m9* tiiSfKo^ ToO wapdwXav riw *lxBvo^aym» 
T^ X**^^ oXiTM wXirDrt^ aTaS«Oi «ai ^ fiLvptot. 

9 O^M 3^ 01 'I^^uo^oTOi air^orrtu, /rarori irtp 
«al /rXiy/forroi, IvOva^' oXiyoi fikv avrmp 
iXitvotnt^ Tou^ «X^ua9* oXiyoio'i ytkp xal irXo£a 
iwl T^3« wrwoifjroi koI rixiffl ^Mpffrai hrl Tff 
B^PW TMV iyBvuVt TO voXXoy M ^ ayair«m« 

10 avTola^ waprxt^ Oi S^ iral hUrva iirl r^Bt 
wtwoirfirrai, fUyfOo^ «al ^^ £vo o^ro^t;^ r^ 
iroXA^ atrrilnf* irXtKOva^ 3^ a^A ix rov ^Xotov 
rmw ^oivUuVt arpiSomt^ r^ ^Xoiop taavep 

11 Xipow iwtkp ik 4 Bakaaca vwwocrtfajf, teal yfj 
vwoXMi^B^, Jpa fA^p (rjprf tf yfj inroXtiwrrot, 
ipiififf rh woWop ianp ix^o^v Ma Ik fioBia 
iarlp, tnroXMiwtrai ti toO OSaro^, teal ip t^« 
mdprra iroXXol lyBv^v ot flip iroXXol ofuxpol 
avrmp, oi Bi kcu fU^opts* roinoiai irtpi^dX- 

IS Xoarrcf r^ BUrva alpiovai, lurioprai Bt atfioi/^ 
flip, ociK dpfipvovatp ix rov vBaros* roif^ dira- 
Xmrdrov^ ainmw rov^ Bk fU^opd^ Tf xal aKki)- 
poripovs (nro n\i^ avaipoprt^, €vt* Ap d^avap- 
Sm^i, KoraXovvrt^ dXtvpa aw* avritp iroieoprai 
Kal dprrov^' oi Bi ^^a^ <« rovrvp rtav d\eup€0P 

13 ir€<Taovai. Kal rd ffoa/crj^iara avrotai rov^ 
ixBva^ ^pov^ a^rtoprai' ij ydp x^P^ ip^p^>^ 
' M)iaiauUigibto;b«iH«dMrgiT««. 

VIII. (INDICA) 29. 7-13 

day, and aAer a voyage of eleven himdred tiadet 
they got patt the country of the Fish-eaters, where 
they had been much dittresMd by want of food. 
They did not moor near shore, for there was a long 
line of surf, but at anchor, in the open. The length 
of the voyage along the coast of the Fish^aters is a 
little above ten thousand stadet. These Fish-eaters 
live on fish ; and hence their name ; only a few of 
them fish, for only a few have proper boats and have 
any skill in the art of catching fish ; but for the most 
part it is the receding tide which provides their 
catch. Some have made nets also for tliis kind of 
fishing ; most of them about two stades in length. 
They make the nets from the bark of the date-palm, 
twisting the bark like twine. And when the sea 
recedes and the earth is left, where the earth remains 
dry it has no fish, as a rule; but where there are 
hoUows, some of the water remains, and in this a 
large number of fish, mostly small, but some Urge 
ones too. They throw their nets over these and so 
catch them. They eat them raw, just as they take 
them from the water, that is, the more tender kinds ; 
the larger ones, which are tougher, they dry in the 
sun till they are quite sere and then pound them 
and make a flour and bread of them ; others even 
make cakes of this flour. Even their flocks are fed 
on the fish, dried ; for the country has no meadows 



14 Xtifuiifmp, ovBk woifjv ^ptt. Sffp€vovai Bi «al 
Mtipdffov^ woWaxn teal 6arp€a icaX T<i icoT^i^a* 
iKt^ tk avTOfAaroi yivovTa$ ip rif ym^* ♦ ♦ ♦ 

15 dwo Toint*9 iXoiop wotiovatw, Oi fiv Btf avrAp 

ipTltiOV^ TOXOID OiM^VfftV, ^SfySpOV T« TtfV X^PV^ 

xal a^opop KOpwAp rffUpmp, rovroicip ikwo TMy 
iy/^v^p ^ wdaa Uaira wnroiffreu' oXiyot Sk 
avrmp awnpovcip oaop r^ x^P^^* *^^ rovr^ 
icardwtp 5^ry XP^^^^ '"'P^ '^^^ Ix^vav 6 yap 

16 aiT(K ainoiaip €lc\p Ix^vts- Oltcia 5tf itntoLt^p- 
rai oi fUp ry£ai/Aoy/(aTaToi avriap, oaa icrjfTta 
imffdWn 17 BdXaaaa, rovr^p rd 6<rr/a ^friXryo- 
fupoi, xal Toinotatp drri (vXmp Y/>€o/i«y(M* xal 
$vpa^ rd darda oca vXarda avrAp aXiir/crrai dwo 
rovrmp wot4oprav roiffi hi woWohrg tad irfyc- 
€rr4potciP dwd Ttkp dmopSimp ritp ixfiv^p rd oUia 

XXX. K*fr€a hi fuydXa ip rp I(m OaXticajj 
Pdaicrrai, xaX ix!^v€t iroXX^ fjJ(oP€^ ^ ip rnU rg 

t €lcm' xak Xiyu Siapyo^, oko/tm dwd Ki/t{«y 
waphrXmop, inrd rifp Jm d^Ofjptu thttp ipm 
dpo^vcm^upop rtj^ OaXdeatfS, old wtp ix wpff- 

S orrripmp 0i^ dva^tpdfuvov itcwXayipra^ hi 9-^09 
irvvOdv^aOcu rS»p KarriyMo^uPtfip rot) irXdov 6 
T4 €417 fcal dwd rou roxrro rb wdBfjfia' rov^ hi 
dwoiepipaaOai on tcr/rta ravra ^€p6ft€Pa icard 
TOP woprop dpa^vaa €9 to dvw ro vh<ap* icaX roio'i 
pavTijaiP iKwXaytlaiP iic ri>p x^^pd^P rd iptrpd, 

4 ixwtaeiP' atno^ hi iwtu>v wapiucaXutv rt icnl 
$ap<rvv€ip, Kal icar ovartva^ wapawXaxav iye- 
vrro, ^9 fUrtawop t« KtXevffai xaraarrla-ai a»9 
iwl pavftaxifi fd^ vea^j ical i-rraXaXd^opra^ 6fU>v 

VIII. (INDICA) 29. 13-30. 4 

and produces no grass. Thej collect also in many 
places crabs and oysters and shell-fish. There are 
natural salts in the country ; from these ^ they make 
oil. Those of them who inhabit the desert parts of 
their countrr, treeless as it is and with no cultivated 
parts, find all their sustenance in the fish ; but a few 
• >f them sow part of their district, using the com as a 
relish to the fish, for the fish form their bread. The 
richest among them have built huts; they collect 
the bones of any large fish which the sea casts up, 
and ate tliem In place of beams. Doors they make 
from any flat bones which they can pick up. But 
the greater part of them, and the poorer sort, have 
huts made from the fishes' baddxmes. 

XXX.' Lmm whales Hve In the outer ocean, and 
fishes much burger than those in our inland sea. 
Mearehns states that when they left Cyixa, about 
daybreak they saw water being blown upwards from 
the sea as it might be shot upwards by the force of 
a waterspout. They were astonished, and asked the 
pilots or the convoy what it might be and how it 
was caused ; they replied that these whales as they 
rove about the ocean spout up the water to a great 
height; the sailors, however, were so startled that 
the oars fell from their hands. Nearchus went and 
encouraged and cheered them, and whenever he 
sailed past any vessel, he signalled them to turn the 
ship's tx>w on towards the whales as if to give them 
battle; and raising their battle cry with the sound 

I of a fish, psrhaps tonny, b omiit«d. 
* The slory in this chapter appeart aUo in Strabo (p. 725). 
The Greek stjle ie oniike Afiian e ordinary atyle. 



rm (ioBl^ * wvKvviv rt xal (ifif mvwm iroXX^ r^ 

6 tip*airi9 wotUoBar oCrm^ ^paBapayfCiuna^ o/ioD 
Bfj wXattip awo fwd^fiaro^* m oi iwiXafov rjBff 
roiffi Ot)pioicuf^ hnavBa axnov^ likv Saov ai 
KtSaXal* ainoia^ip ^tipfor ivaXaXdfai' t^9 ^ 
coKwiyya^ afj^rjpai^ ««i top tcrvwov awb rfj^ 

• mpioif)^ aK M fAtJKtarop Karaax^^t^' oOrm 5^ 
ipmfttpa ^^ icark t^« wp^pa^ ri»¥ t^tAp rti 
Kiirta /9 ffvacop hvptu ^KwXayhna, moX ov 
voXX^ {fOTtpop Kara rk^ wpvfAPo^ apahuvra 

7 Jumaxtif^t «Ai r^ OaXaaari^ av0t9 Jufa^ifcr)cai 
M fjym' MtP xpcrov^ Tt M tJ wapaXoyift 
cmrffpljf ytpioBoi ritp pavrittp, ical ahop i^ tov 

ftrrt^mpa tmv itfiriup iiroxiXXtiP woWayov 
Tfj^ X^PV^* ^irti^d* apdwmrt^ Mard^^ ip -roiCi 
fipax^u^ ^o/Mva, ra 5^ irol vno X'^m^kmv 
ck\ijp&p h rifp xkpoop i^Bk^aBai Koi otntt h^ 
mataaffwinupa awoXXvaBai rt teal rk^ adpxa^ 
ainoiai frtptpptovca^ vwoXuTmp rk aaria Ypa<r- 
9 Bai rolaip opBptiwot^^p is tA cuV/a' cImu oiy r^ 
/My /» r^t wXtvp^uip axnmp ocria toxovs roi^ip 
OiVf/zAO^iv 8<ra pMydXa, ra W fffiucportpa, arpm- 
Tffpas' rk hi ip rfjai atayoai, raura Bi tJpiU tA 
Bvptrpa, aia Bff woXXHtp xoi f/c €Tko<ti teal TTirre 
opyvtas dpfiKOprtop ro /tiiyt6o<: 

XXXI. Etur* Ap Bi wapiwXmoy rrjy x^H'i^ ^"'*' 
^lyBvo^ymp, XorfOP dtcovovci wtpH Pffaov riuo^i, 
fl icirrtu fthf dwix'^^^'^ '^^ ravrrj rffrtipov 

* ifKy H«NlMr. 

* ««t^Xal ii aangpteted by aditora; CbAntraine trmosUtM 
4 tut-au. Umay\mihm wImI* for the pMt, **hmd" for 


VIII. (INDICA) 30. 4-31. 1 

of the surge to row with rapid strokes and with a 
great deal of noise. So they all took heart of grace 
and sailed together according to signal. But when 
thej actually were nearing the monsters, then they 
shouted with all the power of their throats, and the 
bugles blared, and the rowers made the utmost 
splashings with their oars. So the whales, now 
visible at the bows of the shipst were scared, and 
di%'ed into the depths ; then not kmg afterwards they 
came up astern and spouted the sea-water on high. 
Theieiipon jojrful applause welcoined this unexpected 
salvation, and much praise was showered on Nearchus 
for his courage and prudence. Some of these whales 
go ashore at different parts of the coast ; and when 
the ebb comes, they are caught in the shallows ; and 
some even were east ashore high and dry ; thus they 
would perish and deeay, and their flesh rotting off 
them would leave the bones eoiiTenient to be used 
by the natives for their huts. Moreover, the bones 
in their ribs served for the larger beams for their 
dwellings ; and the smaller for rafters ; the jawbones 
were the doorposts, since many of these whales 
reached a length of 6ve-and-twenty fathoms. 

XXXI. While they were coasting along the 
territory of the Fish-eaters, they heard a rumour 
about an island,^ which lies some little distance from 
the mainland in this direction, about a hundred 

* TUiidaadw have had already in Ch. XXVI. Arrian is 
elaariy jMiag dlff ia l authorities, and has not alwmyi bar- 



araliov^ €« itearw, ipf)M Stf iar^p 9imf r ifm 9* 

% lavrffv ipffv ^\iov fXtjop cImu oi /viX*'^^' '^ 
NoaaXa Ka\i€C0at» ovO€ timi JufBfMinwmp xarai' 
p9i9 i6iKti¥ <9 airrr/V* o<rTi9 5* iU am$filjf wpoayh* 

% yiM9$€U a^apta. *AXX^ Xryc* Nla^o^, «<^ 
Kovpop a^tp ha wXi^pm/ia ^xopra Atyvwrit»p ov 
woppm r!)^ pifcov ravrtf^ ytpiaSat a^apta, xal 
inrip rovrov roi^ fjyttiopa^ lov wXoov huaxvpi* 
t^€a0«Ut on apa /carapaPTt^ inr* aypoiff^ fiV rrfp 

4 prjcop ytPOiPTo a^ptt^, Hiapxo^ B4 irifAirti 
kvk\^ wMfA r^p pfjaop rptrfgopropop, tctXtvaa^ 
fATf Kara4rxfUf flip i^ rtfp pffcop, ififioap Bi rov^ 
iardpttfwtnf^, m^ ftaXtcra ip XPT vopair\Mopra^, 
xal Toy €v0tppifrvp 6pofui(opra^ icai otov aWov 

6 ovic ti^pi^ TO ovPOfia' m Ik oifhipa vvaxovtip, 
rort Bk airro^ X^t** wXmaai i^ rifp pr)<rop, tted 
Kara^x^lp lif wpocapayndaai rovs pavra^ ova 
i$i\opra^' teal ix0fjpaA air 6^ mal My(ai mpop 

6 fivOop iopra top wtpi rp piia^ Xcyop* eucovcai £^ 
iroi aXXop Xoyoar vwkp rifs ptfaov ravrfi^ XC70- 
ffiomr, OixrJ0ai rifp wf^aop lavrrjiP fiiap rStp 
N9pi|iSt»y* TO li aCpo/ia ov \iy€a$a^ t^ Srfpfjt' 
&K* ravTfj Bi ooTif wiXdatit rp Ptictp, rovr^ 
cvyyipfa$ai ^p^ Ix^vp 5< 4( upBponrov irouov- 

7 cap ainop ip0aK\§tP i^ top itoptop' "HXiop hi 
ax0€a6€PTa t§ SffpyjtBi, tctXivtip fitTOixi^€<f0cu 
aSrijp iic TTj^ ptfaotr rijp Bi 6^o\oyt€iP fUp Sri 
ifotMiaOiiaerai, hUaBeu hi ol to wdOfjfia irav- 

8 Bqpai' KOi TOP "IWiop (nroBifaadai' tov^ Bi Bif 
apBpwrou^ oVcTtPa^ &p ix/Bva^ if apffpwva>p 
W€iroifjK€ icaT€\€i}<rapTa, avdpunrov^ avdi^ if 
Ix^vwp irotf)<Tai' teal uvo tovt^p Totp ^Ix^voi^d' 

VIII. (INDICA) 31. i-S 

sUdes, bat is nninlMibitgd. The natives said that 
it was sacred to the Sun and was called Nosala, and 
that no human being ever of his own will put in 
there; but that anyone who ignorantly touched 
there at once disappeared. Nearchus, however, 
sajTs that one of his gmUejs with an Egyptian crew 
was lost with all hands not far from this island, and 
that the pilots stoutly averred about it that they 
had tooled ignonuitly on the bUnd and so had 
disappeared. Bat Nearchus sent a thirty-oar to 
sail round the bland, with orders not to put in, 
but that the crew should shout loudly, while coasting 
round as near as they dared ; and should call on the 
lost helmsman by name, or any of the crew whose 
fuunc they knew. As no one answered, he telb as 
that he himself sailed up to the bland, and compelled 
hb unwilling crew to put in ; then he went ashore 
and exploded this Island fairy-tale. They heard abo 
another current story about thb Island, that one of 
the Nereids dwelt there ; but the name of thb Nereid 
was not told. She showed much friendliness to any 
»ailor who approecbed the bland ; but then turned 
him into a fish and threw him into the sea. The 
Sun then became irritated with tlie Nereid, and bade 
her leave the bUmd; and she agreed to remove 
tbenoe, bat begged that the spell on her be removed ; 
the Son consented ; and sadi human beings as she 
had turned into fishes he pitied, and turned them 
again from fishes into human beings, and hence 
arose the people called Fbh-eaters, and so they 



7WF TO 7<yof «a* «iV *AXi(atfBpow Kar^XBthf, 
9 Kal ravra Sri ^€vl€a €fcXr/;^fi Hiapxos* ovx 

oCrt rndprra x^XrirA i^tXtyxBtfiKU iovra^ rakai' 
wmpop r* io¥ yiim<rKmp rov^ waXoioi^ Xoyov<! 

XXXil. 'Twkp Tovv *l)($vo^ayov^ Vahpwaioi 
h TO Iri* oixiovci 'ffiP womipifip teal ^afifuii^a' 
ip0€p Kol T^ iroXXa Koxa if arpariii Tf *AX€- 
(aplfi^ hta$9 Koi avro^ *A\i(apcpo^, A^ fWi tjBtf 

1 ip T^ &\X^ ^^1* ainf/irra4. Of M ^v rf)p 
Ktipfiapiffp dwo rmp ^Ix^vo^ywp fcarrjpiP 6 
arparo^, ipravBa ipa vpinop rrj^ KapfUiPifj^ 
mpfdcopTo^ iir dyxvpimp icaXsvaaPt on f^nX^^ 

S wuprriraro i^ to itiXaya^ rpffxia- *Ei^ty&r B^ 
maavrt0^ ovicrn vpo^ ifXiov hvofiivov hrXmov, 
aXKk TO firrafif Bvcios Tt ffXiov xai t^ Spxrov 

4 ovrm fidWop t« ai wpApiu avrotoiP hrtlypp' icaX 
o(hw 4 Kap fiat iff rmp lydvo^yup t?}^ y^^ koX 
rmm *np€iri90P €vl€piporipti rt xal €v/capworipfj 

5 i^, col woiMfi^ ftaXXop Ti gal hrvhpo^, 'Op/u- 
IJKnat Ik h IBMti X'^P^ '^^ K a pf tapifis oUta- 
fUpm, hh^ptd Tt iroXX^ ^P^p^ irtf^vtcora ^xopti 
v'X^ iXaif/^, mal d^wiXovf dya$d^, xal atro^op^, 

*Ei^M« oppfffBhrrt^ mai hnKwXmaaprt^ arahiov^ 
OKTtucociov^, wpo^ aiyiaX^ opid^oprai ipti^up, 
KoX Maropttcip aicprjp fuucpijp ifap^xovcap iwl 
woXXop ^ TO wiXajo^' dwix^ip Bk i^ivrro ij 

7 dtcpfti wXoop w^ TifUpfi^, Kal ol rcltp x^P^^ 
iictipiop Ba^p.op€^ TTf^ *Apaffiff^ tXtyov rrjv 
dpurxovaap ravTrjp aMprfV, tcaXitadai Bk Matara' 
ipOtp rd Kipdfuofui t« koI dXXa roiotrrorpoira 

VIII. (INDICA) 31. a-ja. 7 

descended to Alexander's day. Nearchos sliows 
that all this is mere legend; but I have no com- 
mcndation for his pains and his scholarship; the 
stories are easy enoogh to demolish; and I regard 
it as tedious to relate these old talcs and then prove 
them all fabc. 

XXXII. Beyond these Fish-eaters the Gadrosians 
inhabit the interior, a poor and sandy territory ; this 
was where Alexander's army and Alexander himself 
suffered so seriously, as I have already related in my 
other book. But when the fleet, leaving the Fish- 
eaters, put in at Carmania, they anchored in the 
open, at the point where they first touched Carmania ; 
since there was a long and rough line of surf parallel 
with the coast. From there they sailed no further 
due west, but took a new course and steered with 
their bows pointing between north and west. Car- 
mania is better wooded than the country of the Fish- 
eaters, and bears more fruits ; it has more grass, and 
is well watered. They moored at an inhabited place 
eaDed Badis, in Carmania; with many cultivated 
trees growing, except the olive tree, and good vines ; 
it also produced com. Thence they set out and 
voyaged eight hundred stades, and moored off* a 
desert shore; and they sighted a long cape jutting 
out far into the ocean ; it seemed as if the headland 
itself was a day s sail away. Those who had know- 
ledge of the district said that this promontory 
belonged to Arabia, and was called Maceta; and 
that thence the Assyrians imported cinnamon and 



8 4^ * Koavpiov^ aytP€taOai* xal avo rov aiytaXov 
rovrov, ipairtp 6 ^roXoc ^adXtvt, ical rff^ d^pi^, 
ijyrtpa marapTiKpv airewp^p av4xovcap ^ to 
miXayoK, 6 «oXircK (^/mm rf ^«cfi xal Ntdpx^ 
maavrm^ iBostUp) i^ ro ttata dvaxtrrai, ttrtp 

• CMro9 4 *E»pv$pfi BdXaaca, 'Vaim^v rffp JUptfP 
m xarttiop, *OpfiaUpir<K uip hiixovra^ iir* 
avTf)p irXmtUf ixikiV€P, m m*7 ^ar^ top xoXttop 

10 iKaarp9vopra^ raktuwmok^oBai. Siapyo^ Ik 
dwQitpiprrtu pffwwp thmi OmfcUptrop, «a aypo4ti 

11 iw* Sr^ icrdkfi wp^ *A\t(dp6pov o 0TOXO9* ov 
y^p OTi dwopifi ^p v#t]$ BtaatfBffPtu wturra avr^ 
Tov arparop, M rmht ipa iiewifiyfroi tAv Pia^» 
6XKiL iOiXopra iuytaXov^ rf rov^ icarii top 
wapdwXovp icaraaiciy\^aa6ai ical opfiov^ teal 
PffcihaK, teal Sarts koXwo^ iaixpi, iic7r§pi' 
wXA^at Tovrop, teal woXta^ octu iwiBa- 
\dcaiai, ieal ff r$^ ffieapwo^ 7^, xaX tl T19 

It ipiififi* S^af &p oO xMi'^^^ d^picok rh ipynp, 
wpa^ ripftan ifitf iopra^ rmp wopmp, SKkm^ t« 
oM dwopm^ hi rm» J^PoyKolmp €P r^ wapdirXip 
h(ppra^' Mitptu T«, Srt if ^Mpfi i^ pttrrffiffplrfp 
opiXti* M W>*y ^* ^ ravrjj yj xal dpvhpff icai 

IS ^XoyM^fi iygvpauop, Tatrra ipUa, koI fioi 
6oK(€t wtpi^PHP^ aAatu rrjp arparirjp r^Se rfj 
0ov\j Siapxo^* T^v yikp hi) dscprfp ^Ktivrjp leai 
Twr wpo^ airrf X^P^^ iraaap ^ptjfiijp re fTvm 
\oy<K /rar^ci, tral vBaro^ airopiff ixtaScu . 

XXXm. *AXXA hrXtPOP ykp cltto rov alyiaxou 
dpaPT^ rff yj 'trpovtx^ *"* frKuxraprt^ ara- 
ciov^ mi eirrtucoctovi h 6\\^ aiytaX^ wpfii- 


VIII. (INDICA) 32. 7-33. I 

other ipicet. From this beach off which the fleet 
anchoreid in the open roadstead, and the promontory, 
which ther sighted opposite them, running out into 
the sea, the baj (this is my opinion, and Nearchus 
held the same) runs back into the interior, and would 
seem to be the Red Sea.^ When they sighted this 
cape, Onesicritus bade them take their course from 
it and sail direct to it, in order not to have the trouble 
of coasting round the bay. Nearchus, however, 
replied that Onesicritus was a fool, if he was ignorant 
of Alexander's porpoae in despatching the expedi- 
tion. It was not Decftiue he was uneoual to the 
bringing all hit fotce safely through on foot that he 
had despatched the fleet ; but he desired to recon- 
noitre tne coasts that Uy on the line of the voyage, 
the roadsteads, the islets ; to explore thoroughly any 
bay which appeared, and to learn of any cities which 
Uy on the sea-coast ; and to find out what land was 
fruitful, and what was desert. They must therefore 
not spoil Alexander's tmdertaklng, especially when 
they were almost at the close of their toib, and were, 
more ov er, no longer in any difficulty about proviriooa 
on their coasting cruise. His own fear was, since 
the cape ran a long way southward, that they would 
6nd tne land there waterless and sun-scorched. 
This view prevailed; and I think that Nearchus 
evidently saved the expeditionary force by this 
deeltion ; for it is generally held that this cape and 
the eoontnr about it are entirely desert and quite 
denoded Of water. 

XXXIII. They sailed then, leaving this part of 
the shore, hugging the land; and aAer voyaging 
some seven hundred stades they anchored off another 




1 aamo' Stoinatfa ovtfo/ui r^ alytaX^, Kal 
av6i^ VTTo Tr)P ^ avr/yovro, icaX irXmaoirrt^ 
arahiov^ iicaroif opfiil^ovrcu xarh, row irorafAOP 
"Ayafur* 6 Bi X^P^ Wp^ftta itcaXitro, <t>iXia * 
Bi ^17 ical irdfA^opa ravrjj ^v, wXffp iXauu ov 

Ptm¥ Mol aWO TtMf WOXkmW WWU9 &9lM¥Oi <lw- 

vavovTo, fiMfunifihoi tea mamk xarii r^¥ 0aXao- 
909 vwot^orcv 4^av, icaX irpo^ rfj ytj ratv 
'ly^ u o^aTt u r, ri^ rt iprjfUfjv rij^ X^P^' ^^^ 
TOW ipOpwwov^ 5irtK 6fip4mh€€^t mai rk^ a^itv 

4 awopla^ 4wik/rf6fM4PO$* Kai rtpt^ avrmw diro 
ddkaaetf^ h to wpoam J^fjkffop, awoetethaaB^tm^ 

6 T% orpoTi^ gark (i^rffcip AXXo^ aWov, *Ep- 
ravOa hf$pmwo^ 9^ici9 <»^i| x\ap.vha rt ^pin^v 

«ai ^pfiP 'E\Xa^ i^mptt, TovTOP oi -rrpanoi 
lU^rts haKpvaai iXeyotr oOrm ti iraptiXoyov 
9^la$ ^avtjpoi iK Twv locmifht momAp '*E\\fjva 
/M9 SttUpmwOP littp, 'EXKoBo^ S^ ^wprj^ atcovaar 

6 hrmpmr^p Tf OModtp ^«oi, teal Sari^ iatp' 6 Bi 
Jnri rov ffrparoiriBov rov *A\€(dpBpov aTroff/ci^a- 
aOrfwai tkiyt, «04 clyoi ov woppm rh arpaionrthop 

7 mtiX airrov ^ Xki^atftpop' rothop top dpOptirtrop 
ffompris tc icaX icporiopTt^ apdyouai irapk top 
Hiapxo9* «al Nci^vfi irdpra €<t>paa9, icaX ori 
ircrrt rffMMpimm Mw iw^xti ro arparowMBop xal 

8 o ffaeiXtv^ dwo t^ ^aXao'O'i;^* Tor tc Cirapxop 
rrj^ X^*PV^ Taim79 B€l(€ip ^i; fitdpx^, *ecu 
l^u(f xal fitra roxnov Siapxo^ yptafifjp troiiercu, 

9 iictp^ aveiffiiarrcu wpkf ffaaiXta. Tort /Up Bfj 

' fiKuL, Herelicr I«4ia/«. 

VIII. (INDICA) Z3. 1-9 

beach, called Neoptana. ThcD at dawn they moved 
off aeaward, and after traversing a hundred stadet 
thej moored bj the river Anamis ; the district was 
caOed Harmoieia. All here was friendly, and pro- 
duced fruit of all sorts, except that olives did not 
grow there. There they disembarked, and had a 
welcome rest from their long toils, remembering the 
ndaeriet they had endmred by sea and on the coast 
of the Fish-eaters ; recounting one to another the 
desolate character of the country, the almost bestial 
nature of the inhabitants, and their own distresses. 
Some of them advanced some distance inland* 
breaking away from the main force, some in pursuit 
of this, and some of that. There a man appeared 
to them, wearing a Greek cloak, and dressed other- 
wise in the Greek fiuhion, and speaking Greek also. 
Those who firrt sighted hfan sakl that they burst 
into tears, so strange did it seem aAer all these 
miseries to see a Greek, and to hear Greek spoken. 
Tliey asked whence he came, who he was ; and be 
said that he had become separated from Alexander s 
camp, and that the camp, and Alexander himself, 
were not very far distant. Shouting aloud and 
clapping their hands they brought this man to 
Nearchus; and he told Nearchus everything, and 
that the camp and the King himself were distant 
five days' journey from the coast. He also promised 
to show Nearchus the governor of this district and 
did so ; and Nearchus took counsel with him how to 
march inland to meet the King. For the moment 


iirl T^^ Wa9 dwijXBotr ttwo Sii rtfp Xw r^9 Wav 

icark Tov vXoov wewovtJKtcav, xal &fui on ^y 
r^ X'i'PI* TovT^ viroX«ir<a^ai oi Jfiojre« roi^ 
10 iroXXoy rrparoir ^dpatcd re mv irtpiffdXXiTtu 
BiirXoop hrl t^ wavard$fi^, koI rti;^ ytjipow 
teal rd^pop fioBitiv, diro rot) irorafioi; t% ^XI^V^ 
dpfdfitpov, Hart iirl row aiytaXoi', 7va at i4t^ 
avrm dptipvafUtnu ^ap, 

aXXIV. *£ir fS ^ o NIapyov rat^ra wKuafAtt, 
r^ X^f/^T^ o ^a/>x^ wtwucfUpo^ Sxttfq ip fi€yd\u 
^pairriU fy^ ^A\i(apBpo^ rk dp^l top aroXov 
ToOror, /Uya Sij ri if AXtfdphpov dyadop iiv^ 
ffpm W€ur€a0ai, §1 vpMTCK oi airayyti\tt€ rov 
arparov r^y fftartjpirfp gal rou S^dpyov, Sri 
ov woXXm i/^rtpop dwiftroi i^ S^jrip rtfp paaiXio^, 
1 Oirr» &| T^i' fipaxvrdrfjp iXaaa^ aTrayyikXt^ 
*AXt(dpip^, on N«af)vo« ouro^ wooadyti diro 
r$m Ptmp, Torf pip tii itaiwtp awtariatp r^ 
Xiym *A\ifapBpo^, aXXA iX*'P^ 7* «aT^ to Ci/rbv 

iyiptro, teal (vpr^Biprt ain^ rrf^ dyytXirj^ top 
XP^pop ovxiri irtara rk iftfyytXpiva i^x^iPtro, 

4 mpirofuioi Tf aXVoi iv aXXotaiP m iirl xofuSfj 
rov Stdp^ov, oi fup rtP€^ oXiyop rif^ ohov 
irpotXdoprt^ Ktpoi hravytaap ovhtpX iyxvpcaprtv 
oi Bi Kal iroppmripm tXOoprt^, tcdi Biatiapropre^ 
TMV dp^l rop t^HLpxop, ovhi airoX iirav^taav^ 

5 ipravBa ^ rop ptp dpOpatirop iictlpop, a>^ tctpd 
Tff drfy€iXapra Koi Xtrtrijponpd oi rei wpijypara 
woiTiccLpra rj /laraifj €v<^poauprf, avXXafftip 

* Htrober omiU iw. 


VIII. (INDICA) 33. 9-54. 5 

indeed be returned to the ship ; but at dawn he bad 
the ships drawn up on shore, to repair aoj which had 
been damaged on the voyage ; and also because he 
had determined to leave the greater part of his force 
behind here. So he had a double stockade built 
round the ships' station, and a mud wall with a deep 
trench, beginning from the bank of the river and 
going on to the beach, where his ships had been 
draped ashore. 

XXXIV. While Nearchus was busied with these 
arrangements, the governor of the country, who had 
been toM that Alexander felt the deepest ooDoem 
about this expedition, took for granted that he would 
receive some great reward from Alexander if he 
should be the first to tell him of the safety of the 
expeditionary force, and that Nearchus would 
presently appear before the King. So then he 
hastened by the shortest route and told Alexander : 
" See, here is Nearchus coming from the ships." 
On this Alexander, though not believing what was 
told him, yet, as he naturally would be, was pleated 
by the news itself. But when day succeeded day, 
and Alexander, reckoning the time when he received 
the good news, could not any longer believe it, when, 
moreover, relay sent after relay, to escort Nearchus, 
either went a part of the route, and meeting no one, 
came back unsuccessful, or went on further, and 
missing Nearchus' party, did not themselves return 
at aU, then Alexander bade the man be arrested for 
spreading a lake tale and making things all the 
worse by this false happiness; and Alexander 


K§Xtv€$ *AX^far5/xK« airro^ Bi Tff t€ ^i teal 

6 *Ev rovr^ Bk tmt tivc9 xarii (ijTrjatp rov N«d/9^ov 
iaraXfitvwv nrirovf tc ^irl tcofuBj avftitv iced 
awfjya^ Bi ayovrt^ itrrvyvopovat Karii ti;^ oBow 

7 ^/la avroifft' firrii ro^ovrmp yap dt^^t, Kal ^• 
rvxoyrt^ ovn ainop 4ytmptcap ovrt ro¥ 'Apv^riir 
ovrm roi Kapra dXKoloi i^dtnicav, KOfiouprh r« 
gal ^vwommis tal ^arol HX^in^, teal pixpni rA 
am^ra, mtd mxpoi (nrB dypmn^iti^ re xal rijq 

• dDlXfl^ raXtuwmplif^. *A\Xk ipofuvoici yap 
avrouTip fpawjip ffi| 'AXi^ojrS/xK* dwoKpiPUfitvoi 

• T^ X^pop olSff waprikawoy, *ApWi|¥ Bk ^1- 
^paoPtU Xiyf* v/>of Siapvop, *n Niap;^f, rov- 
roi/^ To^ difOomrov^ B4 tprffuff^ tkavvt^v rtjp 
ainifv ^/ihf ici» owe iw* d\\f rod cinrriBrjfu, ^ 
Brt, fiff tearii f^tj^ffcuf rifv tiptriorpf <&vcaTaX* 

10 fUiHtv^' 5t« Bi ov yttmcKOvaiP ^fUa^, ovk #V 
Brnfuin woUo/iOi' oCrm yap ri txop^v xaxSt^, i»9 
Sfftmo'TiH «Imu* ^pdau^p ainoiaiv oXrivt^ ilfiiv 
gal rov^ 4pmftt$a Kaff 8 r^ ravrrjp iKavvovav, 

11 'E3o(« Tfi Stdpx^ ipaiatfia Xtytiir moI rjpotrro, 
Bkoi iXavPfVCiir oi Bk dwoKpipoprai, Bri icarik 
(ijTijat¥ N^dpxov Tf ical rov arparou rov 

IS vavrtMov. 'O Bi, Otro^, If^rj, iyta Niap^09> 
/cal *Apxi*f^ 0UT09* aXX* dyrrt rffUa^* ffptU Bi 
tA trmip rij^ or par iff^ *A\ffdpBp^ dwtjyifao' 

XXXV. ^ KvaXafiovrt^ Bi avrov^ M t^? 
hwrjva^, OfwLo^ rjKavvoir xai rtvt^ avroau rovrttp 
tnro^duaai i0f\iiaaprtq rijv dyyt\it]v, rrpoBpa' 


VIII. (INDICA) 34. 5-35- » 

•lioiwed both by his looks and his mind that he 
wounded with a rery poignant grief. Meanwhile, 
however, Mme of those sent to search for Nearchns, 
who had hones to convey him, and chariots, did 
meet on the way Nearchus and Archias, and 6ve or 
six others ; that was the number of the party which 
came inland with him. On thb meeting they recog- 
nixed neither Nearchus nor Archiss so altered did 
they appear; with their hair long, unwashed, 
eovered with brine, wisened, pale from sleeplessness 
and all their other distresses; when, however, they 
asked where Alexander might be, the search party 
gave reply as to the locality and passed on* 
Archias, however, had a happy tlmught, and said to 
Nearchus : ** I suspect, Nearchus, that these persooi 
who are traversing the same road as ours through this 
desert country have been sent for the express purpose 
of finding us ; as for their failure to recognise us, I 
do not wonder at that ; we are in sudi a sorry plight 
as to be unrecognisable. Let us tell them who we 
are, and ask them why they come hither.*' Nearchus 
approved ; they did ask whither the party was going; 
and they replied : " To look for Nearchus and his 
naval force." WTicrcupon, ** Here am I, Nearchus," 
said he, "and here is Archias. Do you lead on ; we 
will make a full report to Alexander about the 
expeditionary force." 

XXXV. The soldiers took them up in their cars 
and drove back again. Some of them, anxious to be 
beforehand with the good news, ran forward and 

VOL. Il« O 409 

/iorr«v Xiyovaip *A\t(uyhp^, Sri O^rov to« 

mofuiotrrai irapk ov inrip li rov arparov weanoK 

t ovStv fiX^'^ vwoKpiifaaOai. Tovro iicMi¥o awO^U 
6 'AX^'fai'J/KK Toif^ fkkp irapaXiym^ awoatitOffyai, 
Tfj¥ arpaTifjp h4 itaaav Bu^apBai atn^, ov 
Toaowlt rov Stdpxov re /cal rov *ApxUt0 TJ 
amnipi^ ifyoipfi', 0CO9 i\vwt€v avrof dwoXofUmj 

S ^ arpartrf wdoa, 0^« irdpra ravra itpffro, 
ical 6 Siapxos t« coi o *Apxi^ rrpoarffov, 
Towv hk tiirti^ KoX x^^^'^^ iwrypu ^AXtfauhpos' 
on re Kouomma^ xal mutik tcraXfiiyov^ xart- 
mpa, ravTff fiaXXop ri 040ai6r€pop avrA to 
in^o^ vwip rtj^ crparuf^ rrf^ pavriMrj^ iyivtro. 

4*0 U rifw 5«(i^y T^ Stdpx^ ififiaXmv naX aira- 
yaytMf /ioOroar airrotf dwi rm¥ iroLp^v t« icaX 
rmtf vrracwicrimw, rtoXkov M xpoiwp ildicpv^v 

f ^^ t^ dtfwrfmmp,* AWk avrft tjfup 6ri iwai^iJKti^ 
aAa^, 1^^, Koi 'A^x*V ovro^, ixoi Af lfio<7« w^ 
M cvfM^pi rj dirdffp futrpim^* ai ii roi W«9 
Ktu 4 arparifi Koim rud rpowm Big^dpfjaav ; 

t'O hk vwoXaffifP, *n^ 0a<ri\tv. I^i?. xal ai vU^ 
ro€ ffmu flal ttal o arparov* rif*^U Bk o^oi 

7 ^JEttcXm t^ amrtipirj^ avriiv rjKOfUP. "En fidX- 
Xop iZoMpvtP *AX€(apBpo^, Karon dpiXwtaro^ oi 
ff cttrtipifi rov arparov i^aivtro* xal o/eov 
opfUovaip al P€€^ dyyjpmra' 6 hi, Avroi, i^, ip 
r^ orofian rov *ApdfuBo^ rrorafiov dptipvofUpai 

8 iwiaxtvdfopreu. *AXtfapBpo^ Bi rop rt ^ia rop 
'EXXtm*!' xai rop "Afifimpa rop Aifiv^p iiropvv- 
ouf, ^ fiTfP fU(op m iirl T^5« TJ dyyiXiff ;^ai/Mii', 


VIII. (INDICA) 35. i^ 

told Alexander : ** Here is Nearchus ; and with him 
Archias and five besides, coming to your presence." 
Thej could not, however, answer anj qaestkmt 
about the 6eet. Alexander thereupon became 
po«e»ed of the idea that these few had been 
miraciiloiislj saved, but that his whole army had 
perished; and did not so much rejoice at the safe 
arrival of Neaiebys and Archias, as he was bitterly 
pained by the lost of all his force. Hardly had the 
soldiers told this much, when Nearchus and Archias 
approached; Alexander ooold only with great 
diAcolty recognise them ; and leeinf them as he did 
long-haired and ill-elad, his grief for the whole fleet 
and its personnel received even greater surety. 
Giving his right hand to Nearchus and leading him 
aside firom the Companions and the bodyguard, for 
a long time he wept ; bat at length recovering him- 
self he said : '* That you come back safe to us, and 
Archias here, the entire disaster is tempered to me ; 
but bow perished the fleet and the force ? " *' Sir," 
he replied, '* your ships and men are safe ; we are 
ooa»e to tell with our own lips of their safety." On 
this Alexander wept the more, since the safety of 
the Ibree bad seemed too good to be true ; and then 
he enquired where the ships were anchored. 
Nearchus replied : *' They are all drawn up at the 
mouth of the river Anamis, and are undergoing a 
refit." Alexander then called to witness Zeus of 
the Greeks anil the iJbyan Ammon that in good 
truth he rejoiced more at this news than because he 



fkp KoX TO Jix^ ^' ^^ ''V ^wmXdjf r^ arpan^ 
atnippcmo9 y€i4ff6ai rj SXXp wdajj ttnvxifj' 
XXXVI. 'O hi (hrapxQ^ rtj^ X^P^^* ovriva 

fiaroiOTfim, waptoma Marilm^ top Siapxov$ 

t wifTTti T« atir^ irpa^ rk yopara, xa\, ()vto9 roi, 
1^, ^7t# €4/a, h^ cix7y7«iXa *A\€(av^pfp on 
amoi ^icrrf* op^f 5«a»« &<urf«/4a4. Oittm 5^ 
2fCTa4 AX«{tti4^i; Heapxo^ a^ttptu r6p JMpti, 

t Moi ^irrau *A\i(at'Bpo^ Si atatripia rov cTpa- 
roOWvf Ail ^Mrnp* tal 'llpoMXti xal ^AwoXXmvi 
*AXt(iMdMf Kol UoctMpi T« xal Baa IXXoi 6§ol 
BaXeiaaioi* aal aympa iiroitM yvpvucop rt teal 
ftmfaiMOP, Mai wofi'rrjp |ir«/iirc« xal Siapyos ip 
wpmroiatp hropittv€, ra*piffci t« xal avSta 

4 wp^ r^ aTpar^TJi^ fiaXkofUPVi, 'Hf hi ravrd 
al WXof tlx^, X^i vpo« Siopxop, *Bor«» cr§, & 
Nio^f. ovxirt iOiXm to wpoat^ otrr* awi/rfi^Sv- 
wt^UP, oCrt raXoiwrnphaOtu' aXX^ iXXo9 7^^ 
ToO paxniKov ihrffcrrai r6 Jiwo rov^, tan 

• Karaar^m ainl i^ lAwam, Niapyof £i tnro' 
Xaffmp Xiyti, ^H /So^iXfi), iy^ piproi wdpra 
wMtcOoi i$€\m Tc KoX opaytcaiff poi iarip- 
6XXA ffi Btj Tt «ai au ^Mol xa/M{€<r^a4 idiXti^,* 
pif woiii<Tff^ M^* (xXXa fi« iaaop t^fjytjtraadai 4^ 
&wap rov arparov, tart aoi au^a^ tcaToarijata 4^ 

Souaa T^9 I'Ca^ M*?^^ t^ M^i' ^aXcira tc avrov 
Ktu ivopa ipol hntrrpapptpa iic aov eo'Tor, ra 

* Hareber f x««. 

* A. ##«A«a. TIm mixed condiiiop ham, perbafM od- 
i\j, trooblwl •ditora. 


VIII. (INDICA) 35. 8-36. 6 

had oonqnered all AsU ; since the grief he had felt 
at the sttppoaed lost of the fleet cancelled all his 
other good fortune. 

XXXVI. The goremor of the province, howerer, 
whom Alexander had arrested for his fake tidings, 
seeing Nearchtts there 00 the spot, fell at his feet : 
'* Here," he said, '* am I, who reported jour safe 
arrival to Alexander; joa tee in what plight I now 
am/* So Nearchos begged Alexander to let him go, 
and he was let off. Alexander then tacriflced thank- 
ofleringt ibr the safetj of his host, to Zeus the 
Saviour, HerMto, ApoDo the Averter of Evil, 
Poseidon and all the gods of the sea; and he held a 
contest of art and of athletics, and also a proeeision; 
Nearchos was in the front row in the proccwion, and 
the troops showered on him ribbons and flowers. At 
the end of the procession Alexander said to Nearchos : 
** I win not let joo, Nearchos, ran risks or sufler 
distresses again Uke those of the past ; some other 
admiral shall henceforth fommand the navy till he 
brings it into Sosa." Neardios, however, broke in 
and said : " King, I will obej you in all things, as is 
my boonden duty ; but should you desire to do me 
a gradoos favour, do not this thing, but let me be 
the admiral of your fleet right up to the end, till I 
bring yoor ships safe to Susa. Let it not be said 
tiut you entrosted me with the diflicult and desperate 


Ik fuirrrca t« tcai xXiov^ Ij^ eroifAOv ixj^iA€pa, 
ratha hi airaiptBiyra &\Xm t^ X'^^^ Moc0m, 

7 "Eri "Xjyowra iravci ainov *\\i(aklpo^, xal 
X^P^^ ^poc^fio\6rfi€¥ fijfwii* ourti Bff tear a' 
wtfAWti avrotf, arpar^ij^ hov^ h irapawofurtfy 

8 m^ hid ^iXifj^ iom 0X47179. T^ tk ovBi rik rrj^ 
6iw Tff^ M BdXaaaav /(•» winwv iyhfrro* dXXk 
^vXXiXtyfitPOi ydp oi scCmX^ 0dpPnpo$ rd ipvfiyd 
7% X^PV ^V^ Kapftapiij^ Kartlxop, Sri xai 
aarpdwif^ avroi^i rrrfXttrri^/cfi aard wp6cra(i¥ 
*A>ut(di^pov 6 Bi ptmcrl Kar^artifm^ TXiyiro- 

XtfAo^ otnrm fiifiaiw rh icpdro^ cl;^c. Kal BU 
UP xal rpU T^ airrj fifUpjj dXXotai xal dWoiai 
r4m 0mpffdpmif hn^upoftiioiaip ii^ X'^^ 9«aair 
Mml ^mf pUh r$ Aaru^ayrtv fioXt^ xai xakrwm 
htl BdXaoaap awtamBtjcap. *Emai^a $u4i 
li 4mpx'^ Al l ILmr^pi koI dyitva votui yufwiMOP, 
JUUL\li. 'n« M avT^ rd Oihi iv leocpLtp 
wtwoiffTOt o^m B^ dprfyomo, WapanXmaawrt^ 
hk rrjaop iprj^fip rt leal rptfX^V^ ^^ &K\fi 1^^ 
opfU^oPTtu^ ptydXff ravrif xal oUtofUpff, wXti' 
aamt^ aroBiovs rpifficociou^, Mttnrtp itpfirfir)- 

2 oap. Kal 17 liAP iptjfiv y^o^ "Opyapa imaXirTo, 
4% ^p Bk mpiirfitiaekp ^Odpascra* dfiwtXoi rt ip 
airrn iwi^victaap ical ^ioipuct^, xal airo^opo^ 
TO M pf)ico^ [rjp] rrj^ prjaov, crdBioi OKraiewrun, 
¥iaX o virapxo^ ''^ pi^cov Ma(ipnj^ avviwXMtP 
avroia$ fUxp^ Souflrttv, ^tXoprtj^ tf/tpmp row 

t vXoou. *Cv ravTfj t$ p]i<r^ ItXeyop /cal rov 
VfM*TM9 BvpoanvaapTO^ rrj^ X'^PV^ ravrr)^ 
BeitcpvaOoi top rd^p* ouvopa Bi airr^ *EpvOpTjp 
tlptu, ax* orov kcu rijp inww^rjp rj BaXaaarf 

VIII. (INDICA) 36. 6-37. 3 

work, bot the easy task which leads to ready fame 
was taken awaj and put into another's hands.*' 
Alexander checked his speaking further and thanked 
him warmly to boot ; and so he sent him back again* 
giving him a force as escort, but a small one, as he 
was going through friendly territory. Yet his 
journey to the sea was not untroubled ; the natives 
of the country round about were in poMCtsion of the 
strong places of Carmania, since their satrap had beeo 
put to death by Alexander's orders, and his suoeetMsr 
recently appointed, Ticpolcmus, had not established 
his authority. Twice then or even thrice on the one 
day the party came into co n ilct with different bodies 
of natives who kept coming up, and thus without 
kiting any time Ihey only just managed to get safe 
to the aea-coast. 'Aien Kcarchut sacrificed to Zens 
the Savioor and hekl an athletic meeliiig. 

XXXVII.1 >Vhcn therefore Nearchus had thus 
dolir p crfer m ed all his reUgfcNii duties, they weighed 
andior. GMttliig akiftf a rough and desert Isumdv 
they anchored oa anotner island, a large one, and 
inhabited ; this was after a voyage of three hundred 
stades from their point of departure. The desert 
island was called Organa, and that off* which they 
moored Oaracta. Vines grew on it and date-palms ; 
and it produced com ; the length of the island was 
eteht hundred stades. The governor of the island, 
Nujienet, sailed with them as far as Susa as a volun- 
teer irfkit. Ther said that in this island the tomb of 
the first chief 01 this territory was shown ; his name 


XXXVII. Flrom here onwards the /aJifls 
bool(, and ihs sfotax it loowr. wliile ihs siyla 


1% tnfaov dp€urr€^ iwXmotr leal rt)^ vi^aov avrtf^ 
wapawXmaapTtf Seotf BitfKoaiovK craBiov^, opfU- 
(oKTOi i» avjfj aj^i^./ral icaropAatv &KKy^¥ vriaov, 
Jiw^owra¥ t% ftryaX*;^ ravTfj^ rtacapoKOtna 
fidXiora araUov^* UofftihAifo^ Ipif iXiyrro tlvai, 

5 teal ^fiato^, 'Tiro ^ r^v iu tunfyomo, xal tcara- 
Xa/i^^iVfi aurov^ oj^avtrrK oCrm ri Maprtpi), 
iktir€ rp€U ruif t^up iwoictCkaaak iw r^ f*7/>^ 
lay4$i^atur ai M IXXiu ;|^aXciri»^ ^crXftioi/o'ai 

rks pnx^^ ^ ^^ fia0€a htamawOffcav al 5^ 
iwomnXaatu 7% irXiy/i^t;p»So9 hrtrf^vofUtnt^ ahOi^ 
i(iv\mcd¥ Tf «al SeirrfpaXm tfarifyorro u^ircp 

7 o V09 9ToXo«. '0/>Au{brra« 5^ ^^ vrfaov aWrjVt 
iUxotfCOP rij^ ffwtipov 6<rop rpir)iCoaiov^ ara- 

8 Uov^, wXmaapr§^ rrrpaicociov^, *Vsvr9v6tv vir6 
rijp fm fr\mop» prjaop ipi^p^p ip aptartpji napa- 
fMMl0opr99* oupofia S^ t$ p^^^ UvXmpa* tetd 
opfU^opTOA iroo^ 'ZiaiBmPff^ woXix^'h^ fffUMp^ icdl 
woprmp awop^, 5ti fitf C^ro^ xaX i')fivmp' 
lyfiuo^dyoi yip ical ovT<n irw* dpayxairf^ r^aap, 

9 OTi wopffpffp yrjp pipoPTQi* *Ejp6iph€ vSp€vadfUPOi 
KaraipovciP ^ Tapcitjp ixptjp dpanipovcap i^ 
TO wiXayo^, vXWarrcf aroBiov^ rpifjKoalov^, 

10 *Ei^€v i^ Karalf/p, Pff^op ipiifirjp, a\ir€Pia' 
aSrfi ip^ "Epimm icai * A<t>poBiTij^ iKeyrro' ardBioi 

11 rov irXoov rptriKoaior 4^ ravrrfp 6a a Irq 
a^Urtu im r«#v wtpioUwp wpoffara icai alyi^, 
iok T^ *Ep,un Kol rfi ^A^poSirtf ical raura 
iwfffpimfUpa ijp opap vtro xpopov re ica\ ipnpiLrj^, 

* An l A p B (Fuidnof). A pboe-naoM Dowfta MtrrirM in 
the Yioinity. 


VIII. (INDICA) 37. 3-11 

was Erjthres, and hence came the name of the sea. 
Thence they weighed anchor and sailed onward, and 
when they had coasted about two hundred stades 
along this same Island they anchored off it once more 
and sighted another island, about forty stades from 
this large one. It was said to be sacred to Poseidon, 
and not to be trod by foot of man. About dawn 
they put out to sea, and were met by so Tiolrnt an 
ebb that three of the ships ran ashore and were held 
hard and fast on dry land, and the rest only just 
sailed through the surf and got safe into deep water. 
The ships, however, which ran aground were floated 
oft when next flood came, and arrived next day 
where the main fleet was. They moored at another 
island, about three hundred stades from the main- 
land, aAer a voyage of four hundred stades. Thence 
they sailed about dawn, and passed on their port 
side a desert Island; Its name was Pylorm. Ilieii 
they anchored at SUdooa, a desokte little township, 
with nothing but water and fish; for the natives 
here were fish-eaters whether they would or not, 
because they dwelt in so desolate a territory. 
Thence they got water, and readied Cape Tarsias, 
which runs right out into the sea, after a voyage of 
three hundred stades. Thence they made for Cataea, 
a desert ishmd, and low-lying ; this was said to be 
sacred to Hermes and Aphrodite; the voyage was 
of three hundred stades. Every year the natives 
round about send sheep and goats' as ^sacred to 
Hermes and Aphrodite, and one could see them, now 
quite wild from lapse of time and want of handling. 



ZXXYIIL M^i ToOSc Kapjiapip' rk 3^ Awh 
Ttttc llipetu txovcv finfco^ rov wXoov wapk rtfp 
Kmp$iapiflP X*^P^'^ ordBtoi rpta^nXiOi tctd hrra- 
MoauH* tmavct Bi gar awe p ilip^ai, art teal 
Sfiopoi mat Uipajfaf xai r^ i^ r6» woXifiov 

5 maavrtt^ MoafUomat, 'Eir^cVSf SpoPTt^ in rif^ 
PTiaov rr^ 'ipn^ irapk r^r W^paiha fjjBri hrXmop* 
gal xardyoprat i^^lXap ;^Mpov, Tva Xi/A^y wpos 
ptjaov CfUMpfff Kol ipi^iifis yiprraf ovpofut rp 
yi^M KiMOpBpo^' o Ik w\6o9 ardBia rrrpaKoaia. 

% *Tw0 I4 T^y fm it SXXrjp pi)aap wXmaaprt^ 
ipfuf^oprai oiMtofiiPfp' ipa xal futpyapijtjp 
$fipa9$€u X^Tffi Stapxo^» icard'wep ip rj *ly£«tfy 
$a\daffjf, TavTtit t^ prjcov rifp dtcpfjp wapa- 
wXmaapTts oraBiotfs ift reaaapdMOpra, ipravOa 

4 mpiiMfiaatr Mhrlt wpot Spet oppil^oprat 
Ir^X^ (^Vix"^ o^ro/Mi r^ Bpe'i) ip XtfUPt tvopfA^' 

6 «al aXucv airrov ffxeop, Kal Mtp wkmaaprtt 
armUovt rrrpascoeiovt rt gal wtpnitcopra, opid- 
fliomrat ip 'Awoardpotcf xai wXoia iroXX^ avroBi 
&ppmt Mm/i9i Tf iwfjp dwixowra diro BaXdcatft 

• armUavv cfiJcoKra. Ni/irro^ Bk iirdpaprf^ Mfp 
iawXmPVffiP i^ KoXnop avpotxtoptvop iroW^at 
Mm§»^f ffrdBtot rov vXoov rrrpatcoctor opfu- 
{bmu Bk irpit inrmptivjp' ravrjj ^oipnth t€ 
voXXoi im^vKtcap Mai Sea dXXa dxpoBpva ip 

7 r$ 'EXXa& yj ^vrrat. "Epdtp dpaprtt i^ 
Vmyopa wapawXmovct araBiovt fidXtara it 
i^axooiovt, it x^P^* oUtonivrjp' opfil^oprat Bi 
70V irorafiov rov \€ifjidppoVt ovvofia Bk *Ap€mp, 
ip r^iP ixfioXpciP' ipravOa ;^aX<'jrai^ opfd- 
(opr€U' aretpot yi^p ^ 6 tairXovt icarh ro 


VIII. (INDICA) 38. 1-7 

XXXVIII. So far extends Camumia; berood thit 
it Persia. The length oi the voyage along the 
Carmanian coast is three thousand seven hundred 
stades. The natives' way of life is like that of the 
Persians, to whom thej are also neighbours; and 
they wear the same militarr equipment. The 
Greeks moved 00 thence, from tne sacred bland, and 
were already coasting along Persian territory ; they 
put in at a place called lias, where a harbour is 
formed by a small desert island, which is called 
Ceeandm; the voyafe thither is four hundred 
stades. At daybreak ttier Miled to another isUmd, 
an JnhaNted one, and a n ch o red there ; here, aeeord- 
ing to Nearchus, there Is pearl fishing, as in the 
Indian Ocean. They sailed aVmg the point of thU 
island, a distance of forty stades, and there moored. 
Next they anchored offa tall hUl, called Ochus, in a 
safe harbour ; ftsherroen dwelt on its banks. Thenoe 
they sailed four hundred and fifty stades, and anchored 
off Apostana ; many boats were anchored there, and 
there was a village near, about sixty stades from the 
sea. They weighed anchor at night and sailed 
thence to a gulf^ with a good many villages settled 
roond about. This was a voyage of four hundred 
stades; and they anchored below a mountain, on 
which grew many date-palms and other fruit trees 
such as flourish in G r e ece. Thence they unmoored 
and sailed along to Gogana, about six hundred stades, 
to an inhabited district; and they anchored off the 
torrent, called Areon, just at its outlet. The 
anchorage there was uncomfortable; the entrance 
was narrow, just at the mouth, since the ebb tide 



arofia, ^i ffpayta rk xwtX^ avrov ^ ip6mmt4^ 
A htoim* Koi Mtv av iv arofian aXXov worafiov 
opfuforroi, ^tKwXmcatrrt^ arahiov^ ^9 6/rrateo- 
aiov^ iLiTOMh^ ovpofut T^ worafiA ^v ov^ 4w 
TovT^ iVfAapim^ opfU^omai' xal o irX^ dira^ 
oino^ 6 wapk rtip Wtpciha Ppax**^ t« ^a» ica\ 
9 pfi'xlai itai T§vdyta, *EyravOa trlrop xaraXafi- 
ffapovffi voWoy (vyict/eofua^pop marii wp6<rra- 

ttnavda I^i^vop ffiUpti^ T<^« irdca^ fuaw xal 
gUoci, Mol T^f via^ ^ipvadfiM¥04 6aai fUp 

XXXIX. *Ep^Mt iMiifMrrfv ck 'Upan¥ iroXiv 
ifwUmtro, h X^f^ oUt^fuvop' hrra/coaioi teal 
irtrri^orra ardoiOi o irXoo?* mppl00ff<ra¥ S^ 4p 
ttmpvx^ J^iro rov vorafAoO ifA0t0\fffUi^ i^ 

t $uKaa9a9t f ot/vo/ia ^y 'Hpdrtfux* ^Apa 3^ 
i)X/^ dUayarri wapawXmovcip h worapop ;^i- 
pdppovp, tSpopa UdB^iypw, 6 ^ X^P^ x^opom^o^ 
ilvof * mal hf aur^ grjwoi t« woXXm koX ascpoSpva 
warroim i^vwro* oCpOfia rm X^PT MfO'a/i^p/i;. 

3 *H« Mtcapfipift^ Ik oppfju€irr€Xt t^aX BttKwXuh- 
otunt^ arahiov^ pdXtcra i^ htrjKoaiou^, €9 
Taotcrfp oppit^omai iirl worap^ Vpavih' Kai dvo 
rovTovi^ TO d^m lUp^imp fiaaiXtia ^y, dirix''^^'^'^ 
rov wmafAOv rw iteffoXJmp aroBiov^ ^9 Bifftco- 

A fficu^, Kara TovTOv TOP m-apdirXovp \iy€i Stop- 
XO^ o^Ofjt^ai Kifro^ iK0€fi\iifUpop CiV rrjp rfiova* 
tctu rovro irpo^rrXmvaindi^ npo^ tmv pavritav 
iiep€rpri<Tai Ka\ 4>dvai tlvcu Trr;;^eo»y ivtpijieotrra' 

6 h€ppa hk avr^ €iMai tpoXiBonov, oOrn re i^ fid6o^ 

VIII. (INDICA) 38. 7-39. 5 

CAQsed tludlows in all the neighbourhood of the 
outlet. Alter this they anchored again at another 
riTer-mooth, after a voyage of about eight hundred 
ttadca. This river was called Sitacos. Even here, 
however, they did not 6nd a pleasant anchorage ; in 
fact this whole voyage along Persia was shallows, 
surf, and lagoona. There they lound a great supply 
of oorn b rou g ht together there by the Khig's orders, 
for their provlrioiiing; there they abode twenty-one 
days in all; they drew up the ships, and repaired 
those that had suffered, and the others too they put 
in ofder. 

XXXCL Thence they started and reached the 
elty of Hieratis, a populous place. The voyage was 
of seven bmdred and fifty stades ; and they anchored 
in a chaaaal nmiing from the river to the sea and 
called Honitamii. At sunrise they sailed along the 
coast to a torrent called Padagrus; the entire 
district forms a peninsula. There were many gardens, 
and all sorts of fruit trees were growing there ; the 
name of the place was Mesambria. From Mesambria 
they sailed and after a voyage of about two hundred 
ftades a n chored at Taoce on the river Granis. 
InUnd from here was a Persian royal residence, 
about two hundred stadcs from the mouth of the 
river. On this voyage, Nearchus sajrs, a great whale 
was seeot stranded on the shore, and some of the 
taUots sailed past it and measured It, and said it was 
of ninety cubits' length. Its hide was scaly, and so 


^ico¥, m^ aal M ir^i/v hriyWt Scrpta r§ ttal 

KoX B0\4*9a^ Xiyci 5r« xoBopav ^ woXXoi^ ct/A^t 
r^ KifTMlt itaX roif^ ficX^u^a^ tAp ip r^ 9lam 
daXaaaji fU^opa^* "Ep^tp Bi opfitfOhm^ icard' 
yoPTtu i% *J?mymPUf wora^ x^^t'^Pf*^^^ ^ Xi/Am 
cuopM^* /*>;«oc Tou ifapairXov ardUot Biffito^iot, 
*Ep$ipBt TtrpoMOfficv^ arahiovs Bi€Mw\maaprt^ 
tivKi^oPTOi ip wora$t^ ;^tfi>uip/>f»* Bpifapa r^ 
woraft^ ovpQpa' ipravBa x"^^^^ mpfuaaprOt 

vorroy dmlx^' <^^^* ^« 4 v^nN^P^L iwpti, 
r6rt mpid^atno' Ifwopocrnaapro^ Bi roO CBaro^, 
4wi (fipf vw€Kai^n^u9 al ph^' ^irf I Bi \ wXti^- 
fUfpU iP rdf€t d^dSovva hrrjXfit, tot« B^ 
iitwXmctuntK opfufoPTtu hrl worap^' o&pofM Bk 
T^ voTAi*^ 'Opodn^, fiiytrra^ tAi» warra^p, m 
xiyt N^^vov. Baoi dp r^ wapdwX^ r^ ififfdk- 
Xovatp ^ TOP i(m wop^op, 

XL. Mijfpi TodSf nipaat oiX€ova$. rk B^ dwB 
roinmp Souaioi. ^voimp tk &XKo yipo^ avro- 
pOfAOP €arvw€pB€ wpoaoimiw Ouftoi xaXiopreu' 
vwkp Brmp XiktMral fun h rj dXXjf (^fyya^^, 
5ti Xn^TOi f«V«. MffKo^ rov wtLpdwXov rrj^ 
Utpaiio^ X^P^» ^"^f^BiOi rrrpoMoaiot xal rrrpa- 
ci^X^'Xi^i. T^ Bi TltpciBa y»> rptxv Pty^fifjff' 
0ai rmp mpimp \6yo^ xarix"^' '^^ A*^ avrrfi 
wpo^ TJ *Kpv6pi OaXdaajf ciictoptpop di^pMh rf 
tiMU KoX dxapvop uiro Kavfiaro^* to Bk hrtrrf' 
Mk irpo^ dpKTOP rt xtu Bopciyv av€pop lovrmp 
KoXm MKpdaBtu twv t^ptt^v «ai t^v Jt«^p 
vOMiSca T< civai, koX XtifjiStva^; vBprfXov^ ic€U 

VIII. (INDICA) 39. 5-40. 3 

thick that it was a cubit in depth ; and it had many 
cjMttn, limpets, and seaweeds growing on it. 
Nearchus also sajrs that thej could see many dolphim 
round the whale, and these larger than the Mediter- 
ranean dolphins. Going 00 hence, they put in at 
the torrent Rogonis, in a good harbour ; the length 
of this n>yage was two hundred stades. Thence 
again they sailed four hundred stades and bivouacked 
on the side of a torrent; its name was Briiana. 
Then they found difficult anchorage ; there were surf, 
and shallows* and rcefii showing above the sea. 
Bat when the 6ood tide eame in, they were able to 
anchor; when, however, the tide retired again, the 
ships were left h%h and dry. Then when the flood 
duly r e tur ne d , they sailed out, and a nchore d in a 
river called Oroatis, greatest, according to Nearchus, 
of all tlie rivers whieh on this coast run into the 

XL. The Persians dwell up to this point and the 
Sosiana next to them. Above the Susians lives 
another independent tribe ; these are called Uxians, 
and In my earlier history I have described them as 
brigands. The length of the voyage along the 
Persian coast was four thousand four hundred stades. 
The Persian bnd Is divided, they say, into three 
climatie tones. The part whfeh Ues by the Red Sea > 
Is sandy and sterile, owing to the heat. Then the 
next aone, northward, has a temperate climate ; the 
co untr y Is grassy and has lush meadows and many 
> ef. p. 40t, Boto. 



ifiwtXow woWffp ^p€Uf, Kal Saoi aXKoi xapm-oi, 
4 wXrfp iXmrj^' waptihtiaoici Tf wturrolatai r§^ 
BflXiytu, KoX wcrrafunoi MaOapoiffi Biappit^Bai, 
Mai Xifutffci, teal Sppwiv omoaoiaiv a^i^l irora- 
>ioi^ T« KaX Xifu^a^ iarX rk IjOta, iwiroiffi Tf 
kyaBffp ffZya4« teal rol^ip dWoiai¥ vnot^vyioiai 
pilucBai, teal vXm^td t« woXKayt^ teak iroXv- 
% Sfipoy Tffp ^ itpoam fn hr apteraw lov^ttw 
yuimpLi^p T« teal I'l^rr^^a* ^ ^ i^m wp^Std^ 
rcaw im rou Ev^ipov wotnov X^Tti Niap;^09 
ledpra Sklrf^v Hop htXBorra^ iwrvxilw mar 
Mp iom T^ Utpai^ teal Bi^/ia ytp4^$at 
*AXt(tMp^t teed fiirtiy 'AX^faphp^ tiff o3od rifp 

• fipax^jrtfTa. lovaiot^ Bi "wpoaoiMiH ir^ dahf ol 
Ov(tiH, XiXitereu fior tearawtp Map^ fUy 
Utp^f^e wpoorjtjm oiWoi/^i, XjfO'raX teal ovroi. 

7 }Lo99awi hk M^3oi^«. Kol ravra wtuna tk 
^fUpmcfp AXifopBpof, ^fi/M»irof &pff dw^' 
tp avTolaip, in Hfiatop a^p ri^ X'^P^ 

• fjrfw tedi jtoXAaf hriMnat rov fiif po/AoBaf ht 
civai, aXX* apoTfjoaf teal yrff ipydra^, leaX txjtep 
irwip ormp Ittfioipeunff i^i teaxk aKXr/Xov^ ^py^' 
cmprau 'Ei^Mt ri^r iovaimp yrfp irapij^tfftp 

9 o crr/MTOf. KaH ravra ovtekre maavrmf drp€teimf 
X«7f« S4apX0^ ^* /oTiv <M it^pdaeu, wXr/p yt Bfj 

10 Toif^ op^v^ Tf «al TO /A^«<K Tou irXooir t^i» 
ympifp yap r€paym^d Tf flj^ai rrfp voXXtfp teal 
pvfxiff^ip M fUya is top wovtop iirixovaap, teal 
ravn/p a^aXtpijp eymafopfiit^tadai' 'reXaryioiaip 

11 <^ a^iae rijv leopehrjp to troXXov ytviaOcu* opfAtf- 
Bnpoi fiht Stf itc rov vora^iov riau iicffoXimp, utawtp 
ffvXiaBrfoap, hri rotffw ovpoiae r^ ll^oaiZof* 

VIII. (INDICA) 40. 3-11 

Tinet and all other fruiu except the olive ; it is rich 
with aU torts of gmrdens, hss pure rivers nmning 
through, «iid also lakes, and is good both for all sorts 
of birds which frequent rivers and lakes, and for 
bosses, and also pastures the other domestie animals, 
and is weU wooded, and has plentjr of game. The 
next aone, still going northward, is wintrj and snowy. 
Nearehos telb as of some envoys from the Black Sea 
who after quite a short journey met Alexander 
tia vc isi qg Persia and caused him no small astonisli- 
ment; and they explained to Alexander how short 
the journey was. I have explained that the Uxians 
are neighbours to the Susians, as tlie Mardians — 
they also are brigands — live next the Persians, and 
the Cossaeans eome next to the Medes. All these 
tribes Alexander redoeed, coming upon them io 
winter-time, when they thought their country 
unapproachable. He also founded cities so that 
they should no longer be nomads but cultivators, and 
tiHers of the ground, and so having a stake in the 
country might be deterred from raiding one another. 
iVom here the convoy passed along the Susian terri- 
tory. About this part of the voyage Nearchus sajrs 
he cannot speak with accurate detail, except about 
the roadsteads and the Icng^th of the voyage. This 
is because the country is for the most part marshy and 
runs out well into the sea, with breakers, and i9 very 
hard to get good anchorage in. So their voyage was 
mostly in the open sea. They sailed out, therefore, 
from the mouths of the river, where they had 
encamped, just on the Persian border, taking on 



C^p Bi ifiBdXktcBa^ witTt rffupiw. ov* If^aa- 
mv yap tjpai v^p ol Karfffy^fio^^ tov irXoou. 

XLI. '^rahiov^ hi Wfpraieoalov^ icofuaBivrt^ 
6pfu(o¥rai hrl aro^iari Xifunf^ lx0viih€o^, ^ 
oipofta. KaraUpffi^' teal tnf^U iwif^ ru ^rofiarr 

5 Mapyaaropa rp wfi^ih cC^fUU *Etf$h^ hk 
uwo TfiP fm i^wXiiaairM^ Karik ffpax^^ iieofU' 
{brro M furi^ MOt* wmaadXoun hi Mtp teal 
M» w nr ifjfQ ^ Uf ihrt^Xovro rii fipax^a, leard' 

luu *A«opraWi|t d-wMhtiKrtu Cff/Aiiia rolat 
patniWofUpoia^ rov ft^ ^wogiXXtiP ip roXai 

) fip^X^^^ ^^^ Wav* dXKk rk /tip garik Atvicdha, 
^afAfAmh€m ioprtL, mm rolatp iirotcMiXaai raytfl^ 
Tffp vwopp^nictp iphihoV KtWi hk miko^ orruf 
iw* kmdrtpa tov irXiOfUpov 0a$v^ gal tkvmhfi^, 
mart oCht^j MX'^i d'woKttKaaip ^p dirocm' 

4 BfitMU* OX Tt yap MOPTol xark rov WffKov 
^woarrcv avrol ovhip t« irrt»^\40P, dpBpwit^ t« 
im0Hpa$ TOV dwmcai t^« pta^ t\ t^ irXtOfUPa 
iiropop lyiptro' iSvpoi^ ykp gark rov miKov 

6 fart rw\ rk arijOta, 06rt» hrj vaXcvt*^ ht/C' 
wXmaaprts tf vraBiov^ i(aMociov^ xark p4a 
ixaaroi optua$€pr9^, ipratBa htiirpov ifunjc- 

Bfiaap" rifp pvgra hi ffhrf xark 0d$€a hrX^fOv, 
Kol rifP ^ff^ fjfUptjp (IcTM iVi ffovXvroif' teal 
^XBop arahiov^ ippatcoaiov^' teal teart^pfuaOtjaap 
iwl r^ arofiari rov Ev^pdrov irpo^ '<^M27 '''^^^ 
7% BaffvXMpifi^ ympfl^- ovvofUL H avrfj Atpl" 

7 Btrri^' 7ya Xtffop^frop rt dtro rrjs ifivoplrj^ yrj^ 
oi €fJLiropoi dyeptovct, teal rk &XKa 6<ra Ovfuij- 

8 fiara ij *Apdfftap yfj ^pti, *Awo Bi rov 

VIII. (INDICA) 40. 11-41. 8 

board water for five days; for the pilots said that 
they would meet no firesh water. 

XLI. Then aAer traversing fire hundred stades 
they anchored in the mouth of a lake, full of fish, 
ealled Cataderbb : at the mouth was a small island 
called Margastana. Thence about daybreak they 
sailed out and passed the shallows in columns of 
single ships; the shalbws were marked on either 
side by poles driven down, just as in the strait 
between the island Lencas and Acamania sign- 
posts have been set up for navigators so that the 
ships shouki not ground on the shalk>ws. However, 
the shallows round Leucas are sandy and render it 
easy for those aground to get off; but here it is mud 
CD both sides of the channel, both deep and tenacious ; 
once aground there, they coukl not possibly get off. 
For the punt-poles sank into the mud and gave them 
no help, and it proved impossible for the crews to 
disembark and push the ships off, for they sank up 
to their breasts in the oose. Thus then they sailed 
out with great difficulty and traversed six hundred 
stades, each crew abiding by its ship ; and then they 
took thought for supper. During the night , however, 
they were fortunate in reaching deep sailing water 
and next day also, up to the evening; they sailed 
nine hundred stades, and anchored in the mouth of 
the Euphrates near a village of Babybnia, called 
Diridotis ; here the merchants gather together frank- 
incense firom the neighbouring country and all 
other sweet-smelling spices which Arabia produces. 



rr^/MiTCK rov EM^pdrov Ifort is Bal3v\mfa vX^v 
X«7«« l^tapxos artiBiovs tlp€u is rpioxiXiovs koX 

XLIL 'KirraO^a arfiKKirtu 'AU^OpBpow M 

hr\mo9t «9 Kark row Tiacvrvypw worafiw omi- 

t w'Kma€unts cvfifdfai *Wt(dpSp^, "EwXMOif B^ 

TO ifAwaXuf hf dpicrtpj rff¥ yrfp r^y iovcl^ 

l;(^orr<9« xal wapawXmww^ Xifun/p, is f^P i Tiypitis 

t iaffdXKti worafAOS* hs fiimv i( *Apfitplmp wapk 

woXiP NiPOP, wdXoi work /iryaXi^v Mai tvSaifiova» 

rifp fU^p immov rt gal rov Ev^pdrov worafAov, 

9^p Si€ooworafU9jp iwl r^S« KXtftt^taBeu, woUti' 

4 iiwi M rifs Xifunfs is avrw rop worafiiw opdwXovs 

rrdiiot i^Moctotf t»m xal «o»/Afy rifs ^ovoi^^, f^p 

KaXiovoiP 'AyiPtP' aCrf) Bi av<yc« Soi^mv ora- 

Uovs is wnrroMoaiovs* ft^os rov wapdwXov rrjs 

Spuoiitv yr/s ItfTf iwl oro/Aa rov JJactrlypiBos 

• worafiov ordBiOi Sia^iXioi. ^EpOhfBt icark rou 
Hactrirfpip dvm iipiwXmop Bik Xo^pft oiMgofUtnjs 
mml Malpo99S» * ApawXmcaprts m araUovs is 
W€9niM€tfTa mal imarop avrov 6pfu(otrrai, irooo'- 
fUpopros oCcri^as iordXjttt f^iapvos oic€^ofuvovs 

• Zmi o 0aaiXtvs tttf. Avros M i0v€ 0§oioi roloi 
9wrrip9i^ mal &ympa iwoUt, «al i) orpanij 1} 

7 pamutfi waoa iw tvOvfuficip fiv. *ils hk wpoa- 
dyttw ifiii 'A\i(€UfSpos fjyyiWtro, iwXmop iffirj 
aMts is TO <lvM Karii rop wora^v* gal rrpos 
r§ oxthifi opidt^ovrai, iw* n ro arpdrfvfui hui» 

% fit0dc€ip ifMiXktp *A\i(apopos is ^v<ra. *Ew 
ravSa dpt^y^rf 6 arparos, ical dva'uu wpos 
*A\t(dpBpov idvovro iwl rifp p€o>p t< koX ritv 

VIII. (INDICA) 41. 8-43. 8 

FroiD the mouth of the Euphrmtes to BabykMi 
Nearchos says it is a voyage of three thousand three 
hundred ttadet. 

XLII. There they heard that Alexander was 
departing towards Susa. They therefiNre sailed 
hack, io older to sail up the Pasitigils and meet 
Alexander. So they sailed back, with the land of 
Sosia OQ their left, and they went along the lake into 
whieh the Tigris runs. It flows from Armenia past 
the city of Ninus, which once was a great and rich 
ehy, and so makes the region between itself and the 
Eophrates; that is why it is called " Between the 
Rivers." The voyage from the lake up to the river 
itself is six bondivd stades, and there is a village of 
Sttsia called Aginis; this village is 6ve hundred 
stades from Susa. The length of the voyage along 
Snsian territory to the mouth of the Pasitigris is 
two thousand stades. From there they sailed up 
the Pasitigris through inhabited and prosperous 
oountry. When they had sailed up about a hundred 
and fifty stades they moored there, waiting for the 
scouts whom Nearchos had sent to see where the 
King was. He himself sacrificed to the Saviour godsv 
•ad held an athletle meeting, and the whole naval 
totct made merry. And when news was brought 
that Alexander was now approaching they sailed 
again up the river; and they moored near the 
pooioon bridge oo which Alexander intended to take 
bis army over to Susa. There the two forces met ; 
Alexander offered sacrifices for his ships and men, 



teal N«a/>)^(K otcoi wapa^avtiff rif^ arpariifii, 
9 a^Btai Tc ica\ ratviffin» ^/9dXX<T0* li^a mcu 

flimpix^ T« KoX AfoirvaTov, N^apvof iU¥ M rov 
pavTiMOv T^ cmrffpijf, AfoyyoTOf M M rj} y^rt;. 

10 wpoaoticiotrra^ ffapffdpov^. Ovrm fUp dittvmBi} 
*AXt(a¥lp^ im toO *\t^v rm» iitfioXimw opfiffOtU 
• arparo^, 

XLIII. TA S^ tfV S«^9 T^ *Ept;^/^ ^aXa4r<n7t 
vwip Tffp BiifivXmpiffp *Kpa$ifi 17 voXXi; iv^i, «a» 
Tairri7^ ra pikv marijgu icrt iwl r^r BdXaaaav 
rtiw Mara ^oirUfiP t« mal rrjv UaXaiaripnv 
ivplfip* wpc^ hvofUpov Ik fikiov itf^ iml ri)y 
tXom BdXoffffap Aiyvwrta rj *Apafflff opopiova. 

S KoT^ hk Ktyvwrov icix^^ ^' "^ ptyaXtj^ 
Bakiacrj^ kqKwo^ htj/Kop woUti 5ti h^Ka yt rov 
avpooop flmu rtpf i(t$ OdXaacap wtpiwXov^ Ap 
^p ite BafivXApo^ h rop moXwop roOrop i9r)(p^^ 

S m irt* Alwrrop. *AXXA 7^^ oC T19 wapiw\ma§ 
ravrn oviapAp dpBptPW^p vwh xavparo^ icaX 
ipfipins, «* p4 TiWf Tff W€\dyi<H Kopi^optpou 

4 *AXX^ oi an* Aiy vwrov ykp is l^vaa diroem$ipr€t 
rij9 ffrpanrfs rr/s Kapfivatm mal oi rrapii UroXt- 
paiov rov \dfOv rrapa ^tKtvieop rop Sucdropa 
araXfuTf^ is BaffvXApa lik rrjs *ApafiiffS X^P^ 

5 urOpop rtpa BiarroptvBirriS ip ^pipjfcip o^crm 
T^i vdatfcip dpvSpop xai iptjptfp X'^P^ irrriXBop 
iwl icaprjXMP aitovh^ iXavpovrt^, vh^p rt tr^ip 
^i ri»p KaprjXmp ^povr€S» icaX vvxroTroptotnes* 
rits yap TJpipas vwaiBpioi dvi\€<T6ai Bia tcavpa 

VIII. (INDICA) 42. »-43. 5 

Qome safe back agAin, and games were held; and 
wherever Nearchus appeared in the camp, the 
troops pelted him with ribbons and flowers. There 
also Nearchus and Leonnattis were crowned by 
Alexander with a golden crown ; Nearchus for the 
safe eonvojinff otthe ships, Leonnattis for the 
victory he had achiered among the Oreitans and 
the natives who dwelt next to them. Thus then 
Alexander received safe back his navj, which had 
started from the mouths of the Indus. 

XLIII. On the right skle of the Red Sea bevond 
Babykmia is the chief part of ArabU, and of this a 
part oomes down to the sea of Phoenicia and Pales- 
tinian Syria, but on the west, op to the Mediter- 
ranean, the Kgyptians are upon the Arabian borders. 
Along Egypt a gulf ' running in from the Great Sea 
makes it clear that by reason of the gulf's joining 
with the High Seas one might sail round from 
Babylon into this gulf which runs into Egypt. Yet, 
in point of fact, no one has yet sailed round this way 
by reason of the heat and the desert nature of the 
eoasts, only a few people who sailed over the open 
But those of the army of Cambyses who came 

safe from Ecypt to Snsa and those troops who were 
sent from Ptolemy Lagos to Selencos Nicator at 
Babylon through Arabia crossed an Isthmus in a 
period of eight days and passed through a waterless 
and desert coantrvt riding fast upon camels, carrring 
water for themselves on their camels, and travelling 
by night ; for during the day they could not come 

* The lUd Sea. Bat Arrijui is quiU eonfnsed In this 
pMMKv, and th« t«xi maj akm hftve salTend; here sad 
Mctioiu aod S \aL ti. p. 40S, ootfe. 



6 ^IBwaroi ^a¥, Toc^ovrov Sci rd y4 htixuva 
rain-i^ r^ X^f'V* ^Kriyo iaOfiov Jiwo^al^ofAev 
iic rov KoXwov Tov *Apa0iov xaniKorra 4^ rtfp 
*Efn/OfffiP BdKacaop, dxtofupa flycu, 6k6t€ tA 
wpa9 Sfi€ro9 fuiXko¥ avrmp dv^xoma fptjiid ri 

V iart maX yltafifuitl€a, *AXX^ ydp awo rov 
*Apa0iav moXwov rov Mar* Atyvwrov 6pfif)$iirr€S 
JMpmwoi, ^KmpiwXmcayrf^ rf)w «vXXr;i' 'Apa0ifi¥ 
ik&tuf 4k rf)p Kard ^vcd r§ *ai 114 paa^ OdXaa* 
909, 4s tocopU dpa irapawXmaatrr^ rij^ ^Apaffiff^, 
4^ Saa¥ 96iat to O^p 4w^ptc49€ to ifkffKifihf h 

• r4i^ 94m, hnura Miriam dirm^9Ttica9, *£« Ba/9i^ 
XiMf T« ovatipa^ 4aru\t9 * AlU^aphpoK, m 4wl 
fi^mtarop wXmoyra^ 4p j5«fij t% *£^^ Ba- 
Xdooti^ yritpai rov^ ravrjf x^potn, oOTOi ptjaov^ 
pip TiMiv KatMcmi^ mp ro 49 r^ wapdwX^ Kupipos, 
MoL wov Koi Tfjfi iptfipov T% * Apafiifi^ wpontax^' 

• r^p W dmpfip, ijpjtpa leararriMpv r^ Kappapitfs 
4a4xpvem9 X4yti i^ommu c^^i Uiapxo^, ovk 
Ihrof Scri^ vwtp p mkmm 4irtmdp'^ai 4^ to 4ir\ 

10 Bdrtpa S w w i t ^ 4y49rro. Aoff<« ^ m tlwtp 
wXmrd t« ^9 mmi ffaiiord ravrff, vw* *AX«fd9ipQv 
Ap riJK woXvwoaypiOav9ff^ ^{fXifXr/irro irX^rra 

11 Tf kaI 0aBi<rr4^ iopra. 'Aiv«y 14 o ALffv^ 4m 
Kapx^po^ oppp/Ms {fw4pui9 'HpoMXtiaK ari^Xa^ 
4(4wXm9€9 i(m it rhtf woptov, 4p dpiertp^ rtfp 
Ai/3uff9 y9ji9 l;(fmr* mai Sert pip wp^ dpl^xopra 
^\iop o ir Xoo9 avT^ 4y4p€ro T<kf irdaat w4tn'€ koX 

IS TpifiKOPTa ^ptpav 4pk S4 hff 4k ptfftjfiffplrjp ^ft- 
rpdwtro, voWfjirip dprjxapirjatp 4p€T\rfxav€P 
t^ToK rt dtropifj xal tcavpari 4wi^\iyopri koX 

13 ^vafi vvpoK 4k top ttoptop 4/AfidXKovat9, 'A XX* 

VIII. (INDICA) 43 5-13 

out of shelter br reason of the heat. So far b the 
region on the other ride of thb stretch of land, which 
we have demonstrated to be an isthmus from the 
Arabian rolf ^ ranning into the Red Sea, from being 
inhabited, that its northern parts are quite desert 
and ssindj. Yet from the Arabian gulf which runs 
akxig EgTpt people have started, ami have drcum- 
naTicated the greater part of Arabia hoping to 
rea^ the sea nearest to Sina and Persia, aiid thus 
have sailed so far round the Arabian coast as the 
amomit of firesh water taken aboard their veaaeb 
have permitted, and then have returned home again. 
And those whom Alexander sent from Babjion, in 
order that, sailing as far as they could on the right of 
the Red Sea, thej micht reconnoitre the country on 
this ride— these ezpkirers sighted certain islands 
Ijring on their course, and very possiblv put in at the 
mainland of Arabia. But the cape which Nearchui 
sajTS his prty sighted runnlof oat Into the sea 
opposite Carmania no one has ever been able to 
round, and thus turn inwards towards the far side. 
I am inclined to think that had this been navigable, 
and had there been any passage, it woukl have been 
proved navigable, and a passage found, by the 
indefatigable energy of Alexander. Moreover, 
Hanno the Libyan started out from Carthage and 
passed the pillars of Heracles and sailed into the 
outer Oeesn, with Libya on his port side, and he 
sailed on towards the east, five-and-thirty days all 
told. But when at last be tiunied southward, he fell 
in with every sort of difficulty, want of water, blazing 
heat, and itary ttreama running into the sea. But 

* Arabian Gnlf; iMca aad in tMikm 7 int - Tha RmI 




17 Kv/Myny yap r^ Aiffvrj^ iv rolai ipfifunipoiaiv 

€^vipaK, maX ^XtfYA «al Xfi/AMrt^ gal xapwAy 
vamoimp xaX imivimv wdfi^po^ icrt M rov 

U O^rof Moi o X^70f itmyrfpd^m, ^ipmv «al 



Cjiene, Ijing in the more desert parts of Africa, it 
gnmy and fertile and well-watered ; it bears all sorts 
of fruits and animab, right up to the region where 
the silphium grows; bevond this silphium belt its 
upper parts are bare and saodj. 

Here this bit historr shall eease, which, as well as 
HIT other, deab with Alexander of Macedon son of 




-into to M» • tal 

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4. Ttoirof of Bac««K in. sxis- 1 : Bitli, wmm of Qmm, tt. nr. 4 

nr. IT. toi. BMka. f^m* Ba|av, oMtoiod oa 

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to, y iiiiw. w iif i r ii H y ▼. t. fi It— i Miwp rf Bitrii. miIi mm! 

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ttM iMMl. m. v«. OMpMMfa, m. V«. I 

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VB. sM. f, 4 

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of oaoM to cooatrr of 



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nrtt. laatT. 1; n. t; S«. •; aMd) 

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lii»lifii, taiiftliat fiaat. tb. art (DUro. 11. 1; It. 1,1 

VOL. II. p 44« 


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M w uiu iiiii .BLTM.l,oodjar«Lt. Opii, «• tte TIfrti. TB. t«. t. Ifooo- 

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n. sv. I 
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tat mptbUOy BMk m. TiMir RImAm. n. vi. t, n. S 

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%tmmmm,mm»n9,m.M:wm.X Bmmm (BosIalX nr. sis. i. xx. 4; 

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ol tka BMM. m. V. t. aMMi, L STt. a, ixlT. a. ludi 
V. ft, xsTll. I L BTi; m. rrt ft 

n.wWLt lilftif ■!■. m. Til. 4, sxT. 1, ft. 
t(f IMIWifBfcwi^Boala nv«.t 

%Tn.sM.4* Miii.Ufcft 

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rw. <l) IxiWm fcJM, y. Tia. 4, ix. I, innhHj vn. L I. Iim. t. 4; t. 

ssi. i; n. tt. iTUBic ft. t. (V)A •: ft.f; 7.t: t.10 

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flap Mill, IT. XV. ft liaiiiiaili. L zxML 7t n. nlv. S. 

Piwiaa. ft. II. 4, XX. fl IstnTftrt 

,i.xLft a«nHL L xl. ft. • 

aaa af Laiaa. paHfta^ flbmiaa, fL nri. 1 

laAawarMnorlMk. Af^ Mafty, flLLS 

flM'a akM aaifcartly, n. ■. 4. Mda.LsxTl.4 

DiDi It. ft: 4ft. 4 Miaa, tLxt^mz^ s^, sdL. xxlv. 

aaa ol Wil iiriii. ol Uw ■■apa.fll.H.I 

L ntx. 4; n. x. 7. M^taaa, Maad, n. H. 4. stt. 4 

L xlv. MilaaUaa. a aaUaa. if. xxx. 4: ?. 

ft, nl. 4. sxil. ft; IT. TIL S n. 7 

PHm. Un>. IC ft MilBM, two ol Uli aMM, (1) L sxt. 

PjiMaat, HTW, 0. T. ft ^ft. (f) TO. Ti. 4 

iiai 9m, Unit. It. t; St. t; t7. t; Mlxlxi". TilaiiiB aMaf, L szTflL 4; 

tut: a TLnTi.4 

Hfcailiixailliw. TO. xxls. a ■■vraa. T. Tt. 4 

Hfc^Bi. in. XX. t ioeM, la Aa^fria, O. tL I 

HtawUfciM, I. sM. t; O. xL t UnpHan Haoa, it. stUI. 4 

FrimUi im Ormi Bntmim ^ 


Latin Authon 

AmnAjrtm MAmacuiinw. Tnmltkimd by J. C Rolf*, t Vol*. 
Anojuvs: Tss Oou»m Am (MBrAHOBraoMM). W. Adliac* 

lM(l6«e). lUvtMd by 8. Om*1m. 
Sr. Aooovtuib: City or Ooo. 7 Vol*. VoL L G. £. 

McChMlMo. Vol. n. W. M. OnmL Vol. IV. P. Levine. 

VoL T. E. M. SuJonl ukI W. M. Qnen, Vol. VL W. C. 

•r. AoooOTwa. OovvMMom or. W. Waiu (1631). 2 Vote. 
8t. A vmrnniM M, Sbbct Larrmas. J. U. B»st«r. 
Aomnos. B. O. Srolyo Wbii*. S Vote. 
B»a J. B.KIa«. S Vol*. 

iiovmtrB: TmAcra mrI Db CoKsotaTioiiB PanxMoraiAB 
iUv. U. F. 8t«mt Mid E. K. Kaod. 


Cajmabs Clm. Wabb. A. O. PMkrO. 
Camab: Gaujc Wab. H. J. EdwBfdB. 
Catoi Db Kb RomcAt Vabbo: Db Rb RumcA. H. B. Adi 

mmI W. D. Uoopar. 
Caivixob. p. W. Oocakki Tibvujps. J. B. Po«igBt«; Pbb. 

▼twuoM Vbubbm. J. W. Maeluai. 
Cwumt Db MsDmiA. W. O. SfMoow. S VoU. 
C*K-BBO: BBmrs, sad Obatob. Q. L. H«odncluK>o And H. M. 

tClcvao)! Ao IlKmuntnm. H. CapIad. 

Cicsaoi Db Oratobs, bIo. fl VoU. Vol. L Db Obatobb. 

Beolw L Aod II. K. W. SotUm and U. RAckhAin. Vol. II. 

Db Obatobb, Book Hi. D* Paio; PBradozA Stoiconun; 

Do PortHioM OroloriB. H. Rock ham. 
CicsBo: Db Vtntmm. H. RBckhBin. 
CicBBO: Db iMTBimoBB, mU, U. M. HabbolL 
( icBBOi Du Natvba Dboboii and Acaobiooa. U. RAckham. 
( icKBOt Db Owtuitm. Walter Miller. 
CM3aoi Db Rbtobuca aod Du LsoiBOtt Bomiiium Sctriowu. 

CUM«a W. lUyBB. 


Cicnoi I>B BwMwenrrm, Da AmtanA, Da DimiAffwra. 
W. A. Faleoaar. 

Cicaaot In Catylwaii. Pk> Flaooo. Pbo McmiKA, Pao BoiXA. 

Louis B. Lofd. 
ClcaBOi LnrsM to AmcvB. K. a WiMlodl. 9 Vote. 

Cir«Mt Lmrtmrn to Hm Pmwbo. W. OlyMi WttliMMk t 

I Pnuvftoi. W.O,A.Km. 

t Pbo AaoDA Foot Ha^nxm, Da Dom^ Da HAava* 

ncvM WaMoaiii, Pao Plakcio. N. H. Waii*. 
Cicvaot Pao CAanaA, Pao Laoa Maiiiua. Pao Ctvaano, 
Pao RAataio. B. Orooo Rod«iw 

Pao CAauo^ Da Pa of iaw OoMOiAaiaoa. Pao 
R. OoiiImw. 

Cicaaoi PaoMstom,l»PMo«ni,PaoaeAiraowPBord«nBO\» 
Pao lUanuo Poonmo. Pao MaanaiKK Fw Lmaoio, Pao 
Raoa DatOTAao. N. U. Woiia. 
Ckrcaoi Pao Qowono. Pao Roocio Anaaotow Pao Roocio 
OoptaA RvuoM. J. H. 
»t Pao Smviow bi VAnatim. R. 
M TvevukM DwwrTAiiom. J. B. lU^ 
»t Vaaaoia OaAfiOM. L. H, O. O i n aa>i iii . t Vote. 

JL PI r. tVote. 

^1 Da Ra RoaticeA. Da Aaaoaiaot. If. B. A/U», 
B.B.roioterMidR.IMhMr. B Vote. 

0.1 Bmmn m AiBSAaaaa. J. C Rolfo. t Vote. 
B. a. Pofoiwi aad Ooaaaum Naroa. J. C. Rolf*. 
Pfc u a ium ot »T«ATAoaaa aad Mvaaooia. C. B. 

M. R. McBlwaia. 
FaoPTOi OnaaaMoaiiaauB. C R. HtteM. t Vote. 
Oaujoa. J. a RoMk t Vote. 
BoaAcst Oaai Asa B^oaa^ C B. BiaatM. 
HoaAcai BAtiaa*. B^anai. Aao PoancA. H. R. 
Jaaoni Baueraa Lnram. P. A. Wrifbl. 
JcvrnxAL mud Paaai aa. O. O. RooMajr. 
Uyv. a a FoMiT. F. O. Mooffvw BvMi T. Sam. ood A. C. 

Ooar (0«M*al ladM». 14 Voteu 

LocAH. J. D. Dofl. 

Lvcmwtnm, W. U. D. 

MAvnAL. W. a A. B«r. t Vote. 

Miaoa Latv Ponat fran Pvauuoa Braoa to Ronutrt 
NAMATiAava. iaoladlaff OaAmoa, CAtfvaaiva SieoLO*. 
NaifanAara. Avujraa. aad oUmm wMi ** Actaa ** aad tbo 
*-PlMMate.- J.W%klDaffaadAfBoMM.D«lI. 

Chno: Tac Aar or Lora aad Oraaa Pobm. J. B. Moategr. 

Ovmt FA«Tf. Sir Jmmm O. Fmaar. 
Otidx Hsaoioai mad Ajcorb*. Omat SbowoMM. 
Ormt UmTAMomtuommB, F. J. Millar. S Vote. 
OriDt TmantA mad Ex Poino. A. L. WhMler. 
Psatuus. Cf. JvrmmAU 

Pmnonw. IL H— ■Itimt Bbmboai ApocoLOcnrroMi. 
W. H. D. RouM. 


PUMno*. PmiI Niacoo. ft Vote. 

Pumrt Unrmm. M«lmoUi'« Trsattelioo ravtewi by W. M. L. 

HoldUaMm. S Vote. 
Fumrt NATvmAL H»TomT. 

10 Vote. Vote. I.-V. and IX. H. lUekhiuD. Vote. VI.- 
VllL W. II. S. JooM. Vol. X. D. E. Etchhols. 
Pwo^BtKTWB. U. B. Bolter. 
Fwovmtmv: H. J. Thomooa. t Vote. 
gcnmuAX. H. B. Botter. 4 Vote. 

Rbmaiji* or Ou» LArtn. B. H. Wormi^iloii. 4 Vote. Vol. I. 
Il£mnoo a»p CAactuos.) Vol. U. (Ltvtvs, Nabvio*. 
PAOVvnMi Aooioo.) VoL tlL (Looiuoi oad Laws or .\ll 
Tamm.» Vol IV. (Amsaio ImoMmom.) 
8ALUwr. J. C. Rolf*. 

HtoTOMAS AoooBTAS. D. Mofte. 9 Vote. 
Ayooom o yMiOMB. Cf. Pkiwhuus. 
BrmouiB Mobaub. R. M. OtamoMco. 3 Volt. 
MomAL Emato. J. W. B«km«. S Vol*. 
TBAOBOtm. F. J. Milter, t Vote. 
)t Fosm ood LsrrsM. W. B. Awobbooii. t Vote. 
fTALICOB. J. D. Duff. S VoU. 
BrATiM. J. H. MoBtejr. S Vote. 
SovomoB. J. C. Rolf*. S Vol*. 
TAcmwi DtAUMOM. Sir \Vm. P t Ht BOO. Aomcola Aoi 

OsBiiAinA. Mourieo HuUoo. 
TACtmBt HlBtOBtai ABO Abmai^. C. H.Moor»BiidJ.JoolMoii. 

4 Vote. 
Tbmmcb. JoiiB SorsHuml. S Vote. 
TBBWLUABt Afoumia Mid Db Spbotaooub. T. R. Olovor. 

MnraonM Faux. O. H. RmkIbIL 
Vaimuob Flaccos. J. H. Moctejr. 
Vabbos Db LtBouA Latiba. R. O. KmiI. S Vote. 
VBtABtVB PAimBCOt.oa Aod RBi Qbbtab Din Aoocort. F. W. 

ViBML. B. R. Poirelougb. t Vote. 

\nmomm Da AarBtTBcnTBA. F. Orutfar. t Vote. 

Crttk Author9 

AaUAii: Oit T«a NAttnw or Amiuuk A. F. BehoMlilA. 9 

ABK-ttl!«M. C. D. 

AMiavLcm. U. W«k flmylli. t Tola. 

Auarsaon. AauAst. PwuianuTOvt Lmrrwm, A. R. 
MHir. l/. 



Ni Attio Obatom. 

mmO. f^ 

««r. tVota. 

AfOUMnv* lUwomn, 

. R.aai 


Tm Afonouo W^rm 

M. Kim 

Bpp UlMw t Vol«. 

Arrujtt tUmMm Hmt 

<MT. B« 

mm White. 4 Vote. 

Aaatvs. or. Caixmu 


ABa*TOTi.ST A«T or llinrouc. J. If. Trumm*, 

AtnwmMm CkwiiniiHiii. Woommum Bmir*, 
Aire Viarrvat. ■. H—lilMimi 

Om»mMAnem or ArnnuoA, A. L. I^Mk. 
h Hft oau Aw MJg*. A. L. PMl Vol. I. 

Aoamnut MvfooooiMHe*. H. D. P. Lml 
ABammai Mwoo Woaok W. 8. U«u, Oo OMoort. Oo 

Oo PlMl«, Oo MmvoIIoim 

Oo lodivWblr UoM. 

Oo 1 Mllui Md nmmm of Wiod^Oo " 


AoarTonjit KiooiiAcnuii Broico. H. 

AoarronJit OooO0O«ioa ood Maowa Mooaua. O. C. Ano' 

mntmt (wWi MitiBlifilni. Vot ll.l. 
AmrnnntMt Oo m HiuraM. W. K. O. OoHwio. 
iowioiiiOt Oo «■■ took Paota Natooaua. Oo Bakato. 

W. 8.H«tt. 
AoavTOTUi: CATOOoofOiw Oo l o i ooroo fATioo, Pbioo 

AOALTTMO. H. p. CooIm ood B. TrodMMOalu 
AoarroriiOt Po r iooi o o Aoalttmo, TonoA. H. IVtiliooiali 

ood I. 8. FonlAr. 
AMOTOTUIt Oo i Or — IKiA L EonTTATiom. 

Oo OwoiM^lo bo ood Pi I ilig Awaj, Oo th» Cowooa. E.& 
FbiMaroodD. J. fWtoy. 
AopnovLOt pAOtfo or AofHAto. A. L. PMk{ Mortoo aoo 
or AoiMAio. B. 8. Fontar. 

AnmftntMi Pvmoi. iWv. P. WidntMd and F. M. Cornfocd. 

AuarroTUit Posncs and Loironnw. W. HMnilton Fyf«; 

Dmumtv om Sttlb. W. Rby* Robwte. 
Aurrorru: IHmjtks. U. Rarfcham. 
AawTOTUi: PaOBLBMS. W. 8. Halt. S Vola. 
AairroTUi: Rasrowca Ao AuuuuiDBirai (with Pboblbiis. 

Vol. 11.) H. RaeUMa. 
AmiuAM : UwToav or Ammxamvmm and Iiioica. IUt. E. Ililla 

KoUoo. t Vola. 
\YHKMAKva: DnmoaorawTAS. C. B. Oouoc 7 Vola. 
i Uaaroa axo PaABoavs (Latin). B. B. Ftrry. 
. T. BAan.: LvrrmM. R. J. Dafarrari. 4 Vola. 
CAixinacBoat FluoinDnm. O. A. Trypaoia. 
CaLUMAcaoa, HysMM and Epigrama. and LvconHMW. A. W. 

Mairs ABATtm. O. R. Maib. 
CLBmnrr ol Albsabobia. IWt. G. \V. Butianrorth. 
Coujurmv, Cf . Ottiab. 
Danmia abo Cblob. Thoralaj's Tra iw la l ion l av i — d by 

J. M. BdoModst and Pabtbbbioi. 8. Oaarlaa. 
D BM OB WmB Bi 1.: OLTBTBiAOi. PBiumca and MiBOB Oba. 

T10B*. I.-XVII. ABD XX. J. H. Vmea. 


V. A. Vmca and J. U. ViB<«. 


: vocBAtBB and Ab w io obj io b . I. abd 11. J. H. Vinoa. 
I'KafMrniBBu IV.-VI.t Pbivatb Obatiovb and 1b Nbabbam. 
A. T. Mufrajr. 


and LBrnraa. N. \V. and N. J. l>e\Viu. 
DtoCAaaivat Komab Hmtobt. K. Gary. 9 Vola. 
DtoCSBBTaOBVOM. J.W.OohoOBandH. LamarCrniby. A Vola. 
DiODOMm Btcvum. IS Vola. Vola. I.-VI. C. H. Oldfathar. 

VoLVll. C. USharaMa. Vol. VI II. C. B. Wallaa. Vola. 

IX. and X. R. M. Oaar. Vol. XI. F. Walton. 
I>tooBBB8 LABBimiB. R. D. HUkM. t Vola. 
DiOBvam* or HAUrABBAaaoat Romab ABTiqomai. 8pal. 

■Ban's Ifmnslaiion r ari M d by B. Gary. 7 Vola. 
Kncvnm, W. A. Oldfathar. S Vola. 
EoBtriDM. A. 8. Way. 4 Vola. Vataa tfmns. 
EmsMOBi BoriBMimcaL Uibtobt. Kiraopp Laka and 

J. B. L. ObHob. S Vola. 
ClALSBt 0» rm Natvbai. Facvlttb*. A. J. Brock. 
Tmk Gasss Abtboloot. W. R. Patoo. 6 Vola. 
Gbubb Elbot abd Iambo* with Um Amacbbobtba. J. II. 
S Vola. 


J. M. Kc 


IlKAoon. Cf. TaaorsAAvfWt CMAiucrmM. 

Mnnocmm. A. D. Godlvj. « Vol*. 

Ilano0 A»o Tub lloanuo Uvitm. II. O. K«<»ljrn Whit*. 

HirrocBATw mm! Uw TtuMomn or Unucuvnw. W. 11. 8. 

J<— ■ — d B. T. WHIili^Mi. 4Vok. 
Honoit lUAO. A.T. Mwnif. t Vol*. 
Hoimt Opvwsv. a. T. Momix- < Volt. 
iMmM. B. W. Fofvtor. 
iMMnuTW. O^mm K«HiM oi>a URu* Voo Hook. S VoW. 

HT. Jo«» Pili4TWMl BaBUIAM Alio lOABATM. ROV. O. R. 

WMdvaid aad HifoM Moiuocty. 
JUMIIW. f Voli. Vob. I..IV.1 H. -nmtkmmy. Vol. V.| 

R. TlMMkMMT Mid a Mmmb. Vol*. VUVII.i R. IU««««. 

Vol. Vlli.t R. Mini mA ABm WB^pvM. Vol. LX. L. B. 

JouAii. WOaMT Qivo Wffigbl. t Vols. 
Loruii. • Volik. Vote. I<-V. A. M. Horwwi. Vol > 

Bflliw. Vol. VII. M. P, MiniiDii. 
LTconmov. Cf . CAixmAcsvik. 
I>r«OaAKA. i. M. BdMirib. tVoli. 

I ^^r^A. W.B.II.LM*b 

MAwvnn. W. Q. WoMoOi FtouBrrt Tktilavibum. k. k. 

Maotvo Avaauvo. C R. Woiato. 

Mb>iai>pu. r. O. AllioMm. 

Mixoo Arrte Obatom (A mif OP, AmMemai. Lrcvaoot. 

DB«At>a^ DotiMomm, Brrwmmmi, K. J. lUkloMOl ooii 

J. O. Bum. 2 Vote. 
Notmooi DioinraucA. W. B. D. Roimo. S Vote. 
( *rrtAn, Cocumnw. T a i fi oopwio. A. W. Molr. 
I'ArrM. Nov.Limuuiv WuJKfnom. A. S. Boat oad C. a 

^Uicor. SVote. UmASTBBJBnoiteCPiMlnr). DL.P^ 
rAsnnmvB. a. DAnnni «id Ctam. 
PAOOAinAOt DMcatmoa or Oassrs. W. B. S. Joato. 4 

Vote, aad C^wpaaina Vol. mntmtd ty R. B. WjrdMrtej. 
I^iu>. 10 Vote. Vote. I^V.t r. U. Oateoa aad Rov. O. H. 

Whttokar. VokL Vl.-iX.i F. H. Ooteoa. Vol. X. F. U. 

Coteoo oad tho R#v. J. W. Eorp. 
PBiLOt tva ■■fiiliaiiiiUfy Vote. (SVaaiteitea m%.) Ralph 

PatuMrTBA-nm: Taa Um oa Arouboanm oa Ttava. F. C 
Coayboof*. S Vote. 

Prnnjotmurv: IHAODts*; CASXMrnuTrt: DBscBiPTtoKs. A. 

PBiUMTmATOiMidBiniAmiB: LnrsiorTaBSorattTt. VVilro«r 

Grvv Wright. 
VattVAM. Sir J. B. ftuidjra. 
I*LATO: CBAmMtoM. ALciBiAoaB. IIirrAacHc*. Tms Loitbm, 

TasAOBi, MiKoa »nd KrixoMU. W. R. U. Lamb. 


HirriAS. U. N. Fovlvr. 
Plato t Bonrniao. ArouMT, Cmto, Pbaboo. Pbabobo*. 

H. N. P<nrl«r. 
I'LATO: Lacubs. PMTAOOaU, MflM^ BOIBf UBM U». W. R. M. 

i'LATOt Laws. IUv. R. O. Bury. S Vols. 

I LATO: Lrttt. Sysivomuii, GoaotAA. W. R. M. L*mb. 

Plato: Rbtobuo. PimiI Ithoray. S VoU. 

i^UiTO: ftTATmnAii. Pntnca. H. N. Powtort lox. W. R. M. 

rLATOt TaBAvnrros and Sormar. H. N. Powtor. 


K«^. R. U. Buiy. 
PtOTiKf*! A. H. Anwtrooff. Volt. I.-III. 
i*urrAaca: Mobaua. It Vote. Vol*. I.-V. P. C. BobbHt. 

Vol. VI. W. C. Holmbold. Vol. VII. P. H. D» Uoy and B. 

Emmimm. Vol. IX. B. L. MinAr. Jr.. P. H. M«n(«hiM;h. W. C. 

Hltwbniil. V0I..X. H. .S.Kowl«^. VoL.XI. UPrArwnAml 

P.H.8aadUich. Vol. XII. H. (.lM>m>«« Ami \V.C\ HalmbolU. 
PLOTAsaij Taa Phmhum, Lm^ B. Pvmn. II Vol*. 
PoLratim. W. R. Paioa. • VoU. 

Paocortc«: Htrroar or Taa Waw. H. B. Dovi^. 7 VoU. 
WoLBMV: TrraABiBLOo. Cf. MABvrao. 
Qvnmm ttavaitAatM. A. 8. Way. Votm liaoi. 
SamM BHrtaMoa. Rav. R. O. Bory. 4 VoU. 
SoTMOUi. P. Slorr. t VoU. Vmo tfaM. 
SraAaoi OaooaAFaT. Uoroo* L. Joooa. • Vote. 
TaaormuvTOSt CaAaAcraao. J. II. IMntnnito Haaooai, 

HO. A. D. Kaos. 
TaaoraaAart;*! Eaooiav orro PLAsna. Sir Arthur HorK 

Bart. SVoU. 
TaccTDioai. C. P. Smith. 4 Vote. 
TBvraioooaco. Cf. OrriAit. 
Xaxoraoai CraoTAaDiA. Waltor Milter. SVote. 
\K9ioraoa: HaLuuricA. Ababamb. Apoumv, aad STMfOBtuic. 

C. L. BrovmoQ Bad O. J. Todd. S VoU. 
Xaaoraoat If aaioaABtUA and Oacoaoaicim. B. C. Marehaal. 
X aaoMoa t ScatrrA Miboba. B. O. Marehaat. 

DKacHiprn'E pmospKcrva on ArrucATtON 


Arrimnus, FUtIm ^^^ 


Arriaa. -^